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ian superstition that Mr. Gladstone is | Home Rule Bill a chance, and thus getting exempt from the casualties and ailments rid of the Irish question, at any rate for which in the case of ordinary humanity the time being. are inseparable from advanced age, they We Unionists, therefore, who rightly or will insist on the Home Rule Bill being wrongly regard the maintenance of the given precedence of all other legislation; Union as a matter of life or death to Enand in so insisting they will have the ap- gland, are confronted with the possibility proval of the Irish priesthocd. We may of a graver danger than any we have yet Therefore assume that next session will be encountered. It was a heavy blow to our practically monopolized by the discussion cause when in 1886, for the first time in on Home Rule. I am not quite certain our annals, an English statesman and an myself that this will be a disadvantage to English party were found ready to accept the Liberals. They will not be called the repeal of the Union as a possible solu. upon to fulfil the promises they have made tion of the Irish difficulty. We have just to the agricultural electors, io the parti- sustained a far more serious blow by the sans of disestablishment, or to the advo result of the late elections. We should cates of local option; they will be able to sustain a blow far exceeding the two forplead with truin that all these reforms mer in gravity if, after a Home Rule Bili and all reforms of a similar character are had been passed through the Commons necessarily blocked till the Home Rule and had been rejected by the Lords, a controversy is settled for once and for all, Parliament should be returned the major. as, according to their contention, it can ity of whose members were pledged to only be settled by consenting to the Irish support the bill in question on its rein. demand for a separate Parliament. The troduction. late elections showed clearly that the It may be said that the danger in quesBritish electorate have never fully realized tion is remote and uncertain. Mr. Gladthe gravity of the Home Rule issue, and stone may fail to upset the government; are, indeed, sick of the whole matter. Is he may prove unable to form a ministry; there any reasonable probability that in he may find it impossible to frame a Home twelve months' time the apathy in respect Rule Bill which both Nationalists and of Home Rule against which Ministerialist Liberals would agree to accept; he may and Opposition candidates have alike had not succeed in carrying his bill through to struggle will be exchanged for an atti- the House of Commons; he may give up tude of intelligent interest? For my own Home Rule in disgust, and elect that the part, I can see no cause for so imagining. next phase of his political transformaUnder these circumstances the Liberals tions should be passed in the serene at. will be able to assert that the settlement mosphere of the House of Lords. All of the Irish difficulty and the consequent these and many other similar hypotheses enactment of various measures in which are possible, but their converse is possilarge portions of the constituencies take ble also; and what I ask myself is a genuine interest are hindered by the supposing events to follow their natural arbitrary action of the House of Lords. In course, and that we have to fight the other words, the Liberals will be able to country again next year on the question of go to the country not so much on Home Home Rule, are we more likely to succeed Rule for Ireland as on the cry that the than we were last month? If I am assured authority of the people's Chamber is over that we are going to carry on the campaigo ridden by the caprice of an irresponsible under the old conditions, then I confess, hereditary legislature.

however reluctantly, that I should have to I think we may safely assume that answer the above question in the negative. twelve months hence the British public The first step towards success is to ac. will be even more weary of the Irish ques- knowledge failure; and I see no use in tion than they are now - and that is say- disputing the plain fact that we have failed ing a great deal. It is possible this so far. We started in 1886 with a major. weariness may induce the electorate to ity against Home Rule of over a hundred ; inflict so decisive a defeat on the partisans we are now in a minority of forty. Yet we of Home Rule as to shelve the question contend -- and contend with reason that for another generation. But it is equally the electorate are, if anything, less enampossible, and, as I think, far more prob- ored of Home Rule in the present year able, that if things go on as they are going than they were in the former. We have now this weariness will create a popular been beaten, first at the by-elections, and feeling in favor of giving Mr. Gladstone's later on at the general election, not be.

cause the constituencies have changed | ests, and even popular prejudices. Pure their minds upon the Irish question, but reason and abstract principle may have because they have never realized the par. their weight with philosophers and scholamount magnitude of this question and ars, but they are caviare to the artisans have attached infinitely greater value to and peasants to whom, wisely or unwisely, questions of subsidiary importance. Thus, we have entrusted supreme electoral our failure is due to two causes: the first power. Different baits are required for is, that we have not carried home to the different kinds of fishes ; or, to express mass of our fellow-countrymen our own the same idea more crudely, you have got conviction that the repeal of the Union to suit your programme to your public. is a matter of life or death to England ; In respect of sentiment the Unionists are, the second is, that we have allowed our. I admit, at a disadvantage in comparison selves to be outbidden and outmanæuvred with the Separatists. It is idle to discuss by our opponents in respect of the ques- whether the popularity attaching to Mr. tions which really interest the masses. Gladstone's personality is founded upon To quote the famous saying of Napoleon reason. It is enough for us that it exists, the Third after the first disasters of the and is a potent force in politics. The French army in 1870, “ Tout peut se spectacle of the aged statesman fighting rétablir.” Yes, everything may be set with all the vigor and passion of youth for right, but not if we proceed in the same the cause of Ireland bas taken hold of the way and act on the same lines as those imagination of the masses; and on our which have landed us already in defeat. side we have no single champion — one

Those who are familiar with what I who can even compare with the member have written on this subject are aware for Midlothian as a popular attraction. that from the outset I have deprecated Still, we might do something to redress the resolution of the Liberal Unionists to the balance. One of the minor causes of maintain a separate and distinct organiza- the decline in the personal popularity of tion, and have foretold that this attempt the present ministry has been the absence must end in failure. I have said all along of marked individualities in its ranks. that the Conservatives are the strongest Seldom, if ever, of late years have we had single party in the United Kingdom, and a ministry in which so many of the leadthat the one way to preserve the Union is ing positions were filled by men who do to strengthen the hands of the dominant doubt discharged their official duties with English party. If when a Conservative fair efficiency, but who were, politically ministry was placed in power after the speaking, nonentities; and this, too, at a elections of 1886 the Liberal Unionists time when the power of addressing the had joined the government and had coa- public is daily becoming more and more lesced not only in fact but in name with important. It would be invidious to menthe Conservatives, the public could hardly tion names, but we may fairly ask how have failed to realize the gravity of the many members of the present Cabinet crisis. The magnitude of the issues at are there who can be expecied to be of stake in the maintenance of the Union the slightest use, either inside or outside will, I am convinced, never be estimated Parliament, in the campaign the Unionists by the country at large till the Liberal will now have to fight as an Opposition? seceders show by their acts as weil as by There are many of the younger members their words that they place the mainte- of the Conservative party, such as Sir nance of the Union over and above every John Gorst, Baron de Worms, and Mr. consideration of party names and party Plunket, who have achieved great success politics. Our people never have under- in addressing public audiences; and Constood, and never will understand, superfine servatives who can uphold the cause of the distinctions. In the eyes of the great Union out of doors are the men who ought public the Liberal Unionists are only Con. to be Mr. Balfour's colleagues in the next servatives who liked to be called Liberals. Unionist Cabinet. There can, I think, be The sooner they abandon an untenable few friends of the Union who do not reposition the better for their cause and for gret that the advice given months ago in themselves.

these pages was not taken, and that the In the next place, the Unionists, if they ministry did not go to the country with have taken to heart the lesson of the late Lord Randolph Churchill as one of its elections, have got to place less reliance leading members. The result might have upon argument and more reliance on ap- been different if the sometime leader of peals to popular sentiment, popular inter- the Conservative party had been able to

From Good Words.

BY ROBERT WALKER.

speak, not as a private member, but as one invested with the authority of high office,

A MODERN DUTCH PAINTER. and had thrown himself-'as under those circumstances he would infallibly have The best Dutch art of today is the done -- heart and soul into the fight for legitimate outcome of the Dutch art that the Union. Whatever criticism may be made the fame of Holland during the sevpassed on the political career of Mr. enteenth century. More especially in the Goschen's predecessor in the chancellor. works of such of the well-knowo Hague ship of the exchequer, ne has got the ear painters whose chief is Israels do we note of the public; and the Unionist cause can- the respect for truth, the appreciation of not afford to dispense in opposition with the value and meaning of their immediate the services of any politician who can surroundings, the tender love of their own command a hearing.

national life and manners that distin. I would also urge upon my fellow- guished Rembrandt and his great contemUnionists thé urgent necessity of making poraries. The modern painters and the up their minds as to the price they are giants of the older art-history of their prepared to pay for the support of the country are of one race, however much electorate. In an article I wrote in these circumstances, varying temperaments, pages a year ago I pleaded the expediency and different capacities may have altered of the Unionists taking up a sympathetic the methods of expression and, in many attitude on the eight hours movement. cases, circumscribed the range of the men The advice was repudiated by the Union of these latter days. Art, like wisdom, is ists, but was accepted by the Separatists, always justified of her faithful children, and the result is the return of a Separatist and in turn fills their hearts with a knowl. majority. I can quite understand people edge of how best to understand her moods. objecting to the eight hours movement. But she has nothing to give in exchange I have very imperfect sympathy with it for lip-service, or for merely mechanical myself. But I am prepared to advocate obedience to the letter of her laws. She legislative restriction of the hours of labor rewards only those who have ears attent if by so doing I can preserve the integrity for her faintest whisper. of the United Kingdom. If my fellow- Among the later Dutchmen who have Unionists are not prepared to pay this shown themselves “worthy heirs of old price, there is no more to be said.

I can renown,' Artz occupies an honorable only repeat the advice I gave twelve place. He is not among the greatest or months ago, and bid them remember that the strongest of those whoin recent times if they wish to get the working-class vote have made the Hague a notable art-centre, they have got to pay for it, either in meal but in his own way and within his own or in malt.

limits, he was a true artist, and full of I claim no credit for political foresight. sympathy with human nature as he saw it The conclusions I drew then -in com around him, in its placid, gentler manimon, as I hold, with the conclusions Ifestations. draw now

are patent to anybody who David Adolphe Constant Artz was born has the courage to look facts in the face. at the Hague on 18th December, 1837, If we wish to recover our lost ground, we and resided there until he was about eight Unionists have got to close our ranks, to years old. His parents then removed to increase our popularity with the country, Amsterdam, and as they were in a com. and to pay the price required to enlist the paratively humble position, young Artz sympathies of the electorate on behalf of had early to begin to work for a liveli

If I am told that what I ask hood. He had strong artistic instincts, is impossible, as the price is too high, however, but up to his eighteenth year, then there is no good in further argument. could gratify these only by occasional atBut, just as Henry the Fifth vindicated tendance at drawing classes in the winter his conversion to Catholicism on the plea evenings. The inevitable crisis came ; that “ Paris vaut bien une messe," so I, against the strongly expressed wish of for one, am perfectly content to surrender both his mother and step-father (his own the name of Liberal and to accept legisla- father was dead and his mother had mar. tion on labor questions, of a kind in which ried again), he resolved to become an I personally have little or no belief, in artist, and began bis regular artistic order to uphold the Union, which is, to education by gaining admission to the my thinking, the sheet-anchor of England's life-school ai the Royal Academy at Am greatness.

sterdam. Here he made the acquaint EDWARD DICEY. ance of Josef Israels, auc thưi istimacy

our cause.

developed into a close and lasting friend. Mollinger introduced Artz to Mr. (now ship, which had a great influence on Artz's Dr.) Forbes White, of Aberdeen -the subsequent career. Israels was by some well-known art collector and critic – who years the elder of the two, and had al. happened to be on a visit to Paris; and ready laid the foundation of his reputation. Mr. White in turn, brought Artz into close He was brimming over with enthusiasm contact with several young Scottish artists and earnestoess, thinking no labor too who were studying in France. Mr. (now great so that he might attain excellence Sir) George Reid, Mr. John Dun, Mr. in his beloved art. He was every night Longmuir, among others, became inti. at the life-school, and by precept and ex- mates of Artz, and from them he learned ample encouraged and strengthened his to speak our language with great facility. younger brethren. Acting on Israels' ad. Dun was one of his chief instructors in vice, Artz, in 1866, went to Paris to con. English. Another friend whom he made tinue his studies. Two of his chief at this time, and of whom he always spoke comrades in Paris were his own country. very highly, was the accomplished decomen, James Maris and Kämmerer. For ratór, designer, and art collector, Daniel the first year, he worked in the same Cottier, who died recently, and the sale of studio with Maris, and then he and Käm. whose pictures has been one of the events merer occupied one atelier. Israels had of the 1892 art season of Paris. Artz degiven him a much-prized introduction to clared that this shrewd Aberdonian, with Courbet. To Courbet Artz mentioned his his pawky wit and his keen artistic in. desire to become a pupil at the Ecole des stincts, was, in his own line, one of the Beaux-Arts. Courbet's characteristic ad-cleverest men he ever met. vice to the young aspirant was to stay at The result of these pleasant commun. home and work, “Prenez un modèle et ings in Paris with so many hearty souled fermez votre porte !"

Scotsmen was a visit of Artz to Scotland. Artz made many pleasant friendships in This is how he, in a letter to a friend, Paris, and grew, during the eight years he sums up his impressions of our country: lived there, to be, as he said himself, “ Leaving London on a wet, dark night, I “almost a Parisian.” By Kämmerer he awoke the next morning in a splendid was introduced to a little literary and landscape, with a fast-running stream artistic club that numbered several dis. close to the railway, and beautiful coltinguished men among its members. Of ored hills round me, shining in a bright these I may mention the brothers Coque. sun. I shall never forget the impression lin, the actors; Paul Deroulède and Paul of that morning after the gloomy day in Ferrier, men of letters; Saint Saens, the London, nor shall I forget the kindness musician ; Léon Glaize, painter; Croisy, with which I was received by all my sculptor; and Charpentier, the publisher. friends in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and EdinWhat a good time they must have had! burgh, who made me quite at home.” Artz always looked back with great delight Artz's own temperament was one that natto the pleasant hours he had spent in the urally called forth kindly feeling towards society of these kindred spirits.

him in the breasts of all with whom he While Artz was in Paris, his fellow. came in contact. countryman, Alexander Mollinger, was Artz saw Paris in all the flush of its also a dweller there, and the two were splendor and outward-shining glory during constant companions. Has the influence the last years of the Second Empire; he on his brother artists of Mollinger – too endured the misery of the siege ; he wit. soon lost to this world and art - yet been nessed the horrors of the Commune, and appreciated at its proper value?' I know his thoughts turned wistfully homewards of two good men who hold him in reverent to his own country of flat meadows, quiet memory, Josef Israels and Sir George canals, and long stretches of yellow sands. Reid, and remember another voice that He had almost taken root in Paris during bore witness to his worth. In my mind's the eight years of his stay, but his first ear I hear again George Paul Chalmers, love for his “ain folk” and their douce, as years ago I heard him, in his Edin- simple ways, so vividly in contrast with burgh studio, grow eloquent in his own the madness and wild delirium of the exemphatic, hurriedly enthusiastic way, in perience he had lately passed through, praise of Mollinger, and of the great came back to him with a persuasiveness promise untimely marred. “The blind not to be resisted. He returned to HolFury with the abhorred shears was even land in 1874, settled at the Hague, married, then lurking ready for Chalmers himself. and spent the remainder of his days in So wags the world away!

earnest, honest work at his easel, painting

66

the subjects that lay nearest to his heart, paper was sent by Artz to Sir George “the toilers of the sea " and their homely Reid, and safely reached its destination, manners.

and on the fly-leaf he wrote a letter, full Artz grew steadily in reputation. While of hope that, now that “hideous man Na. in Paris he had contributed regularly to poleon” had altogether fallen, the united the Salon, but after his return to Holland, force of France would yet be able to resit was not until 1880 that he sent a picture cue Paris from the cruel clutch of the to Paris. That year he was represented Germans. A hope, as we all know, that at the Salon by the well-known “Orpheli- was not realized! In another leiter, writnat de Katwyk,” perhaps his best work. ten just after the siege, he declares that It has been exhibited more than once in during the siege “ to be sure he must have this country. In the Salon it received eaten a whole horse," but that he had not Mention honorable. In every succeeding been forced to come down to cats or mice year his pictures were well hung on the as a means of support. He had had no Salon walls, and became widely known and fuel, however, and to keep himself warm highly appreciated in Britain.' Of his im. during the dreadful winter, had been comportant works I may mention “ The Old pelled to walk about and spend his prePeople's Home in Katwyk,” “Chez les cious time in the streets and in cafés. Grands Parents," “Son Trousseau de Ma- When the Communist troubles came he riage,” “Une Haute Journée," " Le Pro-writes that Paris looks "like a madpos d'Amour," and "Le Départ.” His house." "I don't know what is right smaller canvases and water.colors are or wrong in it, but I am afraid it is all many in number, all dealing with incidents humbug. Everybody talks and screams, in the lives of the peasants and fisher and nobody will ever hear the other's reapeople whose story he knew by heart. sons. C'est triste! I stay quietly at During the winter he lived at the Hague ; home, and work and wait the end of all his summers were spent at Katwyk, in a this misery, which must be near.” In little cottage on the dunes, surrounded by these letters there shines out the fine nathe village huts and overlooking from ture of the man — patient, enduring, and every window his old friend the sea. self-contained. In the midst of bis own

The end of this peaceful, happy, hard. troubles, he never forgets one of his working life came most unexpectedly. friends in far-away, peaceful Scotland. Artz died on 5th November, 1890, after a He asks after them all by name, he sends comparatively short illness, which no one to each one kind remembrances. at the outset thought would be of serious I cannot better end this short tribute to moment.

the memory of a good man and a true The details of Artz's biography I have artist than by quoting his views upon art taken for the most part from letters I my from a letter' I received from him in 1889. self received from him. Sir George Reid I give the words as he wrote them; his has kindly put at my disposal several let- English, be it noted, was to the point and ters, written to him by Artz at various expressive, with a pleasant flavor in it of times from Paris, and these all bear wit. foreign idiom. “I never had the slightest ness to the guileless, gentle nature of the taste for historical subjects, nor to try it man. He was filled with kindliness to myself, nor for what I saw done in it by everybody, especially to those who had others. They never could suggest to me shown him the least spark of good-will. the feeling of truth and reality (Baron He never forgot a benefit received. He Leys perhaps excepted) which is for me was keenly sensitive to criticism, always the first condition of a picture. Every: ready to take advice from his brother art. day people in their every-day ways is all ists, always anxious to know what painters that could speak to my heart and eye. thought of his work. Patient, earnest, When visiting famous picture.galleries, simple-hearted, he bore himself nobly overwhelmed by the power and talent of through the ordeal of the great siege. I the great old masters, I always find myself have before me just now an interesting at last sitting before some little old Dutch reminiscence of that trying time - a copy picture with a feeling of refreshment such of the little Lettre-Journal de Paris, as one has on a cool spot after a tiresome Gazette des Absents, the tiny newspaper walk in splendid scenery. I always come that was published in Paris to be carried back to the old Dutch masters, and never out by “ balloon post," when the iron ring can find anything going beyond them exof the Prussian beleaguerment had cut off cept in the landscape. In the latter I all direct communication between the think that Constable, and after him the French capital and the outer world. The Frenchmen Rousseau and Corot made a

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