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the will she made in his favor, get it de. so many people happy, and cover up the stroyed at once or he may give us no end past with all the good that love would of trouble yet. She has virtually given surely put it into their hearts to do. "It me instructions for a new one. I told her would be too much to bear,” she said to I would come in a day or two, but I think herself; "it is too much to think of yet it would be safer to come to-morrow. It I will go back to my dear old lady, and will have to be rather late in the day, I am comfort her.” afraid, but I can sleep at the inn. In the Aunt An was much better for her mean time get the other will destroyed. interview with Mr. Boughton. The exWhy, bless me! if she died to-night it citement had done her good, and some of might make an awful scandal ; I would her little consequential ways had returned not have it happen for all I am worth." with the knowledge of her wealth.
Mr. Boughton departed; and the doctor “I am glad to see you, my love," she came, and gave so bad a report that Mrs. said to Mrs. North; " I have many things North sent off yet another telegram to to discuss with you if you will permit me Walter and Florence — this time to Lon. to encroach on your good-nature. Would don - asking them not to waste a moment you mind sitting down on the footstool on their arrival, but to come straight to again beside me, as you did yesterday?" Witley. And then the second post brought The maid had lifted her on to the oldher the morning's letters which had been fashioned sofa at the foot of the bed. sent on. Among them was one with the She was propped up with pillows, and Naples post-mark, which she tore open looked so well and comfortable it seemed with feverish haste and could scarcely almost possible that she might live. read for tears of joy.
“I will," Mrs. North answered, still “ I could not write before," it said. “I overcome with her own thoughts — “I am detained here by a friend's illness; will sit at your feet, and receive your royal but now that I am thus far I send you just commands. But first permit me to say a line to say I shall be with you soon, that you are looking irresistible - my lavand I shall never leave you again. I hate ender ribbons give you a most ravishing to think it all. The fault was mine, and appearance." the suffering has been yours. But I love * You are in excellent spirits,” Aunt you, and only live to make you repara- Anne said, with a pleased smile ; "and so tion."
am I," she added. “It has done me a It is too much happiness to bear," she world of good to hear that William Ram. said, with a sob. “It is all I wanted that mage's iniquitous intentions have been he should love me -I must write this frustrated.” minute, or he will wonder” — and she “ I trust he is aware of it,” Mrs. North got out her blotting-case, just as she did answered, “and that his soul is delightat the hotel at Marseille — it seemed as if fully vexed by the enterprising Satan. that scene had been a suggestion of this — “My love," said the old lady with a and, kneeling down by the table, wrote: - shocked wink, “you hardly understand “ I am here with Mrs. Baines, and she
the purport of your own words.” is dying. I have just -- just had your ically, but now I want to speak about
“Yes, I do,” Mrs. North said emphatletter. "Oh, the joy of it! What can I say, something much more important. I hope or do? - you know everything that is in my heart better than words can write it you are going to get well – yes, in spite down,"
of all the shakes of your dear old head;
and that you are going to live to be a She sealed it up; and, seizing her hat, hundred and one, in order to scold me went once round the garden, for the cot- with very long words when I offend you." tage seemed too small a house to hold so " I will endeavor to do so, my love; but great a happiness as that which had come I hope that some one else will do it bet
She looked up to the sky, and ter "- she stopped and closed her eyes. thought how blessed it was to be beneath “I believe you are a witch, and you it, and away at the larches and fir-trees, know about my letter. It has just come, and wondered if he and she would ever and has made me so happy,” Mrs. North walk between them. Something told her said, between laughing and crying. that they would if — if all came right, if “ What does he say?" the old lady she found that he loved her so much that asked, without opening her eyes. he could not live without her. They “He says he is coming,” Mrs. North would lead such ideal lives; they would answered, almost in a whisper. “It's aldo their very best for every one, and make most more than I can bear. I think it
will all come right. The other was never would not be legal; besides, I am rich a marriage it was cruel to call it one ; enough, you kind old lady. Shall I be. it was a girl's body and soul made ready gin?" for ruin by those who persuaded her " “Stop one moment, my dear; will you and she put her face dowo.
give me a little sal volatile first, and let “My dear, I understand now; I think I me rest for five minutes ?” She closed
very unsympathetic. But purity her eyes, but it was not to sleep; she apcounts before all things " -- and Aunt peared to be thinking of something that Anne's lips quivered. “ Tell me, my love, disturbed her. When she looked up again have you heard — I know it is painful to she was almost panting with excitemeni you to hear his name, but have you heard as well as weakness, and there was the anything of Mr. North lately?” Mrs. fierce, yet frightened, look in her eyes that North looked up with a mischievous had been in them when she opened the twinkle in her eyes which a moment be- front door to turn Alfred Wimple out of fore had been full of tears, and answered the house. demurely :
“I want you to do something for me,” "I am told that he is casting his eyes she said, almost in a whisper — "I want on an amiable lady of forty-five. She is you to have a sum of money, and to get it the sister of an eminent Q. C., has read to him”. - she could not make herself Buckle's History of Civilization,' and her utter his name .“ on condition that he favorite fad is the abolition of capital pun goes out of the country with it. Let him ishment. But I don't want to talk of my go to Australia with the woman affairs, Aunt Anne, I want to talk of yours “Yes,” Mrs. North said, sceing she - they are
momentous.” Mrs. hesitated. North prided herself on picking up Aunt “She is not in his position, and could Anne's words, and using them with great never be received in society." discretion.
“No, dear,” Mrs. North said, reflecting “ Yes, my love, I am most grateful to that Mr. Wimple's position was not paryou."
ticularly exalted. “I am certain — as I tell you that “I want him to go out of the country," you are going to live and get well.” Mrs. Aunt Anne went on -"as far away as North meant her words at the moment, possible ; I cannot breathe the same air for, with the sweet insolence of youth, she with him, or bear to think that he is bewas incredulous of death until it was ab- neath the same sky. It is pollution; it is solutely before her eyes. “But at the hurrying me out of life; it is most repugsame time," she went on, "now that you nant to me to think that when I am dead are enormously rich, you ought to take he will frequently be within only a few precautions in case of an accident. If the miles of this cottage and of my dear Wale cottage were burned down to.night, and ter and Florence" she stopped for a we were burned with it, who would inherit moment, and shuddered, and put her thin your money ?”
hands, one over the other, under her chin. “ I told Mr. Boughton that I would give “When I am dead and buried," she went my instructions to you, and he is coming on, “ I believe I should know if his body the day after to-morrow."
was put under ground too in the same “But have you destroyed the will you country with me, and feel the desecration. made in favor of Alfred Wimple?” It has killed me; it has made me eager to
“ I have not got it; he took it away with die. But I want to know that he will go him.” Mrs. North looked quite alarmed. away - that none of those I care for will
“ We must make another, this minute,” ever see his face again; it will be a sacri. she said; “if the conflagration took place lege if he even passes them in the street. this evening he would get every penny. I want him to have a sum of money, and Let me make it this minute. I can do it to go away.” on a sheet of note-paper. Don't agitate * I will take care that he has it," Mrs. your dear old self, I shall be back directly North said gently, “I will speak to the --- and in a moment she had fled down- Hibberts. But, Aunt Anne," she asked, stairs and returned with her blotting-book, "don't you think you might forgive him? and once more she knelt down by a table He shall go away, but you would not like to write. “ You want to leave everything to die without forgiving him?” Mrs. to the Hibberts, don't you?”
North did not for a moment expect her to Yes; but if you would permit me, my do it, or even wish it, but she felt it almost love, I should like to leave you something." a duty to say what she did from a little
Then I couldn't make the will, for it notion, as old-fashioned as one of Aunt
Anne's perhaps, about dying in charity general public. All this has been the case with all men.
with culture. All the good things it im“ No, you must not ask me to do that ” plies in common parlance are understood - and her voice was determined. “ I can- to be alloyed with pedantry, affectation, not; it was too terrible.”
æsthetical priggishness. It is believed " And I am very glad,” Mrs. North said, that the cultured person, like the dilettante having eased her conscience with the pre- of a previous century, will rave about the vious remark –“a slightly revengeful Corregiosity of Corregio, the symbolic spirit comforts one so much."
depth of Botticelli, the preciousness of “Don't let us ever speak of him again, Ruskin's insight into Tintoretto. Or, if even you and l. I want to shut him out he does not take that line, he may be ex. of the little bit of life I have left."
pected to possess a multifarious store of “We never will,” Mrs. North said. knowledge about all periods of all the arts “Let this be the Amen of him. Now I and literatures, or to be perpetually paradwill make the will. Here is a sheet of ing this knowledge in and out of season. note.paper and a singularly bad quill pen." The last sort of stuff is, probably, what
“This is the last Will and Testament of my reviewer accused me of hawking over me, Anne Baines (some time called Wim- Europe. But this, I am certain, is not ple). I revoke all other wills and codicils, what I mean when I talk of culture. and give and bequeath everything that is
Judged by the etymology of the word, mine or may be mine to my dear nephew
culture is not a natural gift. It implies and niece, Walter and Florence Hibbert." tillage of the soil, artificial improvement
of qualities supplied by natyre. It is The maid came and stood on one side clearly, then, something acquired, as the and Mrs. North on the other, while Aunt lovelinesses of the garden rose are devel. Anne gave a little wink to herself, and oped from the briar, or the “savage-tasted pushed aside the end of the lavender rib- drupe” becomes “the suave plum" by bon lest it should smudge the paper, and cultivation. In the full width of its meansigned Anne Baines, looking at every ing, when applied to human beings, culture letter as she made it with intense interest. is the raising of faculties — physical, men
“I am glad to write that name once tal, emotional, and moral — to their highest more,” she said, and fell back with a sigh. excellence by training. In a particular
sense, and in order to distinguish culture from education, it implies that this training has been consciously carried on by the
individual. Education educes or draws CULTURE: ITS MEANING AND ITS USES. forth faculties. Culture improves, refines,
and enlarges them, when they have been BY JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS.
brought out. Finally, although moral and Nor many years ago, I happened to physical qualities are susceptible of both notice the review of one of my books education and culture, yet it is commonly in some weekly periodical. The writer understood, when we use these terms, that sneered at me for travelling round Europe we are thinking of the intellectual faculwith a portmanteau full of culture on my ties. This is specially the case with culback. This made me reflect. What does ture. It would be pedantry to extend its the reviewer mean by culture? What is sphere to morals and athletics; we cannot it I am supposed to stagger under like a talk of a cultured gymnast or a cultured pedlar's pack? And then, what do I mean philanthropist, for instance, when we are by culture? How do I value the wares I referring to a man who has trained either carry on my shoulders? Reflection con- his muscles or his benevolent emotions to vinced me that the reviewer and myself their highest excellence. held different opinions about what we both I will therefore define culture, for the call culture.
purpose of this discussion, as the raising It is probable that when people use this of previously educated intellectual facul. word, nowadays, it signifies for them some ties to their highest potency by the con. knowledge of history and literature, intel- scious effort of their possessors. ligence refined by considerable reading, In its most generalized significance, cul. and a susceptibility to the beauties of art ture may be identified with self-effectuaand nature. But words which have been tion. The individual attempts to arrive overworked, or which have passed into at his real self, to perfect the rudiments the jargon of cliques, are apt to acquire a supplied by nature in the way for which secondary and degraded meaning with the he is best qualified, and by so doing to
From The New Review,
arrive at independence -- what the Ger- In trying to solve the problem of culmans call Selbstständigkeit. Men of true ture, we are bound to leave genius unculture, as distinguished from that false reckoned. The force implied in what we thing which usurps the name, may possess call genius is incalculable, uncontrollable. diverse intellectual temperaments, and Genial natures are often doomed to frosts reach widely separated points of var- and thwartings; are sometimes favored tage. But they agree in this, that each by the grace of circumstance; are never has acquired freedom from bondage to fostered by prescribed rules and calculated cliques and schools, from the prejudices issues. Handel, with nothing but a purely of the worser and the fashions of the bet- professional education, soared far higher ter vulgar. Goethe points out in two into the ideal regions of his art than Menfamous lines that this self-effectuation, delssohn with all the culture Germany which is the highest end of culture, de- could give him. Shakespeare, a mere mands different environments according to playwright and theatre-lessee, darted his the different quality of the mental force to rays of dramatic insight far deeper and be developed.
far wider than Goethe, who was nursed Es bildet ein Tatent sich in der Stille,
upon the lore and wisdom of all ages. Sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt.
Genius is the pioneer whom talent fol.
lows; and men of culture have been mostly “Talent forms itself in the silence of the talents, though we can discover here and study, character in the stream of the great there a genius among their ranks. In world.” But when formed, each mental dealing with culture, then, we have to reforce, whether it belongs to the contem- gard the needs of talent rather than the plative or to the active order, each self, necessities of genius; intellectual facul. so cultivated, will possess the privilege ties of good quality, rather than minds of insisted on by the same poet of being able
an exceptional, unique distinction. to live resolvedly in the Whole, the
Culture is self-tillage, the ploughing and Good, the Beautiful;” not in the warped, the harrowing of self by use of what the the falsified, the egotistical ; not in the ages have transmitted to us from the work petty, the adulterated, the partial ; not in of gifted minds. It is the appropriation the school, the clique, the coterie ; but in of the heritage bequeathed from previous
: the large sphere of universal and enduring generations to the needs and cravings of ideas.
the individual in his emancipation from It will be seen now that, when I speak “ that which binds us all, the common.” of culture, I mean something different It is the method of self-exercise which from what is commonly intended by the enables a man, by entering into commun, half-slang phrase. It may be urged I am ion with the greatest intellects of past and ascribing too lofty and indefinite a func- present generations, by assimilating the tion to culture, when I define it to be the leading ideas of the world-spirit, to make raising of intellectual faculties to their himself, according to his personal capacity, highest potency by means of conscious an efficient worker, if not a creator, in the training. Still, the more we think about symphony forever woven out of human the derivation and the history of the word, souls. the more shall we become convinced that
There are two principal methods for this is its root meaning, its most abstract arriving at the ends involved in culture. and essential signification. It is the duty These may be briefly described as humanof criticism always to aim at bringing ism and science. In a certain sense, we back abused or debased words, so far as
owe both to that mighty intellectual move. this is possible, to their logical and legiti- ment of the fifteenth and sixteenth centumate values.
ries with which the term Renaissance is But now comes the question, How is commonly connected. The so-called Refthe man with educated faculties to achieve ormation' movement was a subordinate, culture? In the case of rare and specially though politically important, stream of its gifted natures, there is no need to ask this main current. The essential element in question. They attain culture, and more this great burst of energy has been well than it can give, by an act of instinct. defined in Michelet's famous formula: They leap to their work impulsively, dis- the rediscovery of the world and of man. cover it inevitably. Owen Meredith, the It began with the revival of learning, or late Lord Lytton, wrote no stronger line the return of the mediæval mind to than this, which I quote from memory: fountain-beads of knowledge and of life. Genius does what it must, but talent does experience gushing from long.neglected what it can.
| antique sources. At first, as was natural,
the study of mankind in ancient languages, schools. I shall content myself by pointand literatures and histories in Hebrew, ing out that if, as Pope says, “ the proper Greek, and Roman records arrested curi- study of mankind is man," then humanism osity. Humanism — the literary, philo- must always keep the first rank in the sophical, historical, artistic side of culture higher intellectual culture. It cannot be
gave tone to European thought for dethroned by abstract mathematics or by many generations. Still, it was impossible the investigation of the physical universe. to pursue these studies of the past without Ideal culture involves both factors; and raising comparison with the present. The this ideal was to some extent realized in remoteness of the modern from the antique Goethe. Few men - none, indeed — can mind led to critical analysis; and out of hope now to exercise themselves com. criticism emerged science. Science in pletely in both branches. We have to cludes all branches of exact co-ordinated choose between the alternatives of a liter. knowledge. Criticism, exerted first upon ary or a scientific training. Still, the texts and theories, began to be extended points of contact between humanism and to facts. In course of time the study of science are so numerous that thorough nature evolved itself out of the study of study compels us to approach literature ancient philosophies. The curiosity about scientifically and also to pursue science the external world, which had at first been in a humane spirit. The humanist repoetical, æsthetic, sensuous, assumed the members that his department is capable of gravity of anxious speculation and of being treated with something like the careful inquiry into actual conditions of exactitude which physical research deexistence. “Mathematics, in the field of mands. The man of science bears in mind physics and astronomy, introduced novel that he cannot afford to despise imaginaconceptions of the universe. Without tion and philosophy. Both poetry and tracing the evolution of the natural sci. metaphysic, upon the one hand, contribences, it is enough to observe that at the uted to the formation of the evolutionary end of the last century Europe became hypothesis. Without habits of strict inaware that humanism alone would not vestigation, on the other hand, we should suffice as the basis of education and cul- not possess the great historical works of ture. The Renaissance had rediscovered the nineteenth century, its discoveries in man and the world. The criticism of man comparative philology, its ethnological implied humanism. The criticism of the theories and inquiries into primitive conworld, at a somewhat later period, led to ditions of society. science. Science, though later to emerge, I have been speaking about culture proved itself the paramount force of the as a form of self-effectuation through modern as distinguished from the antique conscious training of the mind. It is a and the mediæval spirit. The whole of psychical state, so to speak, which may be this nineteenth century has been domi- acquired by sympathetic and assimilative nated by a rapid extension of scientific study. It makes a man to be something; ideas. Scientific methods have been in- it does not teach him to create anything, troduced into every department of study. It has no power to stand in the place of We have arrived at the conviction that nature, and to endow a human being with mental training of a thorough sort cannot new faculties. It prepares him to exert neglect science. In other words, we know his innate faculties in a chosen line of now that an interpenetration of humanism work, with a certain spirit of freedom, with with science and of science with human- a certain breadth of understanding. ism is the condition of the highest culture. This brings me to consider the relation At present the fusion cannot be said to of culture to those special industries, arts, have been fully realized. And for the and professions which are determined by future it is probable that there will always the subdivision of labor and by the variebe two differently constituted orders of ties of human temperament. We have minds, the one inclining to the purely seen already that "genius does what it humanistic, and the other to the purely must.” Education and self-training ex. scientific side of culture.
ercise but slender formative influence over I have no wish to enter here into the natures like Michael Angelo, Beethoven, controversy which has been carried on Shakespeare. This is the pith of the old between scientific men and humanists as proverb that “a poet is born, not made.” to the relative educational value of their Some of the greatest men of genius, methods. Nor do I want to touch upon Burns and Turner, for example, can the burning question as to whether the hardly be called men of culture. Others, classics will have to be abandoned in our like Ben Jonson, Tasso, Heine, were so