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able foreign povels, most of which are l especially such as have been endowed little known to English readers. To per- , with the artistic temperament. sons the most of us — whose knowledge “Pepita Jiménez” is essentially a “reliof Spanish books is confined to “Don gious novel,” none the less so because it Quixote,"
" " Pepita Jiménez" will come as represents the failure of a good young a complete and delightful surprise ; and aspirant to the priesthood to attain a de. yet it not only is, as Mr. Gosse says, "the gree of sanctity to which he was not called, typical Spanish novel of our days,” but it and depicts the working in his aspirations is typical of a great and altogether unique of a pride so subtle as to be very venial, national literature. Though Juan Valera's though, in some degree, disastrous. Mr. personality differs from the priestly char- Gosse seems to me to mistake the motif acter of Calderon as far as may well be, of the novel entirely in regarding it as since he is said to have made bimself representing the necessary failure of a “conspicuous by his bonnes fortunes, his “divine ardor brought face to face with wild freaks at the gaming-table, his crazy an earthly love." It represents nothing escapades, his feats of horsemanship, and but the exceedingly common mistake of his powers as a toreador," the very same young and ardent minds in measuring distinguishing vein which makes such their present capacity by their desires, plays as Calderon's “Life is a Dream," and striving to take their station on the and “The Wonder-working Magician top of an alp, when they are only fit for the astonishment and delight of every the ascent of a very moderate hill. One reader who comes upon them for the first of the many points in which Catholic phitime – an astonishment and delight al- losophy shows itself superior to the phimost like that of the acquisition of a new losophy of Protestant religionists in the
- this very same vein sparkles knowledge of the human mind is its dis. through and vivifies the modern novel tinct recognition of the fact that there “ Pepita Jiménez.” Alike in Calderon are as many degrees of human capacity for and in this work of Juan Valera we find holiness as for any other kind of emithat complete synthesis of gravity of mat- nence, and that for most men a very modter and gaiety of manner which is the erate degree of spirituality is the utmost glittering crown of art, and which out of for which they are entitled to hope. An Spanish literature is to be found only in ardent Protestant, misinterpreting, the Shakespeare, and even in him in a far words, “ Be ye perfect as I am perfect," less obvious degree. It is only in Span-is apt to think that he is nothing if not a ish literature, with the one exception of saint, whereas Juan Valera knew that to Dante, that religion and art are discov- be a saint, as to be a poet, is to be about ered to be not necessarily hostile powers; one in twenty millions, and he has made and it is in Spanish literature only, and a very amusing as well as a very useful without any exception, that gaiety of life book out of the vain strivings of his hero is made to appear as being not only com-forpatible with, but the very flower of that Heroic good, target for which the young root which in the best works of other Dream in their dreams that every bow is literatures hides itself in the earth, and strung; only sends its concealed sap through stem and the course of experience by which he and leaf of human duty and desire. The is brought to conclude reason of this great and admirable singularity seems mainly to have been the sin. That less than highest is good, and may be gular aspect of most of the best Spanish
high. minds towards religion. With them, reli- That disgusting abortion, the English gion has been, as it was meant to be, a "religious novel,” would have made the human passion; they have regarded dogma enthusiastic young deacon relapse into as the form of realizable, and, by them, despair and profligacy, instead of letting realized experience; and the natural in him marry the pretty girl who had turned stincts of humanity as the outlines of the him from his supposed vocation, and lineaments of the divinity — " very God caused him to live an exemplary, conscienand very man.” Witness the writings of tious, and religious life as a country gen. their greatest saints and theologians, intleman and farmer of his own land. which dogma is, as it was, fused in, and There is plenty of analysis in the En. becomes psychology, instead of remaining, glish religious novel
, but no psychology; as it has done with us, a rock, indeed, of and analysis which has not psychological refuge to many, but a rock of stumbling knowledýe for its material is merely the and offence to many more, and of these anatomy of a corpse, and fails as completely in illustrating and extending knowl, and humanly interesting as one of Sir edge of life as the anatomy of the body Walter Scott's. There is in it no sense of has confessedly failed, from the time of dislocation or incompatibility between the Galen and Hippocrates, in explaining the natural and the spiritual. From the dainty, vivifying powers of nature. Psychology naive, innocently coquettish, and passioncomes naturally to the typical Spanish | ate Pepita, who is enraged by her lover's mind, for the reasons given above. It pretensions to a piety which, though she deals with the personal relationships of is devoted to her beautifully adorned " Inthe soul with the personalities which are fant Jesus," she cannot understand, and in above the soul, from which the soul exists, which she sees only an obstacle to the and of which the soul is the express mir fulfilment of her love for him, to the saintly ror; but of these personal relationships, ecclesiastic, who, almost from the first, which every religion confesses, the modern sees the incapacity of his pupil, Don Luis, mind, out of Spain, knows comparatively for the celibate heights to which he aspires, little, though, thanks to the works of St. but who understands lise in all its grades John of the Cross (two editions of which too well to look upon his strivings and his have lately appeared in England), and of "fall,” as Don Luis at first esteems it, certain other works, magnificent as litera- with other than a good-humored smile, all ture as well as for burning psychological is upon one easy ascending plane and has insight, the study of true psychology, vul- an intelligible unity. Valera has taken no garly called “mysticism” and “transcen- less care with and interest in the subordi. dentalism” (what good thing is not nate characters than the principals in the "mystic" and "transcendental ” to the story. They are all true and vivid and modern "scientist” and his pupils ?), unique in their several ways, and we have shows signs of revival in Europe generally the most complete picture of a very for.
A most important consequence of the eign world without the slightest drawback human character of Spanish faith, a char- of strangeness or want of verisimilitude. acter manifest alike in the religious philosophy of the times of Calderon and of those of Juan Valera, is the utter absence of the deadly Manicheism which is the source of modern “nicety” in that portion
From The Spectator, of literature and art which does not pro
LORD SHERBROOKE, fess, like French, and, in great part, Amer- LORD SHERBROOKE's death recalls one ican literature and art, to have abandoned of the most brilliant episodes in our Parliaall faith and real decency. Calderon, in mentary history. He had the courage to works which glitter with an incomparable take up the cause of Conservatism when purity, is more plain-spoken, when need the late Lord Derby and Mr. Disraeli were be, than Shakespeare, and constantly ex- preparing the way for that desertion of it alts the splendor of that purity in his main which a year later they accomplished. It theme by a by-play of inferior characters would have been wiser, perbaps, if Mr. which is as gay and “coarse” as anything Lowe had given his support to the very in “Othello “Romeo and Juliet; ," moderate reform which Lord Russell's and though Juan Valera in this novel con-government proposed, on the principle forms in the main to the daintiness of the that a concession frankly given at an early fashion, there is a freedom in his story date, often averts a much more dangerous from the cant of Manichean purity which concession a few months later, and also will certainly limit the number of his read- educates the people gradually for the use ers among ourselves, and probably give of larger powers. But Mr. Lowe was a some scandal to the most “serious "among believer in the principle of obsta principiis. those – the immense majority of our coun- He never anticipated that the true danger trymen and women who do not really of revolution could proceed from the Tory believe that God made all things pure, party and not from the Liberals, and and that impurity is nothing but the abuse supposed that in contesting the field with of that which is pure, and that such abuse Mr. Gladstone, he was face to face with is impure in proportion to the purity per. the only dangerous foe. Circumstances verted.
proved that he was quite mistaken. Prob. In consequence of the characteristics I ably his insight into individual character have endeavored to indicate, this novel, was not nearly as keen as his insight into though expressly "religious" in its main the meaning of democracy. But so far as theme and most of its details, is as “natu- the dangerous side of democracy was conral,” concrete, and wholesomely human cerned – he never seems to have contem:
plated its better aspects — his insight was whom the English Parliament has ever certainly very keen indeed. He was a been able to boast. The vibration of his courageous, cold, and remorseless critic voice, which always reminded one of the of its short-sightedness and rashness. stroke of a tongue of glass on a glassy Those who heard some of his great surface, as he pushed his pungent quesspeeches can recall even now the cold, tions as to the nature of the abstract rights metallic ring of those keen sarcasms on for which the reformers pleaded – whethuninstructed enthusiasm which deserved er, for instance, they would not equally more attention, though they attracted much have justified the concession of a Parlia. less, than his more celebrated thrusts at ment to the beasts, such as is described the igoorance, venality, and intemperance in “Reineke Fuchs - or how far these of the class whom it was proposed to en- abstract rights would go, and whether, if franchise. Mr. Lowe never showed the the fileas had but been unanimous, they searching character of his rather depre- would not have been in their strict right ciating intelligence more vividly than when in pushing Curran out of the bed, he attacked, not the corruption and selfish- struck his audience as representing the ness, but, on the contrary, the intellectual ne plus ultra of human contempt. We sensibilities and eager heats and ardors call his scorn, scorn of a physical species, of the half-educated classes. “It is not because he always asked, as he asked in the educated and reflective,” he said, “ who the Education Department, for “payment are influenced by ideas, but the half-edu. by results;" and the results for which cated and the unreflective; and if you alone he was inclined to pay, were results show to the ignorant and poor and half- that could be weighed and measured, and educated, wrong, injustice, and wickedness which were not to be estimated in any anywhere, their generous instincts rise appreciable degree by general moral and within them, and nothing is easier than to intellectual impressions. In the same get up a cry for the redress of those griev- year in which he made his great speeches
We feel the injustice, too; but against Reform, he attended an annual we look not merely at the injustice itself; dinner of the Association of Civil Engiwe look before and after at the collateral neers, and pronounced a great panegyric circumstances, at what must happen to on their characteristic works and achievetrade, revenue, and our own position in ments, on the ground that their profession the world; and we look also to what must does pay by striking and indeed gigantic happen to the very poor persons them- results, as compared with the results of selves, before we commit ourselves to a almost any other profession that could be decided course. Persons who have some named. “ The Civil Engineers," he said, thing to lose are less anxious to lose it“ were the heirs of all the ages, and the than they who have little at stake often, field of their investigation was boundless." even though these last may by the loss be " He hoped, if ever the day arrived when reduced to absolute poverty." That was the universities, rising to the true level the speech of a statesman who fully under which they should occupy, became really stood how potent is the power of ideas national establishments, the science of over minds which are quite incapable of engineering would be admitted to at least estimating the difficulty of embodying a perfect equality with every other branch these ideas adequately in practice. That of knowledge." Civil engineers might passage indicates a far keener insight into well be proud, he insisted, of their rail. the dangers of democracy than the cele- ways and electric telegraphs, “which en. brated denunciation of the working classes abled us to exchange thoughts in spite for venality, which Sir Algernon West has of those petty districts into which the recently been airing on behalf of the selfishness of mankind had divided the Gladstonian cause. Indeed, the support universe." It was something very differthat has been so frequently given by local ent from the selfishness of mankind, we English politicians to Irish Home Rule, think, which constituted nations and the is one of the best illustrations that could different species of national genius; but be found of the extreme danger which is it was characteristic of Lord Sherbrooke caused by these rashly generous sympa- that he thought little of the finer inward thies in untrained minds when they dis. tendencies and qualities which cement cern a fancied injustice without discerning nations, and much of the physical means the political peril of applying a superficial of communication which iend to the disremedy.
integration of nations, and of the deLord Sherbrooke was one of the greatest nationalizing influence of cosmopolitan masters of a physical species of scorn of intercourse. It was visible results which
impressed him, and a national genius is ever intended to draw. But he under. not visible, while a railway or a telegraph. stood some of the worst dangers of democwire is. Yet he did perhaps his best work racy as it was but too necessary that they at the Education Office; as chancellor of should be understood. If he had also the exchequer he was less successful, be understood its strength, and the solidity cause he gauged ill the strength of popu. it gives to popular institutions, he would lar feeling ; and as home secretary he have been the greatest of Mr. Gladstone's was least successful of all, probably be and Mr. Disraeli's contemporaries. But cause his peculiarities and his imperfect he had too much in him of the icy spirit appreciation of the individual characters of negation. of men rendered him unable to gauge the tendencies of public feeling, and to discern exactly how much he should say, and how far he should be reticent, in justifying the application of general principles to
From The Speaker,
ROBERT LOWE. particular cases. In the first organization of education, it was of the highest moment Of all the “extinct volcanoes to insist on results, and to show that these whom Mr. Disraeli once applied a stolen results could really be weighed and meas. simile, there was none more completely ured; but in the better understood and extinguished by the snows of age than the more fully developed departments con- man who will live in history as Robert versant with taxation and justice, what was Lowe. Of Viscount Sherbrooke the world rather needed was an insight into those knew little and cared less. People, infiner shades of public interest and public deed, were puzzled when they encountered sentiment into which his own peculiarities, the name in priot to realize the identity of and his somewhat unsympathetic nature, its owner. He had ceased to be a figure rendered it difficult for him to penetrate. on the stage. The last occasion on which He understood the value of a physical the present writer saw him was a couple basis better than that of an elaborate of years ago at a garden party at Dollis superstructure. Even in the Education Hill. Mr. Gladstone had invited his old Office, his rather cavalier use of the colleague to the gathering, and there he authority of the departmental chief excited was — a feeble, blind old man; moving an irritation which led the House of Com- about under the careful guidance of his mons to form a very unjust judgment on wife ; always muttering to himself; taking his official career. In all his official rela- no note of those around him; his mind, tiors he did himself less than justice. if not absolutely vacant, filled with dreams His imperfect sight, his unsympathetic and ancient memories. It was with a manner, and his strong disposition to let thrill of pity that one realized that this the ordinary rules take their course, with pathetic figure was all that remained of out the modifications needful to adapt Bob Lowe," once the terror of a party them to particular cases, gained him a and the idol of the House of Commons. reputation for harshness which he did not The morning papers have done justice to really deserve. It was the defect of his his great career, and have shown how the mind to attach too much importance to Times leader-writer became one of the the most visible and memorable elements foremost figures in the State. But they of knowledge, wealth, and legal justice. have failed to reveal the double secret of And that tendency was not in any degree his rise and his downfall. Only those checked by quick perceptions or sensitive who remember the House of Commons in sympathies. He used the disciplined in- 1866 and 1867 can really understand how tellect of a successful Oxford" tutor to it was that Mr. Lowe gained so great a make light of intellectual discipline, and place in public life. Never in this cen. to run down moral and spiritual as com- tury has Parliament listened to a series of pared with physical and economic achieve speeches which can compare in concepments; and this habit gained him a much trated force, in brilliancy of diction, in more cynical reputation than he really almost ferocious courage, with those deserved. His statesmanship, no doubt, which Mr. Lowe made in defence of the gave forth a materialistic ring, which was Adullamites. One sometimes wonders, especially unpopular in a day when the when men talk of Mr. Chamberlain's gifts recognition of the claims of “our own as a debater, whether the leader of the flesh and blood” was becoming more and Brummagem party ever heard Mr. Lowe more essential to political success. And at his best, and whether, if he did, he his sarcastic wit drew more blood than he could retain any belief in his owo powers. The Adullamites were the foreruoners of privilege he had defended so brilliantly. the Liberal Unionists. They represented All that he had accomplished was to oversociety and the classes. They were Lib- throw a ministry and to transfer the task erals in name alone. For the most part of carrying the great Reform Bill from the they were dull persons, of the mental hands of men who believed in it to those calibre of their nominal leader, the press of men who loathed it. ent Duke of Westminster. But they had But his personal success was not the two men of more than average capacity less marked becaus he had failed as among them — Mr. Horsman, the "supe- completely as Dame Partington in his rior person," and Mr. Lowe. The latter battle with the in-flowing sea. When the they held in some contempt. The gen- turn of the tide came in 1868 and Mr. eral belief of the dukes and their allies Gladstone found himself called to the was that he had eked out a precarious head of the State, everybody felt that Mr. livelihood in Australia by keeping a Lowe had earned a place among ministers, school, and that he now supported himself and so the ex-Adullamite became the Libby writing for the press - and in those eral chancellor of the exchequer. It was days so near and yet so far, the “news- at that time (December 6th, 1868) that he paper man
was held in abhorrence in the wrote these touching lines :House of Commons. Probably most of the Adullamites at the outset of their bat. Success is come — the thing that men desire;
The toil of office, and the care of State. tle against reform would have been better Ambition has naught left her to acquire. pleased if Mr. Lowe had not joined them. Success is come! But ah, it comes too But in the twinkling of an eye, as it were, late. he made himself their master and their chief. In those speeches in which he did Where is the bounding pulse of other days
That would have thrilled enchantment such fierce battle against the spirit of democracy he gave splendid expression The lips that would have loved to speak my
through my frame; to those sentiments which lay too deep for
praise, utterance in their own dumb breasts. He The hearts that would have kindled at my found them the brains they lacked ; he name? supplied the tongue which in their own case was paralyzed. And as they saw him Oh Vanity of Vanities! For Truth striking blow after blow in defence of
And Time dry up the source where joy was privilege and wrong and old-world abuses, Teach us we are but shadows of our youth,
rife, they cheered him with frantic enthusiasm,
And mock us with the emptiness of Life. and deluded themselves with the belief that at last one had been found to stay
When one reads these lines one realizes the advancing tide of democracy. a side of “ Bob Lowe's " character which
It was a wonderful spectacle, upon was certainly not conspicuous in the eyes which some of us must even now look of the world. As a minister he was the back with a thrill of emotion. Then, in- hardest, most matter-of-fact, and most deed, did the giants do battle before the unsympathetic person who ever sat upon eyes of the sons of men. Lowe, Glad- the Treasury bench. He delighted to rub stone, Disraeli, Bright, all threw them people — not antagonists only, but friends selves into the struggle with their whole and even colleagues -- the wrong way. hearts. When one recalls the great de. Most of us remember the blunt question bates of those days and contrasts them he put to the deputation of country bank. with the House of Commons which hasers, provincial notables every man of just died, one seems to have fallen upon them, when they had complained that they the age of the pygmies. But grand and positively could not live if some measure heroic as were the mental stature and in- of his were carried into effect: “And pray, tellectual equipment of Mr. Lowe, the why should you live?” All Mr. Glad. task to which he had committed himself stone's older colleagues can recall the was a hopeless one, and twelve months fight between Mr. Lowe and Mr. Baxter after he had heard the rafters of the which led to the resignation of the latter, House ring with the rapturous cheers of and which caused Mr. Lowe's removal Tories and Whigs as he boldly proclaimed from the chancellorship to the Home the unworthiness of his fellow-men to Office. A hundred stories might be told exercise the right of self-government, he of the offence which was given to people had the mortification of seeing those who of importance by the brusque cynicism had then applauded him engaged in tram- and downright brutality of the chancellor pliog down the very bulwarks of class of the exchequer. But even these char.