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of the time which a fashionable beau con- from that which was worn by his footmed, sumed in dressing himself for the day, whom he required to attend him in his nor of the numerous articles of which his progress through the streets clad in yellow attire was composed. That contrast of liveries, relieved by black sashes wound color between male and female apparel round their bodies, and black feathers which is now so conspicuous, then hardly waving in their hats. It should be menexisted; and rank, wealth, and pretension tioned that under the Restoration all were consequently distinguished only by classes of the community wore their hair costly and elaborate attire. This remark very long, allowing it to flow in natural must not be understood to apply to the ringlets around their shoulders; and so dandies and beaux who represented at widely did this fashion prevail, that in the successive periods the extremes and the year 1664 the ample periwig or peruke was eccentricities of fashionable costume. introduced into the country by the votaries Any indications of that neutral dress, dis- of fashion, from the court of Lewis XIV., similar neither as regards shape nor color, there being no English head of hair suffiwhich practically places noblemen on a ciently luxuriant. Samuel Pepys, a careful par with tradesmen, were entirely absent. observer of the contemporary fluctuations Modes of attire were in common vogue of fashionable attire, records in his which survive only in the court dress, in " Diary "that the Duke of York appeared the civic pageantry, in the bright coats in public wearing a periwig for the first worn by huntsmen, and in the gorgeous time on February 5, 1664, and that he behues of military uniforms. The pencils of held Charles wearing one for the first time the famous portrait painter, Sir Peter Lely, on the 18th day of April. Nearly about and of his successor, Sir Godfrey Kneller, the same time, too, the crowns of men's have preserved for us not a few represen- hats began to be lowered, and the fashion tations of the fashionable attire of the crept in of laying feathers upon their times in which they flourished, and abun brims. It cannot, however, be said that dant illustrations of it are afforded by the any very important changes in English contemporary literature. Thus Randal male attire were effected until fully six Holmes in his notes on dress, preserved years after the Restoration. In the year in the Harleian Library, and written about 1666, Charles was heard solemnly to anthe accession of Charles II., furnishes the nounce in council his firm determination following description of a fashionable to adopt a certain habit which he was gentleman's dress : “A short · waisted steadfastly resolved never to alter ; and doublet and petticoat breeches; the lining for the gratification of the curiosity of being lower than the breeches is tied above those who may be interested in the details the knees; the breeches are ornamented of antique attire, we may say that this with ribands up to the pocket, and half wonderful habit consisted of a long, close their breadth upon the thigh ; the waist- vest of black cloth or velvet, pinked with band is set about with ribands, and the white satin, over which was thrown a loose shirt hanging out over them.” The hat surcoat or tunic of an Oriental character, was worn with a high crown, and was and buskins or brodequins in place of the adorned with a plume of feathers. Long, time-honored shoes and stockings. Acdrooping lace ruffles depended from the cording to the diary of Evelyn, the king knee, and a rich falling collar of lace, with "solemnly” attired himself in his new a cloak hung carelessly over the shoulders. habit on the 18th day of October, and the High-heeled shoes tied with ribbons com- gossiping Pepys, who allowed little, if pleted the attire of the Restoration beau. indeed anything, to escape his notice, Of course, as may be supposed, all fine made, under date of the preceding day, gentlemen did not dress precisely alike. the following entry in his “ Diary:"The Some decorated their persons with an Court is all full of vests, only my Lord St. infinite amount of finery; others exercised Albans (Jermyn) not pinked, but plain more economy in this respect. Not every black; and they say the king says the fop of that age, for example, attired him- pinking or white makes them look too self in form and fashion like to Beau much like magpies, so hath bespoke one of Fielding - Handsome Fielding as he was plain velvet.” We are further told by styled by the Merry Monarch - the beau Evelyn that not a few of the courtiers and par excellence of his day. That individual, high-souled gentlemen about the English whenever he took his walks abroad, car: court presented their sovereign on that ried spoils on his person from all quarters occasion with gold, as a sort of wager that of the globe. Some idea of the sumptu. he would never adhere to his resolve of ousness of his own apparel can be formed wearing this peculiar costume. We cannot doubt that the Merry Monarch lost his served admirably to point the moral of the wager, since the fashion does not appear to political reformer or to adorn the tale of have been more than one of two years'dura- the mob demagogue, had such people then tion, its ruin, in all probability, having existed. Among the more astounding been accomplished by the insolence of items of this bill appears the following: the French king, Lewis XIV., and his “117 yards of scissæ temæ,' cut work for courtiers, who, to manifest the contempt trimming 12 pocket handkerchiefs, £485 that they entertained for “ his Majesty of 145. 3d. And 78 yards for 24 cravats at England,” clothed all their servants and £8 1os., £663.” The expenditure for six retainers in the very costume which his new lace razor cloths amounted to £270, capricious fancy had devised. But though and on twenty-four new indusiis nocturnis, the fashion was abandoned its influence in plain English, night-shirts, the sum of was considerable. In the vest probably £499 10s. was bestowed. King William's was contained the germ of the long square- consort, the handsome Mary of Modena, cut coat by which it was succeeded, and approached, but did not quite reach her in the tunic most likely was contained the husband, in lace expenditure, seeing that germ of the waistcoat, almost as long, in 1694 her lace bill attained the respect. which was worn under the coat, and almost able total of £1,918. It will not surprise entirely concealed the breeches. The any one to learn that lace had one of its sleeves of the coat extended no further sunniest epochs in the eyes of all from than the elbows, where they were turned the Restoration to the Revolution. From back and formed large cuffs, those of the the king to the plebeian all retained a shirt bulging forth from beneath, ruffled at deep-seated affection for it. These were the wrists and adorned profusely with rib: the days when all young military men wore bons. Both coat and waistcoat were, of lace, and prepared their cravats with far course, adorned with buttons and button- greater pains than the three Graces of holes from the collar dowowards to the classical antiquity ever bestowed upon the knee. The Restoration era, being essen- goddess Venus. Even the volunteers tially the age of “the dangling knee fringe deemed it incumbent upon them to go to and the bib cravat,” it was only natural the camp wearing a quantity of lace, and that the stiff band and the falling collar, very happily did the dramatist Thomas which had been worn under the tyranny of Shadwell satirize the folly in his comedy Puritan ascendency, should have given of “The Volunteers or the Stock Job. place to neckcloths or cravats of Brussels bers," as the following dialogue will serve or Flanders lace tied with ribbons beneath to illustrate : “ Major General Blunt. the chin, and with the ends hanging down What say'st, young fellow ? points and square. In this age of Puritan sobriety laces for camps? Sir Nicholas Danby. – in dress, it is difficult to comprehend the Yes, points and laces. Why, I carry two mania which seized the breasts of fine laundresses on purpose. Would you have gentlemen of the Caroline age for lace. a gentleman go undress’d in a camp? Do We find Pepys in 1662 putting on his you think I would see a camp if there "new lace band,” and recording in his were no dressing? Why, I have two “ Diary” his complete satisfaction with campaign suits, one trimmed with Flanhis appearance in it. “So neat it is," ders lace and the other with net point.” * wrote be," that I am resolved my great Our readers would be very greatly misexpenses shall be lace bands, and it will taken were they to conclude that female set off anything else the more !”* Charles attire under the Restoration was any the II., in the last year of his reign, actually less sumptuous, any the less gaudy, or expended £20 125. for a new cravat to any the less costly than that which was be "worn on the birthday of his dear ordinarily worn by the opposite sex. The brother;" and James II. expended almost very reverse was the case.
A great as much as £30 upon a cravat of Venice change was effected during the reign of point lace in which to appear on the anni. Charles II. in the female costume of Enversary of the birthday of his consort. gland, but it was one that was confined King William Ill., notwithstanding his almost exclusively to that which was woro iron, phlegmatic constitution, entertained by the upper classes of society. As bea genuine Dutch taste for lace, so much fore, the middle and lower classes, the so, indeed, that his bills for that article in wives of the citizens, and those who would 1695 amounted to the modest sum of have been denominated countrywomen, £2,459 195., a fad which would have adhered tenaciously to the wearing of high
• Diary, i., p. 171.
• Shadwell's Works, ed. 1730.
crowned hats, of French hoods, of laced Braganza and her ladies, the Portuguese stomachers, and of yellow starched neck- not having yet laid aside those curious erchiefs. Very little traces of innovation offsprings of fashionable taste. Evelyn were apparent before the Revolution ; and does not forget to mention and describe then only such as were of minor impor- “ her Majesty's foretop," as long and tance. Where the mutations of women's turned aside very strangely. Vizards, attire were most visible while Charles according to Pepys, came into fashion in occupied the throne, was in that of the 1663, the journalist purchasing one for his beauties who thronged the halls of his wife in that year. So great was Pepys's palace at Whitehall. No unpleasant re- sense of the importance of fine clothes, that minders of the heyday of Puritanical aus- it led him to take note of those which were terity were suffered to intrude themselves worn not only by himself, but by almost within the walls of that princely abode. every well-dressed person with whom he No external insignia of saintly profession, came into contact, particularly the ladies. of real godliness, of high degrees of spir- Thus, for instance, he gives a very graphic itual advancement, could there dare to lift description, under the date of July 13, up their heads. Nothing in the matter of 1663, of the personal appearance of the attire was countenanced at court or in queen and some of the court ladies while polite society that was not untainted with riding in Hyde Park. " By and by," he Puritanism.' We see this reflected in a writes, “the king and the queen, who remarkable degree in the contemporary looked in this dress (a white.laced waistliterature, particularly the veracious dia- coat and a crimson short petticoat, and her ries of Pepys and Evelyn, who appear to hair dressed a la negligence) mighty pretty, have paid special attention to the costume and the king rode hand in hand with her. worn by those with whom they were Here was also my Lady Castlemaine who thrown into contact. Symptoms of the rode amongst the rest of the ladies ; she coming change began openly to manifest looked mighty out of humor, and had a themselves six years before the downfall yellow plume in her hat (which all took of the Commonwealth. “I now observed,” notice of), and yet it is very handsome. wrote Evelyn in his “ Diary,” under date ... I followed them up into Whitehall of May 11, 1654, "how the women began and into the queen's presence, where all to paint themselves, formerly a most igno- the ladies walked, talking and fiddling minious thing." In 1660 Pepys mentions with their hats and feathers, and changing that he saw the Princess Henrietta (sister and trying one another's by one another's of Charles II.) “with her hair frizzed up heads and laughing. . . . But, above all, to her ears ; "and almost coeval with the Mrs. Stewart in her dress, with her hai revival of this fashion was the introduc- cocked and a red plume, with her sweet tion by ladies of the practice of wearing eye, little Roman nose, and excellent black patches, since Mrs. Pepys was able taille, is now the greatest beauty I ever to wear one “by permission,” on Noven- saw, I think, in my life." * Pepys also ber 4, 1660. It would seem as if it was mentions that silver-laced gowns were a by the ladies that peruques were first worn, revived fashion in 1664, and speaks of seeing that under date of March 24, 1662, yellow bird's-eye hoods as being in vogue, Pepys records that “ By and by came La under the date of May 10, 1665. From Belle Pierce to see my wife and to bring another passage in Pepys's “ Diary” we her a pair of peruques of hair as the fash- gather that the ladies' riding habits reion now is for ladies to wear, which are sembled very closely those of the dandies. pretty, and one of my wife's own hair, or “Walking in the galleries at Whitehall,” else I should not endure them." * In the writes Pepys, under date of June 11, 1666, month of April following we find Pepys " I find the ladies of honor dressed in mentioning " petticoats of sarcepet with a their riding garbs, with coats and doublets broad black lace printed round the bottom with deep skirts, just for all the world like and before," as having newly come into men, and buttoned their doublets up the fashion, and as being one that had found breast, with periwigs and with hats. So favor in the eyes of his spouse. On May that, only for a long petticoat dragging 30 in the same year, the English court under their men's coats, nobody could was electrified by the sight of the mon- take them for women in any point whatstrous fardiogales or guard infantas of ever, which was an odd sight and a sight the newly arrived Queen Catherine of that did not please me. It was Mrs. Wells
and another fine lady that I saw thus." • Pepys's Diary, ed. Lord Braybrooke, 1848, i,. p.
• Diary, ii., p. 1946
Evelyn, moreover, mentions, under the tempt to fasten his cravat, as long again date of September 13, 1666, that “the in the endeavor to adjust his wig and to queen was now in her cavalier riding. " cock” his hat, as long again in the coo. habit, hat, and feather, and horseman's templation of his charms in the lookingcoat, going to take the air.". Three years glass, and as long again in the practice of later, the sac or sacque had won its way such smiles as would display to the best into womanly favor. My wife this day," advantage the ivory whiteness of his teeth writes Pepys, under date of March 2, these were the processes through which 1669, "put on first her French gown, he who desired to figure as a beau of the called a sac, which becomes her very first magnitude was compelled in that age well.”
to pass. The character of the beau, so It would extend this article beyond all far as his outward and personal appearance reasonable limits were we to dilate further was concerned, was now complete; and upon the tempting theme of English attire as in those days fashionable gentlemen under the Restoration. We trust, there used their legs to a much less extent than fore, that we have said enough concerning they do now, our imaginary beau would it to enable the reader to form an idea of have directed his valet to order a sedan its forms and fashion, and we now hasten chair without delay. Into this he stepped, on to consider that subject with which our and was borne to the most fashionable remarks are more immediately connected, haunt— to the Mall in St. James's Park, the life of the capital under the sway of or perhaps to the more ceremonious pa“The Merry Monarch.”
rade in Hyde Park, where, like a butterfly, The man of fashion and pleasure in the he delighted to flutter in the train of some reign of Charles II. monopolized every- frail and jilting beauty, who gloried in body's attention, and it is therefore of the nothing so much as “an equipage of fools," man of fashion and pleasure that we wish and who was perfectly willing for the first to speak. The daily routine of his ponce to furnish him with an excuse for life from the time he rose until the time toasting her in a tavern at night. Anon he retired to rest again, embraced, as in a he might have been found twittering in microcosm, all the amusements and all the the boudoir of some favorite nymph (the resources of the London of the second amusing part of it was that in that age half of the seventeenth century. He who every woman was a nymph, both on canfollows his footsteps through the day may vas and upon paper, decked out in pasbehold the sights of the town, may ob- toral embellishments of every conceive serve the manners and customs of the able incongruity in the matter of poetical people, and may even be admitted to their treatment !) and there the rest of the familiar conversation. The history of an morning was generally dawdled away or ordinary day of a Restoration beau was worn out, just as it suited the humor of something like this: From about ten till the company, with cards, forfeits, games twelve he received visitors in his sleeping- at toys, or puzzles, or with songs and chamber, where he lay in state with his dancing to the harp, virginal, and all kinds periwig thickly powdered lying beside of music. We ought to remember that him on the coverlet. Near at hand, on during the whole of this time the gardens his dressing-table, the curious visitor and other places of public resort in which might have noticed some little volumes of the capital abounded were alive and astir amatory verse, a canister of Lisbon or with people of every rank and every conSpanish souff, a smelling-bottle, and per- dition that the Paradise in Hatton Gar. baps a few fashionable trinkets. As soon den was attracting hundreds of people to as he deemed proper, the beau arose, and gaze upon its wonders and curiosities in with incredible difficulty proceeded to put geology - and that the wives and daugh: on all his charms. To perfume his gar- ters of the citizens, arrayed in silk and ments — to soak his hands in washes for satin raiment, displaying all the colors of the sake of producing, whiteness and del- the rainbow, were crowding the walks of icacy to tinge his cheeks with carmina. Gray's lon, osteosibly for the purpose of tive in order to give them that gentle blush inhaling the odorous breezes that blew which nature had denied them – to ar- from the distant hills of Highgate and range a number of patches upon his face Hampstead, but reaily to take a sly glance so as to produce the effect of moles and at the men of law who, in the brief interdimples — to dip his pocket-handkerchief vals afforded them by their professional in rose water and to powder his linen so duties, walked out in order to obtain a as to banish from it the smell of soap-breath of fresh air. To the wearisome to consume a quarter of an hour in the at. relaxations of the promenade and the
boudoir succeeded the dinner time. Pub- | To see and to be seen to renew the