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men - should of themselves have been life far more settled and refined than that able so much as to conceive the character of their successors or descendanis. The of its mild champion. Quetzalcoatl was mound-builders of Ohio, the cliff-dwellers emphatically a "prince of peace ;” he of Arizona, the Mayas of Yucatan, rewas a type of Christian sanctity, and his corded themselves in works as remote from special symbol was the cross. It seems the capacity of the sordid nomads who only reasonable to suppose that derivative scarcely even wonder at them, as the ruins elements were embodied in so pure an of Palmyra are from that of the pillaging ideal. And the presence of such elements Bedouin. And who can doubt that the is, besides, obvious in various traits of Aztecs and the Incas would have gone the native American culture. It was formerly same way as the Toltecs and the Quichés the fashion to detect them universally; it had not degeneracy been anticipated by is now the fashion to ignore them persis- destruction? There were no roots of tently. But there are some that take a steady improvement in either system of great deal of explaining away. Thus the social organization, and that of Mexico, at formal worship of the cross at Palenque any rate, held, in the atrocities upon and Cuzco can hardly have been paid to it which it was founded, the sure promise of as a mere symbol of the four winds ; nor speedy decline. were, we may be sure, the prayers ad. The ethnic unity of all the native Amerdressed to the “ Tree of Life"* by Aztecs ican tribes, exclusive of the Esquimaux, and Toltecs wholly devoid of moral pur- is strongly indicated. Indian languages, port. The Egyptian Tau - the sign of indeed, are of most bewildering variety. life — also occurs on Central American They are reckoned by the hundred, and monuments; and the hooked cross, or show very little trace of verbal relationswastika, more doubtfully on objects dis- ship. But they are alike structurally, and interred from the ancient “mounds" of are widely separated from all other famOhio; and neither can for a moment be ilies of speech. They are of the kind supposed of local re-invention. Then the known “agglutinative," and afford Mexican months were named unmistak- powers of expression far beyond the needs ably (as Humboldt pointed out) from the of those who actually employ them. SoTartar zodiac; and Mr. E. B. Tyler has cial progress, too, wherever it was set on adverted to the Asiatic origin of the Az- foot, took the same direction. The hightec game patolli. Another strong “note est stage within view on the continent was of Oriental influence is in the absolute de that of an organized communism. Private pendence of Aztec departed souls upon property in land was unknown ; cultivation canine guidance t through the under in common, or of periodically redistributed world; and the Aztec deluge tradition lots, was the rule of every settled polity, followed the Biblical account so closely and produced its inevitable effects of as to exclude the hypothesis of a separate blocking the way against individual effort, origin.

and of creating and maintaining a low and In the main, however, the culture of the stagnant level of inert uniformity. This American peoples was certainly indige prevalence of the communistic ideal has nous. The red race worked out its own been attributed to the total suppression, destinies down to the white conquest, and in the New World, of the pastoral form developed its own capabilities with singu- of life; and this, again, was mainly or en. larly little interference from without. tirely due to the scarcity there of animals There is nothing to show how much time fitted for domestication. So that innate was spent in the process. Historical in- tendency was aided by external condi. quiries fail to ascend beyond the twelfth tions. century of our era. All remoter events The typical American Indian religion are veiled in a mist of dense ignorance. was probably in the abstract monotheistic, It can plainly be seen, however, that uni- but it was certainly in practice polytheform progress did not prevail in any part istic. Here, as elsewhere, the primitive of the continent. Advances in civiliza- higher conception seems to have become tion, on the contrary, were constantly out-overlaid with vile or grotesque imaginings. balanced by relapses into savagery. "Over And these led universally to the atrocities wide expanses of territory vanished popu- of human sacrifice. Even among the mild lations left monuments and vestiges of a Peruvians, a child or beautiful maiden

some dusky Iphigenia or Andromeda – • So the cross was called in Mexican.

was, on solemo occasions, immolated pro † Nadaillac, Prehistoric America, p. 300. bono publico, in honor of the sun.god. Yet the subjects of the Incas were unique

From The Cornhill Magazine. in their possession of some elementary “THE LITTLE NAPOLEON OF CARIBOU." notions of humanity; they abhorred wanton cruelty, and abstained from the feasts A STRANGER from New York City first of cannibalism. These were otherwise christened Judge Woods “ The Little Na. hideously general. From the St. Law- poleon of Caribou.” As every man in the rence to Tierra del Fuego, the natives of crowd had a mine for sale, no one quesAmerica devoured their kind, often amid tioned the visitor's right to speak on this orgies of appalling cruelty. None were subject, and when he followed up the remore deeply stained with this horrible mark by saying “it was a long time beguilt than the refined Aztecs. Their chief tween drinks,” we accepted his invitation god was unappeasable except by holo- and unanimously voted him a high authorcausts of human victims; their teocallis ity on the personal appearance of Napo. were periodically drenched with human leon – later in the day the entire camp blood ; human hearts were torn out quiv- accepted the name as singularly appropriering on their altars ; human flesh was ate. The mild, harmless face of Judge their prime gastronomic treat. Neverthe Woods, showing in every line a decided less, they had carried the arts of life to a antipathy to killing anything, could not very high pitch. Their goldsmith's work but suggest to our minds the little general excited the admiration of Benvenuto Cel. famous for killing everything. So he was lini; their astronomers had anticipated christened Napoleon; he reminded us of the Gregorian reform of the calendar; that singular man in the same way MurAnahuac abounded, at the time of the dock, the biggest liar in Caribou, reminded conquest, with splendid products of archi- us of George Washington, “he was so tectural and engineering skill. But their entirely different.” progress had brought with it no ameliora- I think the judge took kindly to his new tion of manners.

title, for in a short time the walls of his Nobody any longer doubts that the red cabin blossomed with pictures of the great men once arrived as strangers in the pair general, and he fell into the habit of walkof continents they were so effectually to ing around the camp with arms clasped appropriate. But whence did they come? behind his back and head bent forward as There need be little hesitation about the if he was burdened with great cares of the answer. Only one practicable approach State. Entering his cabin without knockcan be pointed out. Isolated castaways ing one morning, I found him standing may indeed have been blown, from time before a looking-glass trying to counterto time, across to the Pacific shore, from feit Napoleon's position, as shown in one Japan or more southerly islands; but of the pictures on the wall. Glancing at waves of migration can only have flowed the picture, then at his own reflection, he by that north-west corner where America burst out in his rough fashion, “ Hang me and Asia come as near to meeting as if I don't think that New York man was France and England do at the Straits of right;" drawing himself up to his full Dover. The avenue to the New World length, he went on, “ But I'm a bigger was by Behring Strait, or the neighboring man than Napoleon - a bigger man. 1 line of the Aleutian Islands, Its pre did not contradict him; no one in the Aryan population must accordingly have camp ever contradicted the judge; we all been derived, at some unknown epoch, or loved him too much ; loved him in spite epochs, from northern Asia. The move- of his peculiarities; perhaps on account ment eastward impressed upon it by an of them. impulse, obscure perhaps at the time, and Judge Woods was a privileged characnow hopelessly past imaginative recall, ter in the little mining camp of Caribou ; made part of the universal wandering of nearly every one had commenced by the nations, through which the earth came laughing at him, all, I believe, ended by to be peopied and possessed. To the loving him, and in 1874, when the camp ethnical affinities of those primitive immi- was at its best, he was the leading spirit grants we have at present no certain clue. in our social and political life. Lazy and All that can be asserted is that, as M. de good-humored, possessing a happy faculty Nadaillac says, "between the men of the of parrying angry words with some barmNew World and those of the Old there less joke, he slowly made his influence felt exists no essential physical difference. and power recognized by even the rough. The unity of the human race stands out est class of miners in Caribou. He seemed as the great law dominating the history of to have no settled purpose, no special obhumanity."

ject in life. He did nothing, was nothing ; LIVING AGE.

4102

VOL. LXXIX.

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but day by day he grew more closely into I came out here five years ago and settled the life of the place. No event was com. in that little cabin on the side of the hill; plete without him, and the appearance of the one with a small platform running all his round, jolly face in any gathering was along the front of it. At first it went kind always the signal for a fusion of cliques of slow, then I began to like the boys, and and a good time all round. Every one in they stopped calling me • Tender foot.' Caribou knew his history, who he was, In a little while I seemed to forget my where he came from, why he was here. eastern home, and ceased to long for my You were sure to have this information old companions. The two years of my fired at you by the judge the first time you probation at last came to an end, I was made his acquaintance.

free to go home again, but home seemed “ Yes, by Gad,” he would begin. "I right here, all around me, for I had grown have known life — life, sir, I repeat — life to love the boys and the camp. The very in the very heart of the cultured eastern mountains that surrounded the little valley states. I have had my fling. Gad, boy, on all sides had crept into my heart, and I it was a royal fling too. Wine, you bet; loved them too. The thought of opening woman, I should remark; gamble, why, my eyes in the morning and looking out you benighted tender foot, they don't know on nothing but brick walls, of having the meaning of the word gamble out here; no bright good-morning' from Arapaho in our game of poker we played for stakes Peak yonder, made me shrink with averworth winning; if a man threw the banker sion from my old life, my old homea $50 bill, he got one white chip, only half life and a home that seemed mine no an ante ;” and here the judge would stop longer. I decided not to go back east, and wag his large head from side to side, but stay here in Caribou. The old man until it seemed the old-fashioned crush didn't object, so here you find me at the opera-hat he sported would fall to the end of five years, doing nothing, with the ground; across his face all the while peculiar energy I have been famous for played a smile of happy superiority. Busy ever since I came to Colorado. I hope to with the memory of old dissipations, he stay here until I die. If I am bound in would forget your presence, and, looking the right direction, then my soul will be out of the window, whistle softly some air sa ved a climb of over ten thousand feet; linked in his mind with other days; com- and if I have to go down below, the extra ing back to the present, he would continue time consumed in reaching it will be my his story. “ The old man cut up rough at gain." last; my governor, you see, was a high This little autobiography, always interofficer in the church, and didn't exactly rupted by two or three adjournments to cotton to my larks. One morning he the bar-room, was sure to end in a cordial called me to his study; I did not like his invitation to visit his cabin, sample his looks; I knew there was trouble coming. old rye whiskey, and smoke a pipe of peace.

Billy,' said he Billy Woods is my The judge's cabin, like its owner, had name, you know, I'll be thirty-nine in De. its peculiarities. It was built on the side cember; don't look it, do I? well, I am of a steep hill; the judge's town lot, as he 'Billy,' said the old man, “you have de. put it, being narrow but powerful high. veloped a surprising talent for profanity. While the back door elbowed the surIf this was natural or hereditary I might rounding rocks with true western familexcuse you, but for generations our family iarity, the front of the house, perched on have been leaders in religious matters. a row of pine timbers, lifted its head high To speak plainly, William, you raise too in air with natural eastern reserve and much trouble for this small city; it won't pride of position. The cabin contained do; you overstock the market. I think two rooms, a small bedroom, and a much you had better go west, where the people larger one, in which the judge seemed to are educated up to your style. I have the live. Twice each week it was used as a misfortune to own a mine called the “Sov-court-room, the judge being our only jusereign People; "it is situated near Cari- tice of the peace. This large room was bou, Colorado. Now I want you to go out papered from floor to ceiling with old to Caribou and stay for two years; I will copies of illustrated papers; they were in send you each month two hundred dollars | all languages and from all lands. An elk to pay expenses. At the end of two years, head was nailed above the fireplace, and a if you have learned to behave properly, wonderful collection of stuffed birds and you may come home again, and I will take animals were strung around the room, fillyou into partnership with me. I tried to ing completely the space between the move the old man, but it was no go. So point where the papering ended and the

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roof began. An old-fashioned church pul- balls, church meetings, and shooting afpit, discarded by the Methodist society fairs had each in turn done some little when they repaired their chapel, stood in towards making and keeping the house one corner of the room for the use of the famous. About twenty of us lived there ; judge on court days; a lot of rough pine a dozen more, sleeping in their own cabboards piled up in a corner made benches ins, gathered under its roof three times a for the jury, the witnesses, and lawyers. day to eat a little and drink a great deal. The only evidence of luxury or suggestion We made a queer party, thirty-two men of his old home in the east, was a large hailing from almost as many different easy-chair that always stood in front of parts of the world – stray bits of wreckage the window, through which could be seen from all round the globe - stranded at Arapaho Peak, fifteen thousand feet high. last in this out-of-the-way mining camp, This was the judge's favorite corner. nestling in the heart of the Rocky Moun. Here he would sit by the hour when the tains, ten thousand feet above the sea. days were cold or stormy, smoking his In the morning at the breakfast-table, large pipe. He always had a book open when the dim light filtering in through before him, but it was noticed he seldom dirty windows gave to face and figure a turned the leaves, but with eyes fastened strange, unreal appearance, they were a on the snow-covered peak across the val- rough lot to look upon. Conversation was ley, sat quietly dreaming the hours away. limited, for each was busy with Of what he thought or dreamed, we, his thoughts of the day's chances. A poor friends in the camp, couid not tell; per. man now, to-night he might be a millionhaps we could not have understood bis aire, and, snapping his fingers, turn his thoughts had we known them; that he back on the camp forever. This possibilloved the old mountain was plain; that he ity made our speech and action quick and turned to it a far different side of his char- nervous, as if begrudging the few moacter from the jolly, good-tempered one ments required to consume the necessary known in the camp, we suspected. Per amount of food. It was at such a time haps his sorrows, if he had any, and and surrounded by such men the judge Heaven knows we all have some, were showed to advantage. Leaning back in told to his cold and silent friend, “The his chair in spite of the rush, somehow he Peak."

would find time to work in the thin edge Many an afternoon I have looked across of some good story. We couldn't but the valley from my shaft to the judge's stop a moment and laugh, and this laugh little cabin, as the sun went down, to see seemed to clear the atmosphere, let off him bid it good-night.

our surplus stock of nervous excitement, If the day was clear, you were sure to and establish a good feeling all round the see him at this hour pacing up and down table. But if the judge was entertaining the narrow platform in front of his cabin, at breakfast, he waxed positively brilliant every few moments stopping to look across in the evening. For it was then our life the valley where the glory of the sunset in camp took on its brightest side. rested. At last, striking an attitude Na- In the long winter nights we all gathered poleonic in the extreme, with head crit- around the large fireplace in the bar-room; ically balanced on one side, he would with chairs tilted back, legs crossed, and stand and watch the close of the day. hands clasped behind our heads, we would Nodding in a familiar way to the sun as sit and smoke while the judge spun yarns. it dropped behind the mountain, his every Many of them were old, some were poor, movement seemed to say, “Very well but somehow we never got tired of hearing done to-night, old boy – very well done them. The room was dimly lighted; outindeed. I could suggest a few improve- side the wind whistled, dashing the snow ments, but what's the good ? Every one in passionate gusts against the windowis satisfied with the show as you give it, panes. The purring of the wood fire, so don't change on my account."

dropping lower and lower as the evening When the bright color in the west had waned, the shadows above and around us, faded, and the stars began to cluster all seemed to draw our little circle closer around Arapaho Peak and blossom far and closer together; and the judge's soft and wide, he would close his door and voice seemed just to fit in with ihe surcome slowly down the narrow path leading roundings, from his cabin to the Caribou House, He appeared to have such a childlike where he took all his meals.

belief in all his old stock lies. I suppose The Caribou House was the centre of they had developed slowly from small, social life in camp; political conventions, perhaps truthful beginnings, right under his eye to their present size, and, like a | to his own camp he is said to have re father, he was blind to weak points in marked : “ Boys, if this old camp ever these children of his imagination.

gets out of debt and has a surplus, I shall He was writing a book, he once told us vote to buy an ornamental liar like Judge - a book for children ; it was to be called Woods. Why, bless my soul, boys, a “ The Three Buckets of Blood, or The camp ain't in working order without one." Bloody Beer Brewer of Bolivia.” I don't Of course local jealousy, may have been think he ever finished it; even his patient largely responsible for this opinion of the friends at the Caribou House mutinied judge. when the first chapter was read to them. One night on his return from the val. In his stories he was always figuring as ley, the judge surprised us with a story of inero in some wonderful love adventure; a wonderful scarecrow he had seen at unfortunately, so it appeared to us, the Jamieson's ranch, just below Nederland “other fellow " always carried off the girl; Camp. “So natural, boys, it not only kept but this fact never seemed to trouble the the crows from taking any more corn, but judge, he married them off without a one old bird was so worked up, he brought tremor, and allotted each one a family of back some corn he had carried away the from six to sixteen children.

day before. Seems hard to swallow, don't One night Jim Strickland, a miner living it, boys ? That's the way it struck me, down at Nederland Camp, made one of boys, at first. But, boys, just as I had our party around the fire. He listened about made up my mind Jamieson was with interest and apparent pleasure to one lying, a flock of crows passed over the of the judge's old love-stories; when it field, and that galoot pointed out the very came to an end a disagreeable smile lighted crow; pointed it out without a moment's up his ugly face. “ Judge,” he broke out, hesitation, in a crowd of nigh on to a hun“the last time I heard you spin that yarn dred other crows; that's why I believe you only allowed the woman had seven his story. No one could doubt after such children. I'm sure it was only seven, for evidence as that." I noticed at the time it was just the num- The judge had taken an active part in ber of kids I had at home; to-night you the late civil war - a very prominent part, say the woman had nine children.' if all his stories were to be believed. His

The judge turned and looked him description of a retreat is characteristic squarely in the face; this style of criticism of the man. “Yes, boys, we were licked;

“When did you hear me tell I saw it at a glance, and I rode right over that story?

to General Sheridan and told him so. "I “ The night Yankee Jim shot the little guess you're right, Billy,' he said, 'it chap from Boulder, the one we used to hasn't looked right to me for the last hour.' call the · Widder's Mite,' 'cause he was Then he turned, and, with his big blue the only kid she had."

eyes full of tears, said, 'Boys, we're “That was about ten months ago, wasn't licked; skedaddle out of range;' and you it?" queried the judge.

bet they did. I led the crowd. Crossing “Yes," answered Strickland, "just one of the fields I saw a poor fellow ahead ab at."

of me carrying a wounded soldier on his “If you hadn't been a bloomen idiot back ; his right leg had been shot off. you wouldn't have chipped in with such a Just before I overtook him, a stray shot simple question. Because you and your from a battery on the hill whizzed over my sleepy old camp never move, you mustn't head. It missed me, but carried away the imagine my friends stand still. Got a head of the wounded man the soldier just letter from this dear girl last week. in front of me was carrying. It did it so Twins, born Thursday, both boys.' She nicely the soldier never suspected his had decided, long before little stranger wounded friend was now minus a head as arrived, to name it after me, after her well as a leg. At this moment old Capworthless old lover, Billy Woods; didn't tain Browning, a gruff old fellow, rode by. expect two, so only had one name ready, Noticing the soldier and his strange burso she had to split it up, the name, not the den, he pulled up by his side. Hullo, babies ; called one Billy, the other Woods boy! where are you taking that fellow?' - clever, wasn't it? clever in the little "" To the field hospital, captain.' woman to remember me — nothing small The field hospital! What can they either in the way she did it. Twios do for him there - his head is shot off ?' that's handsone, shows she had her heart “ The soldier dropped his burden on the in it, don't it, boys ? "

ground, looked at it a moment in amazeThe next day when Strickland got back I ment, then exclaimed, “The fool told me it

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