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CONTENTS. I. THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA,
771 II. “The LITTLE NAPOLEON OF CARIBOU,” Cornhill Magazine,
785 II. THE PORTEOUS RIoT, .
• 793 IV. ART STUDENTSHIP OF THE EARLY ITALIAN PAINTERS,
799 V. THE RUSSIANS AT HOME,
808 VI. THE Row'TILLY GIRL,
817 VII. THE DRAINING OF THE ZUIDER ZEE, Liverpool Journal of Commerce,. 823
Title and Index to Volume CXCIV.
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Is this the saddest time?" they said, He stood beneath her casement dim,
“ The birds and the flowers and the year Simple Pierrot!
all dead!' Phrynette looked out and smiled at him,
Haply," I said, “'tis sad to die; “Bonjour, Pierrot!"
But still our griefs we may forget, 'Twas but a word, a flow'r she wore,
As in a dreamless sleep we lie; And he is hers forevermore ;
I know a sadder season yet!" And wheresoe'er his steps may go, He hears her call, “ Bonjour, Pierrot I" They cried, “We hear the thrushes sing,
The cuckoo calling long and loud;
The tender leaves of sunny Spring
Have fallen like an emerald cloud
On wood and field; and here and there
The primrose and the bluebells bloom, And happily he toiled all day,
And life and love is everywhere, “ Phrynette is watching," he would say;
And banished is the Winter's gloom. And life went by with happy flow;
Our ears with song are surfeited “ Sweetheart Phrynette !” “ Sweetheart Come, say if Spring is sad!" they said. Pierrot!
I said, “I hear the wild birds sing,
And smell sweet beds of violet;
I know a sadder season yet I"
They said, “The Summer heat has come; But, ah/ the nest is dark and lone,
The landscape quivers in the haze; His bird is gone, Phrynette is flown!
And, in the glades, the insect hum Only these words, Forgive, forget;
Recalls the by-gone summer days !! Good-bye, Pierrot, forgive Phrynette ! The greenfinch, from the green-leafed tree,
Is droning out his wistful call; Hark, hark, the drum! The trumpets blow! | The swallows chatter merrily, The battle calls, and he will go;
Their nests are on the sunlit wall. For what is life when love is o'er?
Some duller season name instead, Phrynette! — Phrynette is his no more! And say not this is sad!” they said. And what of all her broken vow?
I said, “ Í feel the heated air Too late, too late, she loves him now;
Hang heavy with the breath of flowers, Too late to weep, too late regret,
Nor can conceive a world more fair Pierrot is dead! “Good-bye, Phrynette ! Than this, in these sweet summer hours !"
FREDERIC E. WEATHERLEY. I said, “I see the swallows wheel,
And hear the distant landrail call
This is the saddest time of all!
The yearning, born of summer sky,
The sorrow of a summer leaf, -
How great! And oft I wonder why!” In yellow clouds upon the grass ;
A. I. MUNTZ. Are whirled 'gainst the grey house-wall,
And patter down the window glass.” They said, “ The chestnut-tree is bare,
And through its boughs the breezes wail, And grief and gloom are everywhere,
HEART-STORMS. Because the summer glories fail :
The shadow of night is falling, The saddest season, this," they said —
But the shore is sunlit yet; “The year a-dying, the leaves all dead !”
Oh, tranquil tide, what a food you bear
Of bitter and wild regret!
When the storm your waves uplifted,
When the wind was wet with spray, They said, “ The Winter days are cold,
My heart was eased of its long dull ache, And all the sweet-faced flowers are dead;
And I looked from my grief away.
'Tis when all is calm and peaceful, The sun uprises in a haze,
When at rest the whole world lies, And runs a pale and weakly round,
That the heart is stirred with a storm unseen, And glimmers through the short-lived days, And utters its lonely cries. Anů sinks beneath the frosted ground: Chambers' Journal.
P. W. ROOSE.
From The Edinburgh Review. Eriksen has lent a kind of official sanction THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.
to the claim of that dashing sea-rover to ALTHOUGH America was no more dis- take rank as the pioneer of the Aryan covered than Rome was built in a day, race on American soil. yet October 12, 1492, may fitly serve as His exploit, although a considerable the representative date of what has been one, fell in quite naturally with the se. well described as a process rather than quence of preceding events. The overan event. On that day Columbus first set throw of the Jarls of Norway by Harold foot on transatlantic land, and his doing Haarfagr drove those restless spirits so proved decisive for the spread west among them who could not brook the ward of European civilization. Events, fixed order of a consolidated kingdom, to indeed, might easily have been directed seek their fortunes outside its bounds; otherwise. The incident might under and an exodus ensued more disastrous slightly altered circumstances have re-than plague or famine to many helpless mained isolated, and devoid of momentous populations. One of the few tranquil consequences, like so many others in the episodes in its eventful history was the history of geographical exploration; and settlement of Iceland in 874. Thence, by it seemed at first to mark no more than stress of weather, land further west was the opening of a long series of tentative certain, sooner or later, to be reached; gropings after facts confirmatory of a false and it actually fell out within two years theory. Nevertheless, as things turned that one Gunnbjörn found himself iceout, that solemn disembarkation of a little bound for the winter in one of the fiords band of white men on the palm-fringed near Cape Farewell. A century and more shore of Guanahani really typified the passed, however, before the uoalluring effective discovery of the new continent. possibility of adventure in this direction
Its effective, not its formal, discovery. was followed up. It was the outlawry for Columbus, like most other innovators in homicide of Erik the Red in 983 that led the realms of knowledge and thought, had to his exploring and colonizing expedition been anticipated. “Wineland the Good” | to the frigid peninsula visited by Gunnwas no creation of Norse fancy, no shim- björn. He made his headquarters by the mering region between sea and sky, where upper Igaliko fiord, near the site of the The Spring and the middle Summer sat each modern Julianshaab, and there “upon a on the lap of the breeze,
smooth, grassy plain may still be seen the but a concrete strip of coast-land, of ap: blocks of sandstone, their chinks caulked
ruins of seventeen houses built of rough proximately assignable latitude and longi. tude, washed perhaps by the same waters up with clay and gravel,” the dwellings, in which, one night of December in the pine hundred years ago, of the first Euro year 1773, an obnoxious cargo of tea was pean settlers in the Western hemisphere. memorably engulfed. And the recent
The spot was one of the few in that diserection at Boston of a monument to Leif mal region where nature wore now and
then even the semblance of a smile ; and 1. The Discovery of America. With some ac- Erik called it “Greenland,” somewhat, it count of Ancient America and the Spanish Conquest may be admitted, on the same advertising By John Fiske. In 2 vols. London: 1892.
2. Narrative and Critical History of America. principle of nomenclature followed by Edited by Justin Winsor. In 8 vols. London: 1885- General Choke and Mr. Scadder in the 89.
3. Christopher Columbus, and how he received and designation of the “Eden Settlement." imparted the Spirit of Discovery. By Justin Win. And the name, extended from one of its London : 1890.
choicest corners to the whole frost-bound 4. Christophe Colomb, son Origine, sa Vie, ses Voyages, sa Famille, et ses Découvertes. Etudes country, survives as if in mockery of the d'Histoire Critique. Par Henry Harrisse. Deux grim reality. tomes. Paris : 1884.
From Greenland, the continent of Amer5. The North Americans of Antiquity. By John ica was attained in precisely the same T. Short. Second edition. New York : 1880.
6. Prehistoric America. By the Marquis de Na- casual way that Greenland itself had been daillac. Translated by N. d'Anvers. London : 1885. attained from Iceland. Thus Bjarni Her.
julfsen, drifting under cover of a fog, in adventures encountered there by the vi. 986, outside the limits of the known world, kings of old were recounted, century after sighted the densely wooded shore of century, by Icelandic firesides, but kindled Maine or Nova Scotia, but had not the no emulative zeal. Only a certain priest, curiosity to land, and made little of his named Erik Gnupsen, having been apadventure. Its significance was not, how- pointed by Pope Paschal II. “bishop of ever, lost upon Leif, son of the homicidal Greenland and Vinland in partibus infiErik, a thoughtful and strenuous man, not delium," set out in 1121 to search for the devoid of grasp upon the present and more remote section of his diocese. He insight into the future. A trip to Norway never returned, that the chroniclers were in 998 brought about his conversion to aware of; and the presumption is strong Christianity; he carried missionaries that he perished on the journey. back with him to Greenland ; then, in the From Greenland, too, the outposts of year 1000, equipped a “dragon ship" for civilization were eventually withdrawn. a journey to the west. His first landfall The native Esquimaux, known only by was most likely somewhere in Labrador; archæological traces to the comrades of and he named the country, from its dreary Erik the Red, again, in course of time, and stone-strewn aspect, “ Helluland," i.e., migrated southward, and before the close “slate land,” Further south, the explor- of the fifteenth century overwhelmed the ers disembarked on the sylvan shore of intruders into their forsaken haunts. The the so-called “ Markland,” plausibly iden- massive ruin, however, of what was once tified with some part either of Cape Breton the cathedral church of Gardar remains, Island or of Nova Scotia ; but the dense and will probably long remain, standing forest-growth did not encourage tarrying, by the melancholy fiord of Kakortok, a and they determined to draw another lot conspicuous memorial of antique Christian out of the lap of the sea. This time they occupation. Only in the eighteenth cen. were in luck. A short run before a stiff tury the devastation was to some extent north-easter brought them to a fertile repaired by the planting of fresh settlestrand where the waters abounded with ments along the barely habitable coasts excellent fish, fields waved yellow with fringing the glaciated central mass of the maize, and wild vines, in that autumnal peninsula. season, drooped under a heavy burden of The Violand of the Sagas may be lo. grapes. They called the place accord. cated with some confidence on the shore ingly " Vinland,” and wintered there is of Massachusetts Bay. In the neighborgreat comfort.
hood of Cape Cod the fox.grape still Leif's return to Greenland with a cargo ripens freely, and Indian corn unsheaths of timber prompted sundry colonizing its tasselled ears almost spontaneously. efforts, notably an energetic one by Thor. The mildness of the winter climate, befion Karlsefni; and since the natives, who sides, and the length of the winter days, seem to bave been Algonquin Indians, which excited the comments of unaccuseagerly bartered rich furs for worthless tomed Icelanders, suggest a region cer. strips of scarlet cloth, trade with them was tainly not more inclement than New exceedingly profitable. These “Skrae. England. But material vestiges of this lings," as they are designated in the Sagas, curious adventure in colonization are were terribly afraid of the strange beasts scanty, or non-existent. Only by a stretch brought from over the sea; and the bel- of romantic credulity are we even allowed lowing of Thorfion's bull on one occasion to suppose that the “ skeleton in armor," sent them into hiding for three weeks. dug up many years ago near Fall River, Yet their hostility ended by becoming and sung of by Longfellow in a spirited formidable, and led, in the course of ballad, represented the genuine remaios twelve years, to the abandonment of this of some slain comrade of Thorfinn or of early attempt to secure a foothold for a Thorvald. European race on the western continent. The Norse discovery of America re. Vinland became a din tradition. The mained absolutely barren of results. The records of it assumed, as time went on, a In so far (our present authority continues] legendary air. They were not discredited, as the attention of people in Europe was but just inferences from them were ig- called to any quarter of the globe outside of nored. The performance, in fact, came to the seething turbulence in which they dwelt, nothing, because it came loo soon. There it was directed toward Asia. Until after 1492, was not knowledge enough in men's minds Europe stood with her back toward the Atlanto serve as a measure of its importance. Sea of Darkness” (Mare Tenebrosum), as it
tic. What there might be out beyond that That “the merry world was round” was used commonly to be called, was a question not even a general conviction. Indeed, of little interest, and seems to have excited no the possibility of antipodal existence speculation. In the view of mediæval Europe ranked merely as a learned extravagance the inhabited world was cut off on the west of opinion. Besides, the geographical by this mysterious ocean, and on the south by inquisitiveness of modern times had not the burning sands of Sahara; but eastward it then begun to develop; nor, in the back stretched out no one knew how far, and in that ward state of navigation, could much sat- direction dwelt tribes and nations which isfaction have been procured for it, had it Europe, from time immemorial, had reason to
fear. (Vol. i., p. 260.) been as full-Aedged and keen-witted as it is now. All this is admirably explained The process by which the direction of by Mr. Fiske in the able work named at outlook came to be reversed was slow and the head of this article. It is learned in complex. First of all, the conquests of substance, and lucid in style; and con. Genghis Khan cleared the way to Cathay denses a vast amount of varied information - so China was designated from the rulinto a skilfully constructed and agreeable ing dynasty of the Khitai; and thus it narrative.
came to European knowledge that the
country was bounded on the east, not by None of the Icelandic references to Mark.
the Ptolemaic swamp land and Vinland (we read in it] betray a consciousness that these countries belong to a
neither sea geographical world outside of Europe. There
Nor good dry land was not enough organized geographical knowl- but by a navigable ocean. The bearers edge for that. They were simply conceived of this noteworthy intelligence, about the as remote places beyond Greenland, inhabited middle of the thirteenth century, were two by inserior but dangerous people. The acci- Franciscan monks, Giovanni Carpini and dental finding of such places served neither to Willem de Rubruquis, emissaries to the solve any great commercial problem nor to gratify and provoke scientific curiosity. It great khan from pope Innocent IV. and was, therefore, not at all strange that it bore St. Louis of France, respectively. Then no fruit. (Vol. i., p. 257.)
came the voyage of Ser Marco Polo, bring. Moreover
ing experimental verification of the fact;
while its significance was implied by even if it had been realized, and could have Roger Bacon's citation of ancient opinions been duly proclaimed throughout Europe, to the effect that, between the Pillars that across the broad Atlantic a new world lay open for colonization, Europe could not of Hercules and the Indian mainland, have taken advantage of the fact. Now and stretched one wide, yet by no means im
It was then a ship might make its way, or be blown, measurable or impassable, sea. across the waste of waters without compass this fortunately conceived and fortunately or astrolabe; but until these instruments were promulgated error that led to the discovat hand anything like systematic ocean nav. ery of America. For Columbus, enthuigation was out of the question; and from a siast though he was, would never have colonization which could only begin by creep- pursued the setting sun across the sea of ing up into the Arctic seas and taking Green-darkness unless he had been convinced land on the way, not much was to be expected that, on the other side, lay a land of light. after all.
Exploration in the abstract inspired him The westward tendency of the “star of with no passion. He had a definite purempire,” too, was, in the eleventh century, pose in view; his eyes were fixed on a very far from being recognized.
goal which he deemed it a certainty to