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about the non-agricultural life of this most corpore virtus? This manifold combinapainstaking and exemplary landlord, I am tion of qualities has led to the result that, sorely tempted to pass on at once to the though for many years he and I had scarce anecdotes which he told about others; for a taste or a thought in common, and I know that — just as Wellington held a though he was neither politician nor orator great victory to be an evil second only to nor philosopher nor scholar, I believe him a great defeat — even so, the most delicate to have been the grandest specimen of a task for a son, next to speaking of his country gentleman that our generation has father's defects, is to speak of his father's seen or is likely to see. virtues. But it would be unfilial, and might give rise to misconstruction, if I Before relatiog a few of my father's anwere to forego all expression of feeling. ecdotes, I must premise two things: first, Briefly, then, I will apply to the present that I merely report the anecdotes, and do subject a quotation from “The Lady of not vouch for their accuracy; and, secthe Lake :

ondly, that they lose much by not being

told in his inimitable voice and manner. His ready speech flowed fair and free,

He was an intimate friend of Lord In phrase of gentlest courtesy; Yet seemed that tone and gesture bland

Charles Wellesley, who told him some Less used to sue than to command.

curious facts about the Iron Duke. The

first two that I shall record tempt one to These lines express a part of what I feel, supplement the old saying about a hero but only a part. An original picture - 1 and his valet-de-chambre, with the addition think the only one — of the Lord Falkland that a hero is not always seen at his best used to belong to our family. The late beneath the scrutiny even of his favorite Lord Falkland begged my father, as an son. old friend, to let him buy this memorial of The ship of an admiral, who was the his ancestor; and my father — wishing, as duke's near connection, was wrecked. He he expressed it, to do as he would be done was placed in command of a second ship, by – consented to the proposal, and re- which was also lost, and he himself was placed the original picture by a copy, drowned. Lord Charles communicated This may be taken as a typical instance of the disaster to his father, who merely exthe kindness, nay, the exceeding great claimed, with Spartan coldness and brev. kindness, which was often shown by him. ity, “ That's the second ship he has lost." I want, however, to lay stress on the fact The twin anecdote, so to call it, had referthat he had (so to say) les qualités de ses ence to Lord Charles himself. Being défauts; if he had been less masterful, ordered with his regiment abroad he felt his work might have been less masterly. much concern at bidding farewell to his In fact, he might be roughly described as aged father whom he might never three parts Sir Roger de Coverley and one again. On his making the announcement, part Cardinal Richelieu. “Roughly," I the duke, who had been reading, damped say, for assuredly he had virtues of a kind his emotion by saying shortly, “Goodwhich neither of these had. One great bye, Charlie, good-bye!" and, taking a virtue he derived from his Evangelical- last look before leaving the room, the son ism. He was liberal alike of sympathy was mortified to see that the father apand of money to orthodox Dissenters; and peared to be as intent on his reading as it may have been in consequence of this ever. Is this indifference, after all, so sympathy, or rather of its religious basis, very strange ? Sydney Smith has some. that, though himself an aristocrat to the where lamented that the greatest public backbone, he was remarkably tolerant of benefactors are seldom conspicuous for the class of persons whose real worth is what are called the minor virtues; and veiled by social shortcomings, and whose Goethe has maintained (metaphorically, aspirations are less defective than their of course), that the habitual use either of aspirates. Let me say, too, that, when I the microscope or of the telescope, imread of the few philanthropic French pedes the normal and healthy use of the seigneurs of the last century, I am instinc. eye. Why, then, should we wonder that tively reminded of him. Is it unbecoming the man whom Goethe himself has ranked for a son to add concerning his father that with Aristides as a supreme example of the setting, so to say, was worthy of the integrity and public worth - that this gem -- that there was in him, absolutely great national hero, while ever vigilant when in his prime, relatively when in ex. against public calamity, was scarce sensi. treme old age, a dignity of presence and tive enough to domestic losses, or to the of bearing, Gratior et pulchro veniens in fear of them. He would not have been

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the Iron Duke if he had been made of sage in which Victor Hugo attributes quicksilver. Imperium peperit, non sibi, Napoleon's fall to the divine jealousy (il sed patriæ.

gênait Dieu), and in which, so far as he A different and very minor form of in- assigns to human, or rather to British, sensibility was ascribed by Lord Charles agency any share in the giant's overthrow, to his father. During the Peninsular | he would have us believe that the War the duke had eggs for his breakfast, credit was due to the British army alone, eating them habitually whether they were and not to Napoleon's rival – would have fresh or stale. Comparing this account us believe this et quantum Gallia mendax with an entry in Lord Stanhope's “ Con Audet in historia. “I heard the duke versations with the Duke of Wellington say,” remarked Lord Stradbroke, “that if we get some idea of the duke's daily bill he had had his old Peninsular army at of fare during the war.

Waterloo, it would have been an affair of four hours.

These were his words." General Alava told me that when he trav- This is remarkable as being the utterance elled with the duke, and asked him what of one who was never given to boasting. o'clock he would start, he usually said, “At daylight; " and to the question of what they

One of my grandfather's greatest friends should find for dinner, the usual answer was,

was Admiral Holloway, who, when the Cold meat.” “ J'en ai pris en horreur," Orient caught fire at the battle of the Nile, added Alava, “les deux mots, cold meat 'et ordered his seamen to fire on the flames, daylight.

and, by thus preventing their extinction,

to insure the destruction of the French Lord Charles was often troubled by vessel. After the victory, the other adimportunate acquaintances, who begged mirals of their abundance gave rich pres. for some of his father's hair. On such ents to their commander. But Holloway, occasions, he said to an old servant whose being poor, offered a humbler gift. His hair was like the duke's, “Sit down, John, widow's mite” (so to call it) took the I must cut off another lock !" This extraordinary form of a coffin made out of story recalls one told of a simple-minded the disjecta membra of the Orient. Nelold Étonian who was with me at Oxford. son declared that he valued this coffin The boy once, when returning to Eton, more than any of the other gifts, and after the summer holidays, boasted that ordered that, when he died, he should be he had shot some yellowhammers. His buried in it. Alas! the dôpov ådwpov was schoolfellows gravely assured him that prophetic. those birds were under Wellington's pro- After the battle of Waterloo my father, tection, and that, if he did not straightway being then in his tenth year, saw Napoleon apologize, he would be imprisoned or standing on the deck of the Bellerophon; worse. He was actually induced to write and I have heard him say with what pleasa penitent letter to his Grace, and received ure he afterwards recalled the generosity a curt answer, telling him that Field of the British sailors who, in spite of all Marshal the Duke of Wellington could their past hatred, paid homage to fallen not make out what he meant. But he had greatness with the hearty cry of Vive his reward; for one of the masters, hear-l'Empereur! He derived from his father ing of the hoax, gave him five shillings a love of Daval matters, which lasted till for the letter in the hope of getting Wel. the end of his life. A year before he died lington's autograph. It was, however, he went over the arsenal and dockyard of afterwards discovered that the letter was Toulon. A lieutenant in the French navy almost certainly written by a secretary, was deputed to show him over the works ; who could exactly counterfeit the duke's and my father's brother, who was present, handwriting

writes that the Frenchman gave the fol. Before taking leave of our great general, lowing explanation of the failure of his I cannot forbear recording a noteworthy countrymen at sea during the Revolutionsaying of his, which I heard on direct au- ary War: thority. The late Lord Stradbroke, if I remember rightly, served under Wellington They had no good officers at that time. in Spain, and afterwards fought at Quatre The French navy, unlike the army, was Bras, but was somehow disabled from be. thoroughly loyal; and after the execution of ing at Waterloo ; he was, moreover, almost the king, the best officers emigrated in great the only Tory landlord whose abilities I lotined. Thus the French navy was deprived

numbers, and those

who remained were guil. ever heard Charles Austin praise. When of all its able commanders, and the governhe was staying with my father, the con- ment had to replace them with inferior, or, versation turned on the extraordinary pas. at least, inexperienced men.

Shortly after my father entered Parlia- day his wife complained that the supply ment here was a great disturbance in of milk was falling short. The sentinel Ireland. The Duke of Wellington was accounted for the deficiency, by saying reported to have said significantly that that the pasture had lately been much the army was ready. One or more Irish trodden down by the public. Thereupon members answered the appeal by saying the martial despot gave orders that no in the House of Commons that the people (human or other) animal except the cow of Ireland were ready too. Amid the should be allowed on the grass-plot; and general excitement, a young member of added - men were not particular in those timorous aspect rose to make his maiden days — that if this rule was infringed, the speech. In a meek voice the novice be- sentinel should be flogged. Soon aftergan : “Mr. Speaker, I have listened atten. wards the admiral's wife, having a presstively to this debate, and have come to ing engagement, took a short cut over the the conclusion that Irishmen are no more grass in disregard of the sentinel's refit to govern themselves than blacks !” peated order to stand back. “Common The bashful orator was the first Mr. Wal- soldier,” said the offended lady, “don't ter of the Times.

you know who I am ?” All I know is Between the years 1858 and 1866 my that you're not the general's cow !. father used often to take me as his son The following story would seem incred. into one of the seats under the gallery of ible if my father had not heard it from the House of Commons. Naturally, how- an eye-witness. When Colonel Lennox ever, the better the debate, the harder it (afterwards Duke of Richmond) called out wąs to get me in. Perhaps this is the and nearly shot the Duke of York, the reason why the speeches have left so litile indignation of the royal family and of their impression on my memory. The quaint-friends was extreme. After a time, howest thing that I remember hearing was a ever, the prince regent forgave the audacomparison made by Bernal Osborne becious duellist, and quite unexpectedly tween Pius IX, and Lord Palmerston : asked him to dinner. A large party was "Both began as reformers. Both with awaiting the arrival of their royal host drew their reforms. Non possumus be- when, to their amazement, Colonel Leonox came the motto of the one, as of the other. was announced. Being received with And now what is the result? The one is silence and cold looks, he resolved to defended by French bayonets, and the mark his sense of the courtiers' disapother by Conservative votes."

proval. So he laid down two chairs side At my special request I was taken to by side on the floor, and leapt over them. hear Mr. Goschen second the address on Being a man of singular activity, he re. the queen's speech. I afterwards told peated this litile comedy, after laying a Hayward how much Mr. Goschen's speech third chair over the first, and again after had impressed me. Hayward was also laying a fourth on the second, and again impressed, but characteristically added: after laying a fifth on the summit. At this “The thing that most struck me in con- last jump, however, his foot caught the nection with it was the remark made by topmost chair, and the pile was scattered Lord Hotham, that he had never before over the floor. At this moment the prince known a young member make so long a entered the room, and in astonishment speech without once apologizing for tres- asked the unseasonable athlete what on passing on the patience of the House. earth he was about. Really, sir," replied One always likes to have a foolometer,” the unabashed visitor, “it is most upfore It was, I think, Sydney Smith who coined tunate. No one spoke a word, and I had this ungracious word. I have sometimes to amuse myself. But I sincerely hope thought that such a word as Philistinome that none of your Royal Highness's chairs ter or fashionometer would be convenient is broken." The prince laughed, and the and comparatively inoffensive. Be that as matter blew over. “No one but a thorit may, foolometry is the one science in ough gentleman,said my father, who which the wise have much to learn from used to pronounce this word with a pecul. the unwise. And it is a very useful sci- iar emphasis, and to employ it in a some

what narrowly exclusive sense, "could The scene of one of my father's stories have carried the affair off as Colonel Lenwas laid in a southern seaport town, where nox did." long ago a general and an admiral were My father told a story that at Queen neighbors. The general's house was Caroline's trial a Tory nobleman was fronted by a grass-plot, on which he stopped by the mob, who insisted that, he. claimed the right to pasture a cow. One fore entering Westminster Hall, he should

66

ence,

say, “ Queen forever.” After exacting a Countess of Dysart in her own right, who, promise that they would grant him a like some other of our kiosfolk, might free passage if he complied, he waved his have taken Sit pro ratione voluntas as a hat and called out, “Queen forever, and motto. One day this original lady seat an may all your wives be like her!”* This express to the first surgeon in London, novel Ave Regina amused the crowd, and begging him to come to her at once. He they let him pass. My father added that reached Ham in the middle of the night; Brougham used to say that part of his de- and on asking what accident had befallen fence of Queen Caroline had been care- ber ladyship, was told that her lapdog had fully prepared, while other parts were broken its leg! extempore. A friend of the orator, refer. It seems to me only the other day (ut ring to a striking passage in the speech, vidi! ut memini!) when my father used observed that this at least must have been to pack some fourteen persons (including composed on the spur of the moment. his young children and grandchildren) into “That only shows," said Brougham, “how a huge four-in-hand carriage, pickoamed well I fitted it in. I copied out that pas- the village," and to drive us to Rich. sage thirteen times !" +

mond; and from Richmond we rowed up Though my father had little sympathy the river to Ham. In one of these patriwith Brougham, he believed him to be a archal trips it was casually mentioned that man of genuine convictions, while he held, the notorious Duke of Lauderdale lived in a modified form, the opinion of Miss at Ham House and that a room is shown Martineau and Walter Bagehot that where the Cabal ministry used to meet. Brougham's great rival, Copley, was On hearing this, an eminent orator, who always an advocate, and was without was of the party, repeated the following strong convictions. In confirmation of satire on the duke, the authorship of this view, Charles Austin related a fact which I have failed to trace :illustrative of the bitter indignation which prevailed among the Whigs when Copley,

He was not a Jew, for he ate of the swine, like another Strafford, suddenly "ratted" He was not a Turk, for he drank of the wine; and turned Tory. So extreme was this He was not a Christian- he never forgave!

But let this inscription be writ on his grave: resentment that Denman told his servant that, if his old friend called, he was not to I quote these lines, not merely because be admitted. In spite of the servant the they are at once vigorous and unfamiliar, future Lord Lyndhurst made his way to but also because they indicate one of the the door of Denman's chambers, and besetting sins laid to the charge of our shouted from outside, “ Let me at least landlords as a class. The charge is not beg that, if you are asked about my wholly without foundation. And yet, in change of opinions, you will say that it spite of all that has been done amiss and was honest." "If I am asked about your left undone, one is wont to echo the piteous change of opinions," was the reply from lament, o patria, O divom domus Ilium, within, “I will say that you say that it if one liogers for a moment on the hateful was honest."

foreboding that the country gentlemen and It may not be amiss to subjoin one of their stately traditions, and their Church my father's anecdotes about Ham House, as a National Church, and all the dying which is the seat of the elder branch of embers of feudalism, nay, that the old our family, and is familiar by name to the England of Shakespeare and of Scott, will readers of Evelyn and Walpole. Sixty soon be as extinct as the dodo. An antiyears ago this “most mournfully fascinat. dote, or perhaps a counter-irritant, to ing of places ” I belonged to Louisa, these useless regrets may be found in a

strange old-world story, which my father • Herodotus (VI. 69) tells that a Spartan king ques related as true. At my old home there is tioned his mother as to the truth of a report that his father was an óvooopßos. The lady's answer ended

an avenue of giaot trees which can have thus: ék dè óvodopßūv .. τοϊσι ταύτα λέγουσι | changed but little during the last three τίκτοιεν αι γυναίκες παίδας.

centuries, and which seem to look down † Anecdotage is nothing if not desultory; so I will with lofty compassion as generation after here save from oblivion a good thing which, according generation of their puny owners passes to Charles Austin, Brougham said when the clergy at the instigation,'the Whigs declared, of Lord Lons from the scene. Beneath the shade of dale - came up in a body, and turned the scale against these "6 monumental oaks” (as Milton Brougham at an election, ence, the defeated orator exclaimed: “The Lord gave the word; great was the company of the preachers." House in the presence of Sir Charles Wheatstone and

I A romantic incident which occurred at Ham Mr. Babbage is related in “Safe Studies," p. 157.

With more wit than rever

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would have called them) Queen Elizabeth convinced that he was the murderer; and made her way in 1561, and crossed the Torstenson, one of the noblest and most Helmingham drawbridge, on a visit to Sir generous of men, also seemed to feel that Lionel Tollemache, * with the view of the duke was guilty ; but though the susstanding, godmother to his child. The picion was strong, no proof was brought infant died; but, fearing to disappoint against him. Elizabeth, the parents had the dead body I have recently been examining the duly christened! The lute given by the archives in various cities in Germany, in queen to the child's mother is still an heir- the hope of finding some items of interest, loom in the family; and the drawbridge is hitherto unpublished, regarding the Thirty still raised every night, as it is said to Years' War. Among the State papers have been for centuries. Il n'y a rien de deposited in the Castle of Marburg, I changé, sauf le personnel.t

found a “Narrative," written by an eye. Lionel A. TOLLEMACHE. witness, giving an account of the death of

the Swedish king. This document, which • I adopt (as Thackeray in “Esmond" adopts) the is dated Lützen, 16th June, 1633, has not, modern spelling of the surname, though probably “Talmash" would be more correct.

In the good old so far as I am aware, been noticed in any times surnames were spelt at random.

English work.* Its writer, Hans von 1 In illustration of the age ascribed to some trees in Hastendorff, was in attendance on the Suffolk, my father told me the following incident about an oak near Bury St. Edmund's. Tradition says that king, and was severely wounded in the St. Edmund was tracked by means of wolves, that he course of the battle. His “Narrative," was bound to this oak and was shot with arrows, and that by way of insult some wolves bones were buried (which is in substance as follows), begins with his bones. Not long ago, wolves' bones were dis- with a few general remarks about the king covered near the spot; and the decaying oak, having and the wars in which he had been enbeen afterwards blown down, was examined, and the barb of an arrow was found near its centre. These gaged; and then describes the coming facts, though not conclusive, are certainly curious. together of the opposing forces at Lützen.

“Gustavus had not intended to fight on
that day, but God willed it otherwise.t
The morning was so densely foggy that it
was scarcely possible for one person to

see another. ... At about 8 o'clock it THE DEATH OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS.

lightened a little, and the enemy made a GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, the renowned recognaisance. They were attacked by king of Sweden, fell at the battle of the Finns, and driven back, but the fog Lützen, on the 16th November, 1632. again coming down, they were unable to The exact manner of his death is a ques-extricate themselves, and get back to their tion which has not yet been satisfactorily main army. Their reserves, however, answered. Some writers have asserted being brought up, the battle began in that he was assassinated, while others earnest. . . . An officer despatched from have suggested that he met his death by the Finns came to the Kiog, and handing getting separated from his followers, and over to him several standards which they coming suddenly upon the enemy, was had taken, gave an account of the struggle. fired at and hit, and falling from his horse, Thereupon the King issued orders for the was killed by some of the Imperial Cav- rest of the army to advance and second alry. The statements made in the various their efforts. . . . The fighting continuing records of the period, and the results of notwithstanding the fog, the King accom. the investigations of the foremost histor- panied by certain attendants rode out to ical writers, have been so contradictory that they have only increased the doubt. It is true that the Duke of Lauenburg was Schleswig-Holstein (published in 1749) reference i;

• In J. H. Noodt's contribution to the history of suspected of being either the assassin, or made to a "Fragment by Hans von Hastendorff," of having employed some one to kill the who is stated to have been a page in the king's retinde,

and who," it appears to be certain, had been an eyeking. He had only a short time before witness of what he related." (Gustav Adolf der Grosse, left the service of Austria and entered König von Schweden, ein historisches Gemälde, by that of Sweden, and after the king's death only notice of Von Hastendorf s'" Narrative” which

Fr. Ludwig von Rango, Leipzig, 1824.) This is the again joined the Imperialists. The his. I have seen. - J. M. torians Pufendorf, Chemnitz, and others, on the 29th October, (eight days before the battle)

+ A marginal note by Von Hastendorff states that spread the suspicions against him and did the king, speaking to his chaplain, said that he saw not hesitate to brand him with the ever. clearly that the Lord would allow a misfortune to come lasting disgrace of being an assassin. placed their trust in him (the king] and were too con.

upon his army, for his people had forsaken God, and Oxenstiern, the Swedish chancellor, was ident."

From The Scottish Review.

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