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emphatically. We have also seen that deed, to botanists and oculists, palæog. “Talent does what it can.” For this raphers and lepidopterists, because these reason, culture is most important to men men devote their faculties to very strongly of talent. It enables them to know what demarcated fields of study. But, if we they can do; brings forth their latent ca- regard the problem from the point of view pacities ; leads them to choose painting of personality, the specialist is one who or sculpture, pure literature or philosophy, applies the whole of his energies to the according to their innate bias. It also single task for which he is specially qualicompensates that bias by giving them a fied. I mean it is no less a speciality in general sympathy with things outside their philosophers like Hegel, Comte, and Her. speciality. In this respect it is of value bert Spencer, to attempt the co-ordination. also for men of genius, whose bias in one of all human knowledge in one system, particular direction reaches the maximum. than it is a speciality in men like EhrenSpecialists, unless they be creative gen- berg and Edison to concentrate their iuses of the most marked type, require attention upon infusoria and electricity. to be armed by culture against narrow. Both types of individuals, those who strive mindedness and the conceit of thinking to embrace the whole, and those who delve that their own concerns are all-important. into a portion, stand in the same need of A man of moderate ability who cannot see culture. I am speaking of culture now beyond the world of beetles, beyond the under its moral aspect, as teaching us to

t painter's studio, beyond the church or measure any man's littleness against the chapel, beyond the concert-room, beyond vastness of the whole. Auguste Comte, the grammar of an extinct language, or to take an example of one sort, was defisome one period of history, is apt to be cient in the spirit of real culture, because intolerable. Culture teaches him his he thought he could reconstitute religion modest place in the whole scheme. Culo on a fanciful basis. Darwin was not defiture is, therefore, absolutely essential to cient in this spirit of real culture, because the mental well-being of persons confined he published his epoch-making theory as by their craft or profession to a narrow a simple hypothesis, restraining himself range of intellectual interests. I am, of to rigorous inductions, and to limited decourse, not alluding here to handicrafts- ductions within a certain sphere of knowl. men and honest laborers, who do the work edge.

No one

more aware than required of them without self.conceit, and Darwin that he had made a serious contriserve the immediate needs of society with bution to his own branch of science. But out being aware of their own inestimable no one was more conscious of the immense value. But to return to the intellectual dark sphere of inscrutabilities surrounding specialist. It is fortunate for him that the the litile spark of light he had evoked. downright examination of any branch of I must repeat that culture is not an end knowledge, the conscientious practice of in itself. It prepares a man for life, for any fine art, directs a man of ordinary work, for action, for the reception and talent on the path of real culture. This is emission of ideas. Life itself is larger due to the inter-co. "ection of all depart-than literature, than art, than science. ments in the schem of modern thought. Life does not exist for them, but they for Humapists and scientists have been en-life. This does not imply that it is better gaged together for nearly five centuries in to be a man of no culture than a man of weaving a magic robe, warp and woof culture. The man of culture is obviously combined into one fabric, which gradually, capable of living to more purpose, of through their accumulated industry, ap- getting a larger amount out of life, than

+ proximates to something like an organic the man of no culture. He can also judge tissue. The hope of the future is that more fairly in all cases of comparative any exact investigation of one part will criticism. Still, I am unable to perceive imply an adequate acquaintance with the that the refinements of the intellect on any whole. An able man, therefore, who has line of its development involve an ennomade himself an accomplished specialist, bling or a strengthening of the human will even now be found to have in him the being. Given individuals of equal cali. spirit of true culture. That is to say, he bre, as many wise men may be found will regard his own subject as one prov- among the artisans and peasants as among ince of a vast, perhaps an illimitable, reputed savants. Household proverbs empire.

are not unfrequently a safer guide to conIn a certain sense all people who have duct than the aphorisms of professors. developed their own nature io the utmost we all of us probably have known flawless are specialists. We give the name, in-characters, men, as the Greeks said,

was

“ four.cornered without defect," who have | What is this you bring ? not enjoyed the privileges of education. Is it not something that has been better told The life of no great nation lies either in

or done before ? humanism or science. The arts and liter. Have you not imported this, or the spirit of ature of Italy in the sixteenth century did Is it not'a mere tale ? a rhyme ? a prettiness?

it, in some ship? not make her powerful or virtuous. The so-called progress to which she is now And again : sacrificing the monuments of her past, a progress dominated by scientific notions, Rhymes and rhymers pass away, poems dishas substituted ugliness and vulgarity for

tilled from poems pass away; beauty and distinction, without adding an

The swarms of reflectors and the polite pass, jota to her strength or general intelligence. Admirers, importers, obedient persons, make

and leave ashes; We ought not to despise culture. The

but the soil of literature. object of this article is to demonstrate its value. But the nearer a man has come to the pith of his contention lies in the folpossessing it, the less will he over-esti- lowing admonition, which breathes the mate acquirements or accumulations of spirit of an antique Spartan or Roman: knowledge, the more importance will he "Fear grace, elegance, civilization, deliattach to character, to personality, to en-catesse.' Shun the atmosphere which ergy, to independence.

enfeebles, the learning which encumbers, At this point it may be useful to glance the customs and traditions which trammel at the polemic which'Walt Whitman, the independence. Prophetic utterances of prophet-poet of democracy, used to carry this sort are apt to be exaggerated. It is on against culture. His arguments, to a good, however, that cultured people should large extent, miss their mark, because be told not to let culture draft them into they are directed against the vulgar con cliques and coteries, separate them from ception of culture, as an imitative smat- the people, blunt them to the main thoughttering, a self-assertiveness of so-called currents and vital interests of their age. cultivated people. He has ignored the No great and spontaneous growihs of higher significance which may be given to art have arisen in an age of erudition and the word, and which I have sought to assimilation. The Greek drama, the bring forth. Yet much that he said is Gothic style of architecture, the romantic worthy of attention. He endeavored to drama of Elizabethan England, were prodenforce the truth that a great and puissant ucts not of cultivated taste, but of instincnation does not live by sensibility and tive genius. There is profound truth in knowledge, but by the formation of char- ! what Herder taught to the young Goethe, acter, by the development of personal i thai really great poetry has always been energy. “What is our boasted culture?" the product of a national spirit, and not he asks. Do you term that perpetual, the product of studies confined to a select pistareen, paste-pot work American art, few. American drama, taste, etc.?Culture is No one feels this more than one who, good in its way; but it is not what forms like myself, has devoted a large portion of a manly personality, a sound and simple his life to the history of that period which faith. “As now taught, accepted, and developed modern culture. I mean the carried out, are not the processes of cul- Italian Renaissance. Humanism inflicted ture rapidly creating a class of supercil- an irreparable damage on the national litious infidels, who believe in nothing ?”erature of Italy. It impeded the evolution “Shall a man lose himself in countless of the mother tongue by the preference masses of adjustments, and be so shaped given to composition in dead languages. with reference to this, that, and the other It caused an abrupt division between the that the simply good and healthy and learned classes and the people. When brave parts of him are reduced and men of genius began again to use Italian chipped away, like the bordering of box for great works of art, they found themin a garden ?" The only culture which is selves hampered in two ways. They were of service to a nation must aim less at ciogged with classical reminiscences and polish than at the bracing of character. precedents. They were separated from “It must have for its spinal meaning the popular sympathy and deprived of popular formation of typical personality of charac- support. The masterpieces of their predter, eligible to the uses of the high ecessors, Petrarch and Boccaccio, had be. average of men, and not restricted by come classics, and were slavishly imitated. conditions ineligible to the masses.' To It was not in the lyric or the drama, but the man of letters he exclaims :

in the plastic arts, that the national genius of the Italians expressed itself during the carve cherry-stones, dance ballets, turn fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

rondeaux, are as much needed as those Germany presents a parallel instance. who till the soil, lead Cabinets, or fabricate It is in music that the modern Germans new theories of the universe. True cul. have displayed their national originality. ture respects hand-labor upon equal terms Yet the Germans have been the most with brain-labor, the mechanic with the thoroughly cultivated of the European na. inventor of machinery, the critic of poetry tions during the last century and a half. with the singer of poems, the actor with That is to say, they have worked at both the playwright. The world wants all sorts, branches of culture, humanism and sci- and wants each sort to be of the best ence, with the greatest diligence, and have quality. True culture knows that the applied both to literary studies with the quality cannot be first-rate when the spemost philosophical breadth of intelligence. cies is looked down upon. On the other It cannot be said, however, that the cre- hand, false culture, the kind against which ative literature of this cultured race, in Walt Whitman prophesies, encourages poetry, oratory, the drama, and the novel, the growth of prigs who despise folk be. taken as a whole, has been of the highest cause they do not pursue some branch of order. It is true that their representative industry which is conventionally regarded man of genius, the Olympian Goethe, was as being higher in the scale than others. essentially a poet of culture; and he shows li makes Pharisees, who feel themselves to what altitudes the cultivated intellect superior to their neighbors, because these may climb, wher it resides in a noble and people do not belong to their own set, exceptionally gifted personality. Goethe their own coterie, their own creed, and so towers so markedly superior to all the forth. other poets of culture upon German soil, The liberality and width of toleration that his example tests the rule,

upon which I am insisting as signs of true Some of these sayings may sound hard culture do not imply a facile acquiescence in an age and country where culture ap- in every doctrine or in every mode of liv. pears to have superseded originality. ing. True culture does not prevent a man They seem especially intended to discour- from being pugnacious, ready to fight for age those of us who are doomed by the his opinions, eager to conquer in what he limitations of our nature to be critics, men regards as the right cause. In the uniof learning, taste, assimilation. We must versal symphony strife is no less important comfort ourselves by reflecting that it is than concord. Fully developed personalimpossible to transcend the conditions of ities cannot co-exist and energize together the times we live in, or the limits of our without clash and conflict. Innovation personality.

works with conservatism, powers of revoSociety would reach something like per- lution and of progress combine with stafection if each individual succeeded in tionary or retrogressive forces, to keep self-effectuation, fulfilling the law of his the organism in a state of active energy. own nature, and being distinguished from As Empedocles put it, both love and hate his neighbors by some marked quality, are necessary to the balance of the cosmic some special accomplishment. The con sphere. Culture prepares us to acquiesce cord of divers instruments constitutes the in this state of things as part of the unimusic of a symphony. The blending of versal order. While recognizing our own distinct personalities creates the finest right and duty to struggle for the truth as mental and moral harmony. To some ex. we perceive it, we ackuowledge the same tent, of course, this result is attained right and the same duty in our opponents. wherever human beings are associated. For some reason hidden from our mortal But we suffer too much from the tyranny ken the world was meant to be so gov. of majorities, the oppression of custom, erned. Phenomenal existence is in a the gregarious instincts of commonplace perpetual state of becoming; becoming and timid persons. As I have already implies cohesion and dissolution; both tried to demonstrate, true culture tends to processes involve contention. All the the differentiation of individualities, by soldiers in all the armies, if they act with enabling people to find out what they are energy, sincerity, disinterested loyalty, made for, what they can do best, what serve one lord and master. their deepest self requires for its accom- There is, therefore, no reason to fear plishment. True culture is never in a that the higher culture should involve men condescending attitude. It knows that no in supercilious indifference, or cynical ackind of work, however trivial, ought to be ceptance, or the Buddhistic inertia of conregarded with contempt. People who templation.

From Temple Bar. In these early days of railways when THE FIRST AND LAST DAYS OF THE trains were few and ran at long intervals, BROAD GAUGE.

and the telegraph had not come into use, “The spirit of the time sball teach me speed." great risks were run through want ot

King John iv. 2. knowiedge of the position of the trains. I.

To give at random two instances of this: It was on the 9th of January, 1838, that The philosopher Babbage in his life the first broad gauge engine, ihe Vulcan, records on one occasion on a Sunday, the made its trial trip in England.

only day available for experiments, that At that time only seven or eight miles he arrived at the terminus a few minutes of the Great Western Railway were avail. before the time appointed, and was told able even for experimental purposes; by the official placed at his disposal that these lay between West Drayton and the he was to travel on the north line [i.e., the “dog-kennel bridge” near Taplow. Yet up one). so rapid was the progress made in the construction of the two chief arteries of tions I inquired very minutely into the au

As this was an invasion of the usual regulatraffic, that despite the novelty of the work, thority upon which it rested. Being satisfied the absence of engineering data or preces on this point, I desired him to order out my dents, the abrupt demand for iron when train immediately. He returned with the rolling -mills were scarce, and legal and news that the fireman had neglected his duty, Parliamentary hindrances, in five years but that the engine would be ready in less the London and Birmingham Railway was than a quarter of an hour. The officer took built, and in four the Great Western from pains to assure me that there was no danger London to Bristol. The construction of on whichever line we might travel, as there the principal canals in Great Britain occu. line until five o'clock in the evening. A mes

could be no engine except our own on either pied half a century, but the principal rail- senger arrived soon after to inform me that ways (except the Great Northern) were the obstructions had been removed, and that constructed in less than ten years.

I could now pass upon the south which was The first engines for the new line were the proper line. delivered by canal or river, at West Dray- While we were conversing together, my ton or Maidenhead respectively, and on the ear, which had become peculiarly sensitive to 4th of June, 1838, the railway was opened the distant sound of an engine, told me that from the temporary station near Bishop's

one was approaching. I mentioned it to the Road, Paddington, to Maidenhead.* railway official — he did not hear it, and said:

Sir, it is impossible.” " Whether possible The first broad gauge engines were ten. tative in character and had very large and in a few minutes we shall see its steam.

or impossible," I said, an engine is coming; wheels, from eight to ten feet in diameter, The sound soon became evident to both, and but with small cylinders and insufficient our eyes were anxiously directed to the exboiler power. One or two of the early pected quarter. The white cloud of steam broad gauge locomotives were still more now faintly appeared in the distance; I soon ambitious, and by means of toothed gear- perceived the line it occupied, and then turned ing the size of the driving wheels were

to watch my companion's countenance. In a made equal to twelve and even eighteen and he said : " It is indeed on the north line.”

few minutes more I saw it slightly change, feet.t As might be imagined, these engines were a constant source of anxiety, house, I ran as fast as I could to that spot.

Knowing that it would stop at the engine and they frequently had to be repaired I found a single engine, from which Brunel, during the night to be in readiness for the covered with smoke and blacks, had just denext day's work. A few months later, scended. We shook hands, and I inquired Mr. Gooch, the locomotive engineer of what brought my friend here in such a plight. the line, was asked to prepare specifica Brunel told me that he had posted from Bris. tions for a more powerful and simpler tol to meet the only train at the furthest point class of engine; and early in 1840 the of the rail then open, but had missed it. Firefly class came into use and ran at “Fortunately,” he said, “I found this engine a speed of sixty miles an hour with a driven it the whole way up at the rate of fifty

with its fire up, so I ordered it out, and have heavy train attached.

miles an hour."

I then told him that but for the merest acci. • When the railway was first opened as far as dent of a delay I should have met him on the Maidenhead, the celebrated Bath passenger coach, ihe Beaufort Hunt, used to travel up and down from same line at the rate of forty miles, and that Maidenhead to London on a truck.

I had attached to my engine my experimental 1 In Mr. Ackworth's interesting volume on the carriage, and three wagons with thirty tons of “Railways of England," some description of the Hur. ricane and Thunderer, two of these locomotives of iron. I inquired what course he would have exceptional build, will be found on pages 253-4.

pursued if he had perceived another engine

66

meeting him upon his own line? Brunel said gine, and ran back out of its way as quickly in such a case he should have put on all the as I could. What would be saic. of such a steam he could command, with a view to mode of proceeding now? driving off the opposite engine by the superior velocity of his own.

And the speeds run in those days were

not to be lost sight of. In previous numIncidentally, the extract above is an in-bers of Temple Bar* some instances have dication of the great changes which have been given of these, and we find from the taken place in the outskirts of London. work just quoted from † that on the 19th It would be difficult now to hear or see an July, 1843, a train with the prince consort engine at any similar distance from a

came up from Bristol to London in two London terminus.

hours and four minutes (one hundred and The second illustration is given in the eighteen miles). recently published selection from the diaries of Sir Daniel Gooch * (p. 49), and I was in a compartment [says Babbage) in has reference to the summer of 1841.

conversation with three eminent engineers

when one of them remarked the unusual speed Only one line of rails through the Box Tun of the train ; my neighbor on my left took out nel was complete on the first days open,t and his watch and noted the time of passage of the trains had therefore to be worked through the distance posts, whence it appeared that it on a single line. I undertook to accompany we were then travelling at the rate of seventyall the trains through the tunnel, and did so eight miles an hour. the first day and night, also the second day, intending to be relieved when the Mail came Sir Thomas Acland on one occasion down on the second night. At about eleven left Exeter at 5.20 P.M. and was speaking o'clock that night, we had a very narrow in the House of Commons a little after escape from a fearful accident. I was going ten the same evening, through the tunnel with the last up-train, when I fancied I saw some green lights placed as broad gauge (and the Great Western was

Great as the speeds then were on the they were in front of our trains. A reflection convinced me that it was the Mail the pioneer of fast travelling, and its Excoming down. I lost no time in reversing the eter Express of 1845 was far in advance engine I was on, and running back to Box of that on any other line, and only a quarStation with my train as quickly as I ould, ter of an hour slower than that of to-day), when the Mail came down behind me. The further improvements were still to be policeman at the top of the tunnel had made made, and in 1846 engines of the Lord some blunder, and sent on the train when it of the Isles and Great Britain class were arrived there. Had the tunnel not been introduced, which have never been ex: pretty clear of steam we must have met in full celled, unless by the still more colossal career, and the smash would have been fearful, cutting short my career also I

engines in use for a time on the Bristol

and Exeter Railway. It is unfortunate that Sir Daniel Gooch's These magnificent engines (which were diaries appear only in an abridged form, originally built with an iron sentry box at as they would otherwise throw a most in the end of the tender for a third man on teresting light upon the early days of a the lookout) continued in use until a few new epoch in which he took a more con weeks ago. A pair of these locomotives spicuous part behind the scenes than is should be mounted, under cover, one at generally known, having from the modesty each end of the Paddington platform (on of his disposition kept in the background. a marble pedestal and protected by low Writing in 1838-9, Sir Daniel says: railings) as a record of the past greatness

of the line. When I look back upon that time it is a

For power, speed, or safety, marvel to me that we escaped serious acci. they have never been approached, and a dents! It was no uncommon thing to take striking instance of this was shown by an engine out on the line to look for a late the behavior of the Prometheus at West train that was expected, and many times have Drayton in 1874, through which many I seen the train coming and reversed the en- lives were spared.

Though impossible to improve upon • London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. these engines during the succeeding half

† " Box Tunnel,” says Sir Daniel Gooch, "had a century, great changes took place in other very pretty effect for the couple of days

1892.

, it was worked railway matters. as a single line from the number of candles used by the men working on the unfinished line ; it was a perfect illumination extending through the whole tundei nearly • Temple Bar for January, 1884, and September, two miles long."

1885. Brunel's caustic letter to an eminent geologist in † Diaries of Sir Daniel Gooch, p. 52. 1842 on the subject of this tunnel will be remembered This was before the Great Western suffered from by many readers of his life.

the incubus of the Swindon Refreshment Rooms. 4095

LIVING AGE.

VOL, LXXIX.

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