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a mandate to attend and give evi- , and ability exhibited in his treatment dence. The immunity from arrest is of it, since we now know precisely given in Ontario by the Statute we what constitutes a Parliament, and have already noticed.

what a Legislature, and their memThe subject is highly important, in bers need no longer be in doubt as volving as it does, the liberty of the to the extent of their privileges, their subject, and the country is deeply in immunities, or their powers. debted to Mr. Taylor for the industry

ON THE BEACH.

BY GOWAN LEA.

So thick the mist is banging round,

Vast ocean is not seen ;
But we may hear her rolling wave,

And mark where she hath been.

The veil is rent; a gleam of light;

The forest lands appear !--
Again the brooding vapours dip;

Earth looks more hopeless, drear.

As mist upon the mountain-side ;

Or as the tidal flow;
So Doubt within the human breast,

Arising, falling low.

The pulse of Nature, Life's heart-throb,

Lo, everywhere we hail !
Not more upon the heaving sea,

Than in the soul's deep vale.

Peak’s Island,

August, 1879.

THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.*

BY GENERAL HEWSON, C.E., TORONTO.

THE • Thirteen Colonies' of North tion as that which found voice in the

1 America possessed little or no exclamation: original force of unity. Strung out in

'No pent-up Utica confines our powers; a thin line along the vast extent of But the whole boundless Continent is ours ! coast between New Brunswick and Florida, if they had been given inde

The Provinces of this Dominion pendence freely and separately, they

have not been moved towards each would, in all likelihood, have failed to

other by lasting forces of internal atfind any internal ground for confeder

traction. Having a seaboard nearer ation. The union which arose between

home, the farmers of Ontario are not them was a product of common danger.

bound by any original reciprocity of Their subsequent consolidation into a

convenience to the fishers and shippers nationality followed from the impetus

of New Brunswick, Prince Edward, of that force after it had ceased to

Nova Scotia. The Maritime Provin. operate, on the declaration of peace.

ces are drawn by their interests less If the passions of the American revo

powerfully towards the carrying trade lution had been allowed to pass away

of this poor Dominion than they are previously, that consolidation would

towards the Transatlanticand the coastprobably have been found impossible,

ing traffic of the great and rich Union because of the differences of habits and

across the border. Outside the area sympathies between the Puritans of

of country whose material interests New England and the Southern caval

follow for six months of the year the iers. But a controlling element pre

line of navigation and the line of railsented itself to give their union of a

way discharging at Montreal upon convenience already satisfied, perman

ships of the sea, there does not exist

to-day a fixed ground of reason to susence. From the day at which the Thirteen Colonies had expanded in

tain, after the British sympathies of thought and feeling to the dimensions

the people shall have .cooled, the preof the common inheritance which ex

sent promise of Canadian nationality. tended in their rear, they felt the in

“Commerce is King." Acts of Parstinct of a common destiny, the prin

liament creating embryo nations opeciple of a national life, in a sense of

rate in new societies subject to his Empire-in such a fraternity of ambi

veto. They become sooner or later a

dead-letter unless they shall have re* Reports on the Canadian Pacific Railway. By

ceived from him previously the quickSANDFORD FLEMING, C.M.G., Engineer-in-Chief, ot ening of material life. Mr. Goldwin tawa, 1879. Notes on the Canadian Pacific Railway. By

Smith spoke thoughtfully when he General M, BUTT HEWson, formerly Originator and

said that the forces of ultimate preponPromoter of the Memphis and Louisville Railroad; Chief Engineer (under Commission from the State derance which act with political effect of Mississippi) on the Memphis and Charleston Rail

in this Dominion of to day, favour anroad: Chief Engineer of the Mississippi Central Railroad : Chief Engineer of the Arkansas Midland nexation to the United States. InRailroail; Consulting Engineer of the Mississippi, Quachita and Red River Railroad, &c., &c., &c. | stead of hiding our heads, as the os

trich hides his, from the pursuit of, mestic market of supply and demand that unwelcome conclusion, we are whose exclusive possession would give told by the practical instinct of this so much ground of permanence to our population of architects of their own political union. Further : the location fortunes, to look the conclusion in the of the Pacific Railway has been made face with the manful determination to rest on a system of eastern connecthat it shall be reversed ! For that tions which give the winter commerce reversal the country relies on the Pa of the country to a port of the United cific Railway. The Province-creators States. If only because of its political look to the Nation-creators to carry

complexion, that fact is highly objecout that great enterprise so as to il tionable even where it is unavoidable; luminate with fixed life the black let but where it may be avoided with acter of the latter's work, so as to set tual economy, it ought not to be subthis embryo Dominion going through

mitted to by the country. Now the out its several parts, in the develop location of what ought to be the nament of all that is within it of the tional highway, not only gives the elements of vitality. The Pacific commerce of our future to Portland Railway may be used for the realisa for the time, but that highway being tion of that popular expectation if it the arterial outlet of the transportabe carried out with breadth and cour

tion of the future, the giving now esage. It can certainly be so located as to tablishes that subordination of Canamake New Brunswick and Nova Sco dian independence for ever. It suptia the factors and carriers ; Quebec

presses thus, and as the pamphlet, and Ontario the bankers and manu Notes on the Canadian Pacific Railfacturers, of the millions of agricul way,' shows, does so in wantonness, a turists who may be planted on the vast development of reciprocal interrich lands of the North-West, to sup

ests available in the hands of statesply to these scattered Provinces, as manship for bringing into play the the millions of agriculturists who have powerful attraction which may be set been planted on the rich lands of the into operation, with the effect of bindMississippi Valley have supplied to ing together around the North-Westhe scattered communities along the tern core, the inland and the outlying seaboard of the United States, a cen

Provinces of what is little other than tripetal attraction of ample grasp to

a union of black-letter. bind around a common core all the

Since its inception, the Pacific Railoutlying parts of a great American way has been treated by the Governempire.

ment of Ottawa in a narrow spirit. The location of the Canadian Paci The pamphlet, 'Notes on the Pacific fic has been made in disregard of its Railway,' says : power to fasten life in 'the Domin One Ministry felt free to yield to local ion. Delivering the business of the pressure in restricting the route of the North-West so far in the interior as

road through the Province of Ontario to the neutral waters of Lake Superior,

the south of Lake Nipissing. . . .

Again, the road, designed though it is it gives that business over at the first

to connect the two oceans and to disopportunity on its transit, to foreign

charge ' Asiatic commerce' on the St. rivalry. It ignores, thus, the National Lawrence, has been made to begin in Policy which would have taken pains the woods !' Its ultimate connection to exclude, as far as possible, the inter with tide-water was, it is true, provided vention of the ample capital and dash for at the same time by an Order in ing enterprise of the people of the

Council,' one declaring that connection

to lie over two sides of a triangle whose United States between the carrying

base is perfectly available for making the and the manufacturing interests of connection in about half the mileage of Ontario and Quebec, and a vast do- | the sides ! The general purpose of the railway was compromised for some locall the boundary of the United States into consideration in order to build a branch Manitoba from two days' march to four, whose only supposable uses had been al. at any point of the track for a length of ready discharged elsewhere ; and was 400 miles ; again compromised when the influence That for 200 miles west of Selkirk it of local interests was allowed to deter runs through a district in which facilities mine the site of a river-crossing!

of settlement exist already, in the navi'Some struggling settlements exist on gation of Lakes Winnipeg, Manitoba, and the northern border of Georgian Bay. Winnipegosis ; Others battle on to crops on the northern "That of the 800 miles between Winshore of Lake Superior. These insigni nipegosis and the mountains, 500 miles ficant facts have been, seemingly, al go through a region unsuited to agricullowed to fix one part of this great line of tural settlement ; inter-oceanic commerce ! A few dozen "That the pass selected for the crossing of town-lot speculators had cast their the Rockies is twice as high as that of fortunes at a port of Lake Superior; Peace River, and probably one-third and made good their determination to higher than any* that is likely to be control the route of this vast undertak found necessary in crossing from Peace ing in order to give value, by a short River by way of the central plateau into branch, to their landing !

the slopes of the Pacific. 'Forty or fifty thousand people in

The people of Canada must be Manitoba constitute an influence which has been permitted to determine a vital

supposed not to have intended that point-the general question of route

the Pacific Railway should be suborin the design of a great project whose

dinated to local or sectional interests. capabilities go to the creation of an em They may be regardled as submitting pire ! Ten thousand inhabitants in the to its burdens, not to please Manitoba, southern part of Vancouver Island and

not to please British Columbia, not to the southern mainland of British Colum

give value to lots at Kamanistiquia or bia, represent another consideration dominating the grand practicabilities of

at Prince Arthur's Landing ; but to that creative enterprise-coinmitting it

consolidate and to develop their polito an extravagant project of marine fer

tical unity, and to place its mainteriage, or placing its existence as an nance under the safe-guard of a great agency of British commeree, subject to line of defence. Scattered settlers exthe foreign guns of San Juan. All this

tending in a thin front along the dragging-down of the Pacific Railway below its proper level being, it may be

frontier of a great nation, and receivfeared, unavoidable so long as its execu

ing at all points of 1,500 miles of that tion is left in Colonial hands, the inter

front the pressure of that nation's vention of the Imperial Authorities in expanding population, the practical that execution is a very necessity of intelligence of the Canadian people things if it is to be held on the high sees that their control of their own ground of Imperial interests. . .

political destiny demands that they The surveyed line of the Canadian Pacific is open to objection on grounds

shall have, not only a frontier, but which may be glanced at in the following

also an interior ; not only a front, but summary :

also a rear. Notes on the Canadian That from the Valley of the Ottawa to Pacific Railway' suggests, for the Manitoba-about 900 miles-it traverses National line, a route which promises a country which contains but insignifi

to meet these necessities, and to give cent areas fit for cultivation, a country

the political union of the country the whose rocky and broken surfaces involve

fullest obtainable base in reciprocating lines needlessly unfavourable and works needlessly heavy ;

interests. It says :That it is exposed for 150 miles to 'A prima facie case presenting itself seizure in the event of war, by parties from American ships dominating Lake * This rests on speculation as to the continental Superior; and that it is again exposed summit of a route up the Omineca and, passing the

Fraser-Skeena “divide," descending to the Pacific to seizure by troops penetrating from by the Sabine and Skeena.

thus in support of this conclusion, the try to be traversed. A few may be Peace River Pass taken in conjunction suggested here, at a venture by way with the extraordinary richness and of illustration. The broken country adaptation to settlement of the Peace back of Quebec demands, probably, that River country, seems to determine one the route be thrown as soon as may be point on the true route for the Cana'lian into the valley of the St. Maurice. Pacific Railway.

Passing out of that into the rainshed of • Portland cannot be accepted forever Hudson Bay-at a maximum elevation as the winter outlet of Canada. If de of, perhaps, 1,400 feet-it should be pendence on a foreign power in that case directed upon the Abbittibi and the is to be stopped at all, the stoppage must Moose with a view to connection withgovern the location in reference to the out any considerable increase in length Atlantic Ocean of the great arterial line of track, with navigation by ships or of this nursling Empire. Halifax, or steamers from Hudson Bay. ProceedSt. Jol:n, or both, offering an escape ing, tapping on its way the Albany from holding the trans-continental com River, the Weemisk River, the Wasmerce of Canada subject to the good tickwi River, etc., it would tap the na. pleasure of the Unit:d States, the sum vigation of Lake Winnipeg from the mer port of the Canadian Pacific should south, and of Nelson River from the be selected in reference to these har north, at Jack River-crossing the latter bours as its winter ports. At or near at, say where it is said to be but 200 Quebec is the lowest point at which the yards wide, Norway House. St. Lawrence can be regarded bridge Continuing westwardly from Norway able. About 40 miles farther than Mon House, the deviations from the straight treal, on a straight line, froin Peace line suggested by great special consideraRiver Pass, it is now nearer by railway tions would take the railway to, suppose than Montreal to Halifax by from 150 to Big Bend, so as to tap the navigation of 170 miles. Saving ultimately a railway the Saskatchewan above the Grand transportation of over 90 miles to St. Rapid. Proceeding into the valley of John, and over 330 miles to Halifax, the the River Lac la Ronge, it would go on true point fur discharge of the Pacific to tap the Beaver River and the AthaRailway upon summer-tide-water would

basca ; and tapping the Peace River seem, on these grounds, to be Quebec. near the mouth of the Sm key, might

'If Quebec be accepted as a fixed point continue thence to Hudson's Hope as it in the East, and the Peace River Pass entered Peace River Pass. as a fixed point in the West, a question "The line sketched out here is sketched arises as to the intermediate route. To as but a basis of experimental work subfollow the line now contemplated by way ject to modification, or, as facts may of Montreal, Nipissing, Selkirk, etc., demand, rejection. It may prove, on would involve an unnecessary length of investigation, to be unsuited totally. It track, which would aggregate a total involves some assumptions which do not excess, between tide-water and tide rest on a sufficient breadth of informawater, of probably not less than 240 tion, and other assumptions that are miles. With even six trains each way little better as a ground for grave deci. per day, the working-expenses over that sion, than conjecture. But Peace River distance would cost a million of dollars Pass being once accepted as a point on per annum. It is needless to add to the route of the Canadian Pacific, and that reason, if Quebec be accepted as Quebec as its point of discharge upon the summer port, other proof of the con summer-tide-water, the circuit by way of clusion that the route which has been Lake Nippissing, Lake Superior, and surveyed should not have been con Manitoba, involves so great an excess sidered until a thorough investigation of length that it ought to be held inadhad been made of the direct route. missible until all facts, physical and agri

'The straight line between Quebec cultural, shall have been first brought and Hudson's Hope cannot be followed out in reference to the line from Quebec otherwise than generally. Special con by way of Norway House.' siderations demand modification in that basis of experimental examinations. In giving local application to the What these are can be deterinined but

line indicated thus on general con. by those who are in possession of access to official reports and maps of the coun

| siderations, the pamphlet says:

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