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months in England, with the phospho- | acter, containing little or no sulphur, rescent ores of Cleveland, by Mr. and working admirably in the furnace. Thomas. Hence, we shall very shortly In 1877, before wages went down, see the so-called steel, which is in it cost a little under $1 a ton to mine truth pure wrought iron, take the the coal. The iron-stone, worked about place of its weaker brother. The old half a mile from the furnaces, cost from method of making steel (yet used in about 75 cts. to $1.15 a ton to get it knife manufacture, where the finest out; in the raw state, it contains quality is necessary) was by adding thirty-five to fifty-eight per cent. of the carbon to wrought iron by means protoxide of iron, but, after calcining of charcoal.

in heaps with slack, it averages as high Many other methods than the two as ninety-one per cent. of the peroxide mentioned above have been brought It contains about one per cent. of before the public, but none have been phosphoric acid, which has hitherto thoroughly successful except the Sie prevented its use for Bessemer steel, mens-Martin, which, however, is only

but there is little doubt that it economical where there is a great deal will shortly be made in North Staffordof old scrap-iron. In this process, shire, as well as at Cleveland, (Eng.). scrap wrought iron is melted down in Limestone is also obtained close at a bath of the requisite amount of cast hand ; and to increase the perfect iniron, samples being taken out of the dependence of the great iron masreverberatory furnace used for the ters, besides owning and working their purpose until the desired product is raw materials, they make everything arrived at.

they use, from pipes and boilers to the Having, in the above short descrip railway trucks for carrying their protion, given the broad, original outlines ducts. To give an idea of the cost of of, first, the manufacture of iron by manufacture; for every ton of pig the old direct' method ; second, the produced there is consumed about manner by which cast metal is made;

Ton. Cwt. Qrs. third, the conversion of cast into

15

of coal. wrought metal and steel; and fourth,

of ironstone. the most usual methods of steel-mak

of limestone. ing, I shall proceed to my sketch of

0 4 2 of fluc cinder. the North Staffordshire coal and iron district, and of that in the neighbour The cost of smelting the 'pig,' takhood of Pittsburg.

ing the immediate wages into consid The northern part of the former eration, was, in 1877, a trifle over $1 field, with which I was for some time į a ton. Therefore, we see that $5 intimately connected, converges to a would about cover the production of narrow tongue in the neighbourhood | a ton of cast iron' in that year, but of Congleton, and here, at Biddulph, with the present reduced wages, it one of the most successful iron could be made for considerably less. centres in the kingdom is located. At Pittsburg, which I visited last The coal and iron lie directly be month, I shall take the Lucy furneath the blast furnaces; the former naces, than which there is no finer consisting of thirty-two workable pair in America, as examples. These seams, shewing an aggregace thick two furnaces cost about $520,000 a ness of one hundred and thirty feet, few years ago, but possibly could now and the latter an average thickness of be built for nearly half the price, if twenty-four feet. Not only is the lo economy were an object. The coal is cation, theoretically and practically, | obtained from the neighbouring hills, almost perfect, but, added to this, the through which it runs in horizontal coal is of an exceptionally pure char. | beds of about four feet thick ; hence

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the working is comparatively easy. This difference between the cost of produccoal is highly bituminous, and the coke tion in these two countries may appear, made from it, and used in the furnaces, it is owing entirely to the natural circontains eighty-seven per cent. carbon, cumstances under which the mines in ten per cent. ash, and one per cent. of the two countries are situated. sulphur, and costs, at present, but four From the experience of these exand one-fourth cents per bushel. The amples what encouragement can we iron ore is obtained from Lake Su gather for smelting iron in this part of perior; that from the Republic mine Ontario with a protection of $2 a ton ? costing $8.80, and that from the Men I shall leave my reader with his knowominee mine, $7.40 per ton. Both of ledge of the country to work out his these are very pure ores and contain own answer ; but one thing is certain, but little phosphorus, the resulting we cannot build our furnaces on coal pig being used for Bessemer steel at and iron seams, and though we could the Edgar Thompson Steel Works. get nearer to good ore than our neighThe analysis of these ores show

bours in Pittsburg, we should still be Republic. Menominee.

almost hopelessly distant from the Iron ........ 67.943 64.633 needed supplies of fuel. I have seen Phosphorous.. 0:041 0.007 lately some very promising looking Alumina .... 0.237 2.203 figures in some of our publications,— Insol. Residue. 2.750 4:349 nine and a half per cent. profit worked

out with a large margin, and that sort Besides the enormous cost of the ore, of thing,– therefore I may be all wrong, limestone (which is brought thirty but, as I have said before, I leave this five miles) costs $1.25, labour $1.25, part of the problem to my intelligent besides fuel, $3 for every ton of pig reader. produced. Therefore we cannot won In closing this paper, I might mender from the above figures that the tion that I hope to supplement it by price per ton of steel rails in the one on iron-smelting by lignite, which United States is from $43 to $44, is successfully carried on in Austria while in Great Britain it is $22.50, and Sweden, and which may play no which latter figure will be considera- small part in the future prosperity of bly reduced as soon as the phosphor our Dominion. escent ores are used. Great as the !

ALL A GREEN WILLOW.

BY CHARLES GIBBON.

Author of 'Robin Gray,'' For Lack of Gold,' &c.

CHE sat down carelessly at the D piano, and, as if without thinking of what she was doing, her fingers touched the keys, bringing forth the pathetic air of the Jacobite song :

• Fame, hame, hame, o, hame fain wad I be, O, hame, hame, hame to my ain countree !'

were something else which ought to come, and as it doesn't, one feels uncomfortable and dissatisfied.'

'Is not that like our lives?' she said, still playing the sad air dreamily. • There are so many things which we fancy ought to come that do not : and so, we go on in periods of unfinished chords.'

"Give it up,' cried Aylmer, laughing at the droll problem which the girl had presented to him. “I don't see why we should play music without a comfortable finish any more than I can understand why we should not make a satisfactory and harmonious finish to our lives. The notes are all on the instrument, why should we not strike them as we please ?'

• Because we cannot always strike the notes which please us most. Have you ever known anybody who has been able to live the life he or she would have chosen if permitted to do

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and she contrived to throw more sadness into the sad air than John Aylmer had ever heard before.

Yet the sun was shining, and through the open French window of the Doctor's little drawing-room you could see the light glowing upon the red, yellow, and fading green tints of the autumn foliage. Here the bright yellow of the chestnuts, blending with the transparent red of the beech, and the berries on the rowan trees holding their place whilst the leaves fell with every gust of wind and with other leaves carpeted the garden paths.

She was looking, whilst she played, at the green lawn, then at the heavyladen apple-trees, the many-coloured beeches, elnıs and oaks, above which was a pale blue sky ; and she seemed to be dreaming, rather than playing for the pleasure of her companion or herself.

Why do you always play these melancholy airs, mostly ending in minors ?' said John Aylmer, turning over the pages of a large album of photographs and paying very little attention to the portraits it contained.

She continued to play as she answered: 'I don't know-do you not like them?'

"No, they always end as if there

She had wheeled round on the piano stool, and looked straight in his face as she put the question.

“Yes,' he answered boldly ; 'there's Dr. Humphreys: I believe he will end his days harmoniously-contented with the life he has led, the work he has done, and followed to the grave by a long row of patients ---mind, I say patients—who will remember him with gratitude. What do you say to that?'

She did not say anything, for she was serious and he was inclined to make fun of the whole question. She turned again to the piano, and with a very soft touch proceeded to play the plaintive air of Hame, hame, hame,' as if to herself and as if seeking some

consolation from it for the absence of were asked to give me a charactersympathy in her companion.

say by your most intimate friend, and Aylmer closed the album, got up in strict confidence of course—what and stood behind her.

would you say?' He was a handsome young fellow That is scarcely a fair question.' of about twenty-five, with sandy-col It is fair and interesting, too, if oured hair, the shadow of a moustache, you will answer without doing me the and bright laughing eyes. He was injustice of thinking that I can't stand only beginning life, and, blessed with hearing myself abused.' a sanguine disposition, he scouted its | 'I am not so much your friend as shadows and believed in its sunshine. to abuse you."

She was about his own age, tall, Then do not be so much of a mere graceful, and with a face that was acquaintance as to flatter me.' beautiful, whilst the lines indicated Well, I should say in strict confifirmness of character. The hair was dence'—and her words seemed to keep dark, but the eyes were a soft blue time to the air she was playinggreen when in repose ; they appeared that you were a man so hopeful as to become gray when she was moved to be too trustful, so earnest as to be by any strong emotion. Looking in too jealous.' her face with its strangely sad, yearn "Another conundrum !' exclaimed ing expression, one would feel that Aylmer, laughing at this description there were depths of affection in her of his character, and somewhat of a nature which had not yet been reached, paradox besides. Now, how can I be but that once sounded would never be trustful and jealous at the same time?' calm again.

"Wait,' was the reply. "Miss Richardson,' he said, with his He would have sought further exhands clasped tightly behind him, as planation, but he was interrupted by if he feared that the temptation to the entrance of Mrs. Humphreys. She clasp her in his arms would otherwise was a little dark woman whose eyes prove too great for him, you are too seemed to be always gazing into fudeep in philosophy for me.'

turity, never by any chance indicating * I know nothing about philosophy. a consciousness of the persons or cirWhy do you say that ?

cumstances around her; yet she was . Because you are always asking me always nervously anxious to do whatriddles which I cannot solve to your ever might be most pleasing to others. satisfaction. After I have left you, I She formed the most singular contrast often think of such clever things I to her husband—a big, robust, ruddymight have said ; but they never turn faced, jovial man, who would contentup at the right moment, and so I know edly get out of bed a dozen times of a that you must think me an ass.' night, whether the summons came

Your ears are not long enough, from pauper or peer. she said, so quietly that even if he had She had been called away to attend been a man of a 'huffy' nature he to some household duties and thus the could scarcely have taken offence. young people had been left alone. Very likely she would not have Now she appeared with the proposal spoken so to any one else.

that as the Doctor had not yet reHe only laughed and answered in turned, they should proceed to lunkind, with a mock severity of polite cheon without him. ness : That is my misfortune, Miss “Are you hungry, Miss RichardRichardson, for it is better to be a dull son?' said Aylmer, making a terrible ass than a stupid man.'

descent into the commonplace question 'I do not think you are either.' of appetite ; ' because, if not, I think * Thank you. Then suppose you' we should give the Doctor another half-hour. I know the case, and un- | spect, the other to Miss Richardsonless something extraordinary has hap but there was a subtle difference in the pened, he cannot be detained longer manner of the presentation, and she than that.'

was conscious of it. There was a Miss Richardson of course assented faint colour on her pale cheeks as her to the adjournment, and Aylmer con eyelids drooped and she pinned the tinued merrily : 'Then I propose that rose on her breast. He was watching we all go out to the garden and take a her, smiling and yet eager to note how tonic in the shape of one of those red- she received the offering. When he cheeked apples, and that it may taste | saw its destination-Now for the the sweeter we will try to imagine | apples,' he cried, with boyish glee. that we are schoolboys and stealing it.' He tried to reach them, but the

Oh, fie, Mr. Aylmer,' said Mrs. branches were too high, and leaping Humphreys; but she smiled at his | towards them, he became hot and very boyish absurdity.

red in the face. He was chagrined I am afraid Mr. Aylmer's morals too at his failure. require correction,' observed Miss I used to be able to climb a tree,' Richardson, in her calm, grave way. he said gaily; and without considering

Never mind, get your hats and how ridiculous he would appear, he come along,' cried he.

clambered up the tree and seated himHemarshalled the ladies out through self on the first branch, much to the the French window, and when they amusement of the ladies. were about to cross the lawn he be Do come down,' said Mrs. Humcame commonplace and practical; he phreys; nervously, the branch will warned them that the grass was damp, break.' and that they would be much safer if “There's one for you, Mrs. Humthey walked on the path.

phreys, and one for you—and one for Miss Richardson lifted her dark meeyebrows, and her lips formed an un What in heaven's name are you uttered “O!' of surprise.

doing, Alymer, climbing a tree like a * You have not lived much in the schoolboy when you are wanted imcountry, Mr. Aylmer.'

mediately at Mrs. Carson's ?' "No, and that is why I enjoy its The words were addressed to him in beauties and avoid its dangers. .To the loud clear voice of Dr. Humwalk on damp grass in thin shoes is phrey's, who had just returned and simply a deliberate way of catching had followed the party into the garcold, resulting probably in bronchitis, den. consumption, and an early grave.

Aylmer slid down the tree, and with * Dear me, I wonder there is any his handkerchief dusted the green body alive in the country.'

mould from his knees. "You forget the doctors.'

• We were waiting for you, Doctor, I would not like to have you for and it is rather hard to send me off to my doctor.'

Carson's without my lunch, when it "And I should be sorry that I or was on my plea that we waited half anyone else had you for a patient.' an hour for you.'

His eccentricities did not end in the "And the Carsons have been waitwarning about the damp grass. In- | ing an hour for you.' stead of going straight to the apple-tree Very well ; I'll go to the Carsons.' as he had proposed, he went to an old “And we'll go into luncheon,' said fashioned rose-tree which almost cov the Doctor with a malicious twinkle ered the white walls of the house, and in his merry eyes, as he offered his cut two roses. One he presented to arm to Miss Richardson. Mrs. Humphreys with becoming re- | She smiled demurely amd glanced

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