“ It


mentioned in the appals of the Restora. I was in twelve small quarto volumes of a tion, but fortunately we possess the mas- hundred pages each. The original manusive volumes in which Pepys gives the script was begun by Lord Ailesbury, " at annals of himself. So, in Macaulay's the earnest request of my dear son, the * History of England," Thomas, Lord Lord Bruce," about Christmas, 1728. Ailesbury, has but a passing notice;

and Lord Ailesbury was then at Brussels, havnow after two centuries we are able to ing been in exile for thirty years. read Lord Ailesbury's story as he told it was a' for his rightfu' king be left fair for his descendants. It is printed for the England's strand." “ The same began Roxburghe Club, “ The Memoirs of forty years complete after my royal mas. Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury, written by ter's being walked out of his kingdom." Himself,” and of course there are but few "Walked out" is good, and exactly decopies of the book. In the last of his scribes the manner of James's uodigoified critical writings, Sir Walter Scott dis-retreat. Lord Ailesbury "renounces the cusses the usefulness of book-clubs, such name of a historian, as being ignorant and as the Bannatyne and the Roxburghe. illiterate," and writes "all out of the He decides in their favor. True, they strength of memory.”. “I write for my priot extremely limited editions ; but then own satisfaction, and let this pass for a they rescue works which merit preserva. sort of diary and nothing else. . . . I make tion, though they can never be popular. up for defects in some measure by bring. One of the Scottish clubs — the Maitland, ing to light what else you would never we think - found that there was no sale know, because historians flatter, and most for extra copies of their publications. It often write for bread.” " The best title is certain that volumes of the Bandatyne I can give is a DOMESTIC DIARY ; for the books, picked up in auctions, or from cat- sincere part, I answer." As Mr. Buckley, alogues, are usually " quite uncut;" their the editor, says, Lord Ailesbury was "a leaves have never even been opened by the thoroughly honest, fearless, and truthful paper-cutter.* Thus it is plain that the man,” with a passion, now singular, for a limited editions of the book-clubs are not king as a king, but with a mind and temgenerally too small. The Roxburghe, per naturally frank and impartial. He especially, preserves rather than publishes died abroad, in 1741, at the age of ninety: works. But, in the case of Lord Ailes- three ; he was therefore eighty years of bury's memoirs, we may regret that the age when he began his memoirs. His book was not published in the ordinary heart is buried in an urn at Maulden, in way. It is so rich in anecdote, in curious Bedfordshire. By his second wife, the revelations of character, in materials for Comtesse de Sannu, he was the great history, that it could not, as Constable grandfather of Louisa Maximiliana, wife found to be the common case with such of Charles Edward Stuart, and queen of publications, have “spelled ruin.” Gen- England, sed non voluntate hominum. eral Marbot's memoirs might almost as Let us now see what history, as repre. well have been printed to the extent of only sented by Macaulay, has to say of Lord one hundred examples. Not unfrequently Ailesbury. He is mentioned * as having we have to deplore this scarcity of Rox. written a letter on the death of Charles burghe books. Lord Stanhope's collection 11., of which a fragment was printed in of • Stuart Papers" is now introuvable; the European Magasine of April, 1795. and Mr. Ewald, in writing the biography “ Ailesbury calls Burnet an impostor." of Charles Edward, was obliged to borrow “ 'Tis not the first time I have constrained the editor's own copy.

one to call me knave," quoth Sir Andrew We must first give the history of the Aguecheek.t " Yet his own narrative," manuscript, before examining Lord Ailes- Macaulay goes on, “and Burnet's, will bury's confessions. In 1885 the Marquis not, to any candid and sensible reader, of Ailesbury, at the request of Lord Powis, appear to contradict each other." Ma. then president of the Roxburghe Club, caulay next_remarks (iii. 33) that “Ailessent copies of his ancestors' papers to the bury and Dartmouth, though vehement late Rev. Mr. Buckley, who filled, very Jacobites, had as little scruple about takadmirably, the seat of old Dr. Dibdin as ing the oath of ailegiance as they aftersecretary. The manuscript thus copied wards had about breaking it." In 1690

* "Uncut," technically used, means that the binder • Edition of 1855, i. 439, note. has not shaved down the margins; it does not mean that † Ailesbury says, "That Dr. Burnet had learning the paper-cutter has not been employed. Strangely and wit I knew but too well. As to the History of enough, a bibliophile so eminent as Scott was unaware, his Own Times,' I could give him the lie as often as as he show's, of this distinction.

there are pages in his book."

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(iii. 586), the historian observes that for “the historian's daughter was married

gangs " of conspirators, who previously to the heir-presumptive of the crown, and distrusted each other, had drawn into a his ambition was to have the crown on the confederacy, when William of Orange was head of his grandchildren." Charles “ was about to leave the country for a while. of an amorous inclination, chiefly owing “ Clarendon, who had refused the oaths, to” the ill choice of his coosort. He and Ailesbury, who had dishonestly taken could endure a gentle remonstrance, but them, were among the chief traitors." informed Dr. Hampton, his chaplain, Ailesbury, it may be remarked, had a very " that I am not angry for to be told of my low opinion of the noble historian," faults, but I would have it done in a genClarendon. Again, in 1692 (iv. 343), tlemanlike manner.” Burnet has misrepAilesbury appears as violent and intoler-resented all this : “I know but too well ant, and as rrowly escaping the block ” what my two good kings and masters told for conspiracy against William. The me relating to him and his character.” latest mention of Ailesbury, in connection Lord Ailesbury then gives his reflections with Porter and Sir John Fenwick's affair, on the politics of Charles's later years. will be compared, in the proper place, with Of the Cabal, Lord Ailesbury speaks in Ailesbury's own narrative.

bitter terms: “ The Duke of Buckingham Lord Ailesbury begins his confessions was flashy and vain, and would rather lose by averring that his education had been his friend - nay, his king – than his jest. neglected. He was neither sent to school He turned all serious matters into ridi. nor to college, and after a visit to Paris, cule, and 'twas he that fetched that French was married early. Then“ my chief study lady over" - namely, the Duchess of was to examine myself what I could ever Portsmouth. be good for, and what not, which made me As to Lauderdale, Lord Ailesbury resolve to be assiduous at court, where avenges the Covenanters on his memory. learning was not in any lustre, and young Like Claverhouse, in " Old Mortality,” he men are inclined to vanity more or less, recalls Lauderdale's part in the rebellion. and I thought a court the finest way of Lauderdale "was as disagreeable in his living possible ; but I was, in some course conversation as was his person; his head of years after, much of a contrary opin- was towards that of a Saracen, fiery face, ion." He was fond of Charles, “the and his tongue too big for his mouth, and good king,” and Charles of him; “but on his pronunciation high Scots — no Highhis death all my joy in a court was cutlander like him ; uttering bald jests for off.” Lord Ailesbury is strong on the wit, and repeating good ones of others, and duty of self-examination as to fitness for ever spoiled them in relating them, which appointments. In one year he saw a lord delighied the good king much. . . . He high admiral whom seasickness kept off was continually putting his fingers into the the sea, a stupid and “stuttering" pres- king's snuff-box, which obliged him to ident of the Council, a first commissioner order one to be made which he wore with of the treasury who could not "tell ten," a string on his wrist, and did not open, and "a secretary of state that could but the snuff came out by shaking.” The neither read nor write, by way of speak trick which the king played on Lauderdale ing." He resolved, then, to accept no with a double sillabub-glass was office for which he was not competent. coarse to be repeated here. Lauderdale He next turns to a theory of “ Whigism," was most pernicious to the king and " which really sprung by degrees from the kingdoms, and to his native country in a discontent of noble families;” and gen- most especial manner. . . . At last, by the try, “whose ancestors were sequestered, arbitrary conduct of those that had the decimated, and what not, on account of management of affairs in that unhappy their steadfast loyalties," unrewarded by country, a small and short rebellion broke Charles, and unchronicled by Clarendon. out, but it was soon quashed, they being Clarendon always gave the good king bad totally routed and dispersed at Bothwell advice, to favor his foes, and to neglect Bridge.” As for Ashley, he, with Mon. bis friends. He chose for the king as a mouth, had approached Lord Ailesbury's wife Catherine of Braganza, “a virtuous father with treasonable proposals, as early princess, but so disagreeable in many as twelve years before Charles's death. respects not fit to mention, who then had Lord Ailesbury thinks that, just before attained to twenty-five years, which, for a Charles died, his affairs were prosperous. Portuguese, is equal to one of forty in our “ I will have no more Parliaments," he climate." Clarendon was anxious that said ; “for, God be praised, my affairs are Charles should live no legitimate child, lin so good a posture that I have no occa



sion to ask for supplies. . . . A king of natives of the county, from which they England that is not a slave to five hundred come ; and never safe when 'tis otherwise,' kings, is great enough.” “His heart was as in our happy age of wandering “carpet set to live at ease, and that his subjects baggers.” Even in his own day, country might live under their own vine and fig: gentlemen were ousted by “purse-proud tree." "I will have by me a hundred Cockneys." thousand guineas in my strong-box,” the Lord'Ailesbury now roams into Mon. king used to say; and Lord Ailesbury mouth's affairs, beginning at his intrigue heard that "there was found there at his with Lady Henrietta Wentworth. “The death about sixty thousand pounds.” poor duke alleged a pretext, very airy and Concerning this Burnet says, “He left absurd, that he was married so very young behind him

about ninety thousand guineas, that he did not know what he was adoing, which he had gathered either out of the and that my poor Lady Heorietta Wentprivy purse, or out of the money which worth he regarded as his wife before God; was sent him from France, or by other and she was as visionary as he was.* I methods, and which he had kept so se respect her memory so, that I am sorry I cretly that no person whatsoever knew cannot justify these unheard of steps, but anything of it.” Lord Ailesbury shows on the contrary.". In fact, Lord Ailesbury that the king made no secret of the matter. had once been in love, it seems, with Lady

Lord Ailesbury, as he admits, rambles Henrietta, but his father opposed the a good deal.

He strays into the Popish marriage, and the lover sighed, the son Plot, and tells how the Countess of Shaftes- obeyed,” as in Gibbon's case. " This un bury“ had always in her muff little pocket. fortunate lady I cannot forget,” he adds pistols loaden, to defend her from the pathetically. Monmouth was in hiding Papists, being instructed by her lord and for his share in the Whig plot at Lady master; and most timorous ladies fol. Wentworth's, and Lord Ailesbury, when lowed her fashion " a very dangerous hunting near Toddington, chanced to purfashion. As for the Popish Plot, “the sue a stag into her ladyship's park. The good king that had a penetrating judgment stag swam the ponds. “I was acciden. never believed one word of all their plot, tally thrown out, and, in a lane beyond the but dissembled it, and some think too park, I saw a tall man in a country habit, much ; but when that audacious villain, opening a gate for me. I took no notice, Oates, would have brought the queen into but, casting my eye, perceived it was the their plot, that roused the king out of a Duke of Monmouth, who was so indis. sort of state lethargy.” Lord Ailesbury creetly mingled with the crowd at the thinks that the inventors of the plot prob. death of the stag very soon after.” Lord ably murdered Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey Ailesbury, to keep his father from seeing themselves. Of the new Privy Council of the duke, whom he must, in duty, have 1679, Charles said to Lord Ailesbury, arrested, detained his parent with a flood “God's fish! they have put a set of men of talk, that he might not look about, about me, but they shall know nothing; insomuch that he told me I had taken a and this keep to yourself.” “Our most large morning's draught.” It is a curious solitary sovereign” was thus left among and dramatic scene. The child of Charles, persons nearly as hostile to himself as to accused of conspiracy against his father, his brother, later James II. But he, who lurking in the house of his mistress's “ knew men to a hair," said, “Give them mother, is attracted into the park by the but rope enough and they will bang them- music of the hounds, and there recognized, selves.". When the king dissolved at and is saved by the very man who had Oxford the Parliament, which was set on wished to marry the lady with whom Monexcluding James from the succession, mouth was living in sin— the lady whom Lord Ailesbury saw " the dreadful faces the narrator, though so happy in his marof the members, and heard their loud ried life, “ can never forget," not after all sighs.” As for Charles, while putting off these many years. his robes, he touched Lord Ailesbury on Monmouth easily made his peace with the shoulder, saying, “ with a most pleas. Charles. He was conveyed into the rooms ing and cheerful countenance, “I am now of his old governess, Mrs. Croft, at Whitea better man than you were a quarter of an hall. There he “prostrated himself at hour since; you had better have one king the king's feet, and melted his tender than five hundred.'' “ 'Tis my opinion,' heart." He was to prostrate himself at adds Lord Ailesbury, “ that the nation is ever safe when the counties, cities, etc.,

• “ While a child he had been married to another are represented by men of substance, and child.” – Macaulay.

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was never

another king's feet in vain, and to sue for

The king always lying in his own bedcham"grace at a graceless face; yet Lord ber, we had a bed placed each night to be Ailesbury says that James " pardoned, if near him; and when the page of the back one may term it so, to a vice.” As the stairs lighted us from the room where we undůke left Charles, after gaining his pardon, dressed, on his retiring we shut up the door he was seen by Colonel Griffin, who ran

on the inside with a brass knob, and so went

Several circumstances made the to the king with the news.

“The duke to bed. was in court, and if guards were sent they filled with Scotch coal that burnt all night, a

lodging very uneasy — the great grate being might easily take him.” The king an. dozen dogs that came to our bed, and several swered, with a disdainful look, : You are pendulums that struck at the half-quarter, and a fool; James is at Brussels.” “After all not going alike; it was a continual chiming. that officiousness he could never bear the The king being constantly used to it, it was sight of him.” Charles was grateful to habitual. I, sleeping but indifferently, perLord Ailesbury for having kept Mon-ceived that the king turned himself sometimes, mouth's hiding-place secret. Monmouth not usual for him; he always called in the had signed a confession, and had acknowl- morning of himself; I heard his voice, but edged the validity of the evidence against the liberty to go to his bedside in the morning

discovered not any imperfection. We had Lord Russel. His partisans, denying that before anybody came in, and might entertain he had ever signed this document, com- him with discourse at pleasure, and ask of pelled him to try to recover it. He was him anything. Unfortunately a certain modso importunate that the king, with greatesty possessed me, and besides we had his ear warmth, bade Lord Halifax give back the whenever we pleased. So I arose, and turned paper,

6 and bid him go to - This is back the brass knob, and the under ones authentic, and of my certain knowledge." came in to make the fire, and I retired to It was thus that Monmouth "gave new dress myself in our room. offence," as Macaulay puts it, to a king chamber, i found there the physicians and

Passing by in the next room to the bedwho, says Lord Ailesbury, known to be in such a passion.” Mon: Mr. Robert Howard, a groom of the bed

chirurgeons that attended to visit his heel. mouth did not go so far as the royal and chamber, came to me and asked me how the paternal irritation had indicated. Accom- king had slept, and if quietly? I told him panied by Lady Henrietta, he betook him that he had turned sometimes. “Lord I” self to Brussels. Lord Ailesbury, for his said he, “that is an ill mark, and contrary to conduct in the affair, was made gentleman his custom ;” and then told me that at rising of the bedchamber.

he could not, or would not, say one word, “We breathed nothing but peace and that he was as pale as ashes, and gone to his happiness,” he says, “till Monday, Jan. private closet. On which I came away pres26, 1684. In that week the king had blis, of the back stairs and keeper of his closet, for

ently, and sent in Mr. Chiffins, the first page tered his heel, and could not take his usual to beg him to come to his chamber, for a more exercise in St. James's Park or Arlington bitter morning I never felt, and he only in his Garden. On Sunday he was unusually night-gown. Mr. Chiffins telling me he minded well, and made a hearty supper, eating one not what he said, I sent him in again (for no or two goose-eggs, “very hard of diges. other had that liberty), on which he came out tion.” Burnet say's "he ate little all pale and wan, and had not the liberty of his day.” He went on to the Duchess of tongue, for the Earl of Craven, colonel of the Portsmouth's, though he was wearying of foot.guards, being there to take the word, he her. There LordAilesbury found him showed him the paper where the days of the " in most charming humor." As Lord others spoke to him, but he answered nothing;

month were set down with the word; and Ailesbury, on his return, lighted him to It being shaving day, his barber told him all his bedroom door, the candle went out, was ready. He always sat with his knees though there was no draught. The page against the window, and the barber having shook a superstitious head at this omen. fixed the linen on one side, went behind the Charles then withdrew to a private room, chair to do the same on the other, and I, where Lord Ailesbury, Henry Killigrew, standing close to the chair, he fell into my and he were very merry. The king in arms in the most violent fit of apoplexy. Dr. vited Ailesbury tó Winchester, where, he King, that had been a chirurgeon, happened said, “ I shall be so happy this week as to to be in the room of his own accord, the rest

having retired before. I asked him if he had have my house covered with lead."" And God knows the Saturday following he was him to bleed the king without delay, which he

any lancets, and he replying he had, I ordered put into his coffin.” Here follows Lord did; and perceiving the blood, I went to fetch Ailesbury's narrative of the king's final the Duke of York, who came so on the instant, illness. Already he had suffered two that he had one shoe and one slipper. At slight shocks of apoplexy.

my return with the duke, the king was in bed,

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and in a pretty good state, and going on the the remark is attributed to the Duke of contrary side where the duke was, he perceiv- York. “The king made a general confesing me, took me fast by the hand, saying, “I sion, with a most hearty, true, and siocere see you love me dying as well as living,” and thanked me heartily for the orders I gave Dr. sins, and he received what is called all the

repentance, weeping and bewailing his King (who was knighted for that service) to rites of the Church, and like a true and bleed him, as also for sending Mr. Chiffins to persuade him to come out of his closet; and hearty penitent, and just at high water and then told me that he found himself not well, full moon at noon, he expired; . . . and and that he went to take some of his drops, to this hour I bewail my loss and that of commonly called the “King's Drops," and the three kingdoms. God's will be done that he walked about hoping to be better, but on earth as in heaven!”* on my solicitations he came down, for there There is no doubt that Lord Ailesbury were three or four steps coming out of the was sincerely attached to Charles. His closet, and he said that coming down his head sketch of his character is apologetic. The turned round, and he was in danger of falling. king, from his disturbed youth, had no I have been so prolix in this account, by reason that it hath been so maliciously and with opportunity to study books. From the that malignine industry spread about, that the age of ten he was never "well settled nor king had been poisoned; and those inventing his mind at ease. His natural parts were devils would have brought me into the knowls excellent; his marriage was his great mis. edge of it; and on the Monday the king was fortune." “The Holy Scriptures he had seemingly recovered by that bleeding. The read, and reasoned most well on them, but whole town and city sung my praises for being always lamented that common and ignothe sole instrument by the orders I gave Dr, rant persons were allowed to read them, King, so little must one regard what they call and that this liberty was the rise of all our the cry of the people. The queen came forthwith to the king, and her concern and deport vile notions, and to accomplish their bor

sects, each interpreting according to their ment was beyond what I can describe. He continued so well on Tuesday, the next day, rible wickednesses.”. From a private gal. that. the messengers were sent into every lery, in chapel, the king used to watch the county for to carry the happy news; but God maids of honor "laugh outright to hear knows the joy was not lasting, for on Wednes- the chaplain-in-waiting read some chapters day in the evening he fell into a cold sweat, of St. Paul's epistles relating to marriage and the physicians declared he was in immi- and constancy, and I was eye-witness." nent danger.

“No prince was ever so diverting and

amusing as the king. . . He could not In this account Ailesbury says, " The say a hard word to any one," a grace also queen came forth with to the king.” In attributed by Lord Ailesbury to Marlborhis letter in the European Magazine ough. Once, on a bowling-green, Charles (xxvii. 22) he writes : “My good king and described to his courtiers the character of master falling upon me in his fit, I ordered trimmers.” “Did you ever see such him to be blooded, and then I went to guilty and hanging faces as they made fetch the Duke of York. When we came while I was drawing their pictures ?” he to the bedside, we found the queen there ; said to Lord Ailesbury. “ He was a great and the impostor [Burnet] says it was the master of kingcraft, and I wish to God Duchess of Portsmouth.' But Burnet is that his royal father and brother had been not speaking of the same day, the first endowed with the same talent." He never of the king's fatal illness, so there is no believed in Oates, and signed death-war. real contradiction. Burnet, of course, rants of the innocent “with tears." He leans to the childish theory of poison. was “the best king that ever reigned On Thursday, Bishop Ken, who had “a over us,” cries Lord Ailesbury.

He voice like a nightingale for the sweetness was “lecherous and treacherous," as the of it,” was sent to bid the king hear the Covenanters truly said, but — he was bishops address him on his imminent good-natured and witty, and a pleasant peril. He put them off with grace and companion, in these matters a great congood-humor. About 10 P.M. on Friday, trast to his glum successor.t the Duke of York brought in Father Huddleston by a private stair. This was he

• James's version of what occurred at Charles's death who helped to hide the king at Boscobel, is given in two volumes of Stuart papers, chiefly letters and who was exempted from decrees of from the queen, published two years ago by the Rox

burghe Club. Ailesbury was not present in the bedbanishment against Catholic priests. The chamber. king cried, “You that saved my body is

+ Lord Ailesbury declares that the king never re

peated his stories. “ In reciting, he was never known now come to save my soul.' This is lit- to relate the same thing." Burnet says all who knew erally true as a Christian.” In Macaulay him were wearied by his old stories, and "whca lie

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