which we could hardly expect in the dairy | trifling mistake. Virtuous, the simple soul maid of her father's equals.* Unfortu- really was, and from principle steadily observe nately she had no personal charms to ing those plain precepts which her limited make amends for the rusticity, ignorance, capacity permitted her to comprehend; but in and want of breeding that soon rendered the present instance it cost her no trouble at her the standing jest of her companions all, Virtue had neither a warm constitution

nor a tender heart to contend with; and as for in office."

romantic love, its torments, raptures, conNevertheless it was this simple and Aicts, illusions, perplexities, nothing in Sir anattractive Jenny Warburton whom the Isaac Newton's works could have been less accomplished Duke of Argyll now singled intelligible to a mind like Jenny's. She posi. out from among the admired and admiring tively would not, for all his Grace was worth, throng of rank, beauty, and fashion around and so she told him, be that thing whose Anne's throne, as the one object of his proper name it did not abhor her, as it did devoted homage, ultimately of a life-long poor Desdemona, to speak very distinctively; affection.

but she had no delicacy to be wounded by the The circumstance of his Grace being affronting proposal, nor did she see any reaalready provided with a consort does not before, since she felt herself in no danger

son for keeping him at a greater distance than appear to have prevented this perfectly Their intercourse therefore continued well-conducted maid of honor from ac undiminished, continued so for years and cepting his marked attentions with re. which was remarkable, but a proof that the spectful appreciation.

world can sometimes be just - it raised no Such experience of female society as, scandalous report to her prejudice. The in the course of his active military career, town, the court, nay, sister maids of honor, he had been able to acquire, had not watchful spies of all that passed, bore wit served to inspire the duke with a high

ness to its perfect innocence and pronounced opinion of the sex. He believed litile her character unimpeachable. enough in the virtue of any woman; but As prudent lovers in a more humble by some curious process of reasoning had class of life, having plighted their troth, convinced himself that those of superior mutually agree to await the promised in. mind were necessarily depraved; that crease of income, or the looked for legacy, chastity was incompatible with intellectual before rushing into matrimony, so the gifts, and that ignorance and stupidity duke and the maid of honor now arranged were the best safeguards of innocence. to defer the consummation of their happi. From this point of view Mistress Jane ness until the deserted wife should have Warburton was indeed a prize worth win the complaisance to retire from the scene. ning; yet, though he apprehended that in Society appears to have accepted this her case the siege would be a protracted understanding as an ordinary engagement one, he did not doubt that in the end vic-of marriage, so much so, indeed, that tory would crown his efforts.

when, on the demise of Queen Anne, But when [says the family biographer] t on Mistress Jane Warburton's court functhe contrary, she proved absolutely immov- tions came to an end, the ministry, in able, not to be tempted by promises or pres- consideration for his Grace,* at once ate ents or magnificent offers, nor yet to be tached her in the same capacity to the perworked upon by all the arts of captivation son of the new Princess of Wales. Nor which he could not but know that he emi: was it long before virtue and constancy nently possessed, his admiration exceeded met with their reward. The deserted wife, even his surprise. He became convinced that who had been in failing health for some he had found the Pearl of Price: the most time, died in 1717, and six months later virtuous, if not the only virtuous woman in the world; all the while never doubting that for “ Jenny” had declined to accede to this heroic resistance cost her dear, and was the request of her ardent suitor that their the final result of many a painful struggle haods should be joined without a day's de. with secret love. Here his own ardent im. lay -the maid of honor was transformed agination, aided by his vanity, led him into a into the Duchess of Argyll.

• Her father was a younger son of Sir George War- • The duke was a zealous champion of the Hanoveburton, of Winnington, and her mother the daughter rian succession, and he it was who, accompanied by the and heiress of Sir Robert Williams of Penrhyn; she Duke of Somerset, while Queen Anne lay dying in the thus came of an ancient and honorable stock on both adjoining apartments, forced his way unsummoned into sides of the house.

the Council-chamber at Kensington Palace, and de Lady Louisa Stuart, author of a memoir written in feated the plans of the Tories, for the restoration of 1827, called "Some Account of John, Duke of Argyll, the Stuarts, by insisting upon a staunch Whis, the and his Family," and which forms the introduction to Duke of Shrewsbury, being appointed lord treasurer. the volumes of " Journals and Letters.". She was a Later in life he joined the Opposition, but indignantly daughter of the third Earl of Bute, and a piece of Lady resented an attempt made to implicate him in a plot Mary Coke,

formed in favor of the Pretender, LIVING AGE. VOL. LXXIX. 4091

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Two centuries ago a much wider line the Cheshire hoyden of the days of the of demarcation was still drawn between Court-Scavenger, but to the last have rethe social status of the peer and the non- mained“ her faithful doting and adoring ennobled gentleman than is known to the lover." present generation; and it may be con- Lady Louisa accounts for this on the ceived how brilliant a prize a coronet orna- supposition that " his beloved Jane's vul. mented with strawberry leaves must have garity passed for uprightness and simbeen deemed by the family of the Cheshire plicity with him;" but here, as in other squire.

instances, she does her kioswoman injus.

tice. Her female Court, the wives and retainers [says Lady Louisa Stuart, speaking of her

Tactless and unrefined the “Duchess great-aunt at this period) were of course more Jenny undoubtedly was, and ever conobsequious to her than she had ever been to tinued to be ; but she was not by nature Queen Caroline or Queen Anne; and what “vulgar." In this respect, indeed, she homage was paid her by her own Cheshire formed a pleasing contrast with some of relations you may conjecture from the reverthe great personages around her, and notaential style used by her very mother, in those bly with her own youngest daughter, the letters found among Lady Greenwich's papers. writer of the journal, who, potwithstand.

Old Mrs. Warburton was a member of ing her courtly manners, was vulgar, bea great Welsh family whose genealogical sides being entirely devoid of the native tree took root in almost prehistoric ages; honesty of character which went far to reyet so overcome was she by the awe-in- deem her mother's disregard of etiquette spiring idea of being the mother of a and conventional decorum. duchess, that when · The dear young

The biographer finally admits that, ladies," as she called her grandchildren, although her Grace of Argyll unquestionwere sent to pay her a visit in the country, ably she could hardly find words to express her had the obstinacy of a fool in the petty congrateful sense of the honor conferred upon cerns which she viewed as her own province, her.

it is but fair to say that she was quite free Lady Louisa, indeed, suggests that as, from the cunning which often attends weak in accordance with German etiquette, the understandings. Plain truth and honesty Princess Amelia,* in writing to her were the principal features of her character; nephew, George the Third, on his acces. she always took a straight path and always sion to the throne, subscribed herself his meant to take the right one. In a word, she Majesty's “most dutiful niece," lest the was a good woman to the utmost of her claim to the title of aunt should imply an

knowledge and her power. assumption of superiority, so old Mrs. And these, be it said, were precisely the Warburton, in addressing her ennobled qualities which had rendered her attractive offspring, should have “ remained her in the eyes of the duke, and which enabled Grace's most dutiful daughter."

her to remain his loved, trusted, and hon. “ Jenny" herself, however, appears to ored companion as long as he lived. She have been little elated by this rise in the could no more have been transformed into social scale. Sh ore her honors meekly, a grande dame than into a blue-stocking, and it may be safely assumed that she bút neither could she have become a vul. never turned her back upon friends or gar woman in the true sense of the word. acquaintances less highly placed. The The one cloud upon their domestic haprange of her affections may have been as piness was the absence of a male heir; limited as her biographer asserts; but daughter having perversely followed such love as she was capable of, was evi. daughter to the number of five. This cir. dently bestowed upon the handsome Scot, cumstance was the more aggravating from the famous soldier, the fascinating cour- the strained relations existing between the tier, rather than upon the stately Duke of duke and his brother and presumptive Argyll and Greenwich.

heir, Lord Islay. The characters of the It is certainly surprising that a man of two men presented that contrast not unhis polished manners and fastidious tastes, commonly found in the offspring of the and who habitually employed a nicety of same parents ; the former combining with language bordering upon pedantry, should the habits of a warmhearted and impulsive not only have become enamored of, and soldier much literary culture and strong married, one who through life retained the poetic tastes and aspirations; the latter, abrupt bearing and the coarse diction of bred a lawyer, being practical aod busi

ness-like, cool and wary, with a keen eye • The unmarried daughter of George the Second. to his personal interests. He considered


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his brother visionary and wroog-headed, so the education of the four daughters and “having no toleration for fools of (one had died in childhood) was entrusted either sex,” felt a supreme contempt for to the steward, who gave them lessons in his sister-in-law ; who in her turn hated writing and ciphering, and to the househim cordially, and went out of her way to keeper, who taught them needlework. let him know it.

The duchess had no strong maternal When in course of time the duke broke feelings, and the girls stood in much awe with Sir Robert Walpole and joined the of their father, Mary the youngest, born Tories in opposition to the court party, in 1726, alone excepted; and she having he found it politic to enter more into gen. “ too much of the Tollemache blood in her eral society than he had previously done. veins to be afraid of anybody," was overThe duchess had been in the habit of indulged aod spoilt by the duke. associating only with a small number of She was a child of violent temper which intimates, who, according to Lady Louisa, it amused him to arouse ; and as school. though they could hardly help having manners

boys will teach a pony to lash out, or a more genteel than her own, were pretty dog to snap at people's fingers, so he much on a par with her otherwise, and, like loved to exasperate his youngest daughter, herself, guiltless of any affinity to that pre- till "she flew about like a little tiger, scribed class “your clever women,” whom screaming, scratching, and tearing," when her lord's maxims authorized her to esteem he would coax her back to good humor by for the most part no better than they should caresses and sugarplums. be. Gladly did she bar her door against “all such cattle," one person excepted, who, by effects of a paralytic seizure in 1743. His

The Duke of Argyll died from the his express mandate, had constant admittance. widow, who survived him by twenty-four This was Lady S * whose judgment he valued so highly as tó insist upon her being years, made no display of violent grief; consulted in all cases which he felt his Jane but there is something touching in the incompetent to decide.

meekness of her tearful lament: “Well, I

have been the favorite of a great man!” In thus forcing upon his wife the inti. macy of a lady of powerful mind and sively the Earl of Dalkeith and Charles

The eldest daughter married succesdamaged reputation, the duke took care to Townshend, the statesman and orator; explain that this was an exceptional case, and was not to be taken as an indication but, dying without heirs male, the barony of any change in his opinion as to the

of Greenwich, which had been conferred effect of intellect upon the moral nature upon her in her owo right, became extinct.

The second married the Earl of Strafof women. Lady S-was no doubt too clever to be virtuous, for in endowing her ford, and the third her cousin, James with brains nature had condemned her Stuart Mackenzie, a younger son of the to frailty ; but she had always kept up to have inherited her mother's bluntness

second Earl of Bute. This lady appears appearances, and, as he had reason to believe, had only been the mistress of the of manner and speech, for according to king

Mrs. Anne Pitt (Lord Chatham's sister), The duke and his consort had certain of telling one that one lies, and that one

“ Lady Betty took the liberty in society domestic tastes in common. Without being parsimonious they were both“ care

is a fool, and I cannot say that I think it ful” in money matters, and averse to a

at all agreeable."

Like her mother before her, however, more lavish expenditure than was absolutely necessary in so large a household. band, who remained devoted to her for

she had the power of captivating her husThey were, moreover, in complete agree. ment as to the training of their daughters. years, and when he lost her, we are told,

« died of grief." His peculiar views of the sex made him opposed to the cultivation of their intel

There remains the "little tigress” of the lect, wbile she argued that as, without the nursery, the writer of the « Letters and advantage of learning or accomplishments ter and unaccountable vagaries of conduct she had succeeded in marrying a duke, the introductory memoir throws some there could be no reason for giving her light. Lady Louisa Stuart's biograph; girls a better education. She did not ical sketch is written with much spirit and speak a word of French; why thea should humor, and with a refreshing absence of they want to learn that language? Why; that partiality or blindness of kinsman, indeed ? echoed the duke; one language is enough for any virtuous woman to talk in. ship, which is the common blemish of

family history. • In the memoir the name is given in full. If some vitriol is mixed up with the

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colors in which the portrait is painted by Leaving his bride at the church door,her niece, it must be allowed that, judged he passed the wedding night in the com only by her own writings, Lady Mary pany of his boon-companions, whom he Coke's nature is about as disagreeable an entertained with a ludicrous description of one, as a cold heart, a bad temper, exces- the scene enacted at the wedding. sive vanity, a defective education and the The lady, he said, had assumed the airs influence of a very artificial society could of the tragic muse, and in the mood of produce. If not a type, she presents a King Solomon's Egyptian captive, “dart. curious specimen of womankind, and, as ing scorn and sorrow from her eyes," the biographer says, “ such a study for the tearfully prepared to become the passive observer of human character as a rare victim of abhorred embraces. She was plant or animal would be for the natural completely taken aback, however, when ist.” Her beauty had no: been, like Lady instead of playing the part of an amorous Strafford's, undisputed; some allowed, tyrant, he coolly assured her that she had some denied it; the dissenters declaring no advances on his part to apprehend, and her neither more nor less than a white that as he had more agreeable engagecat, a creature to which her dead white ments to fulfil elsewhere, he begged to ness of skin, upshaded eyebrows, and wish her a very good-night. fierceness of eyes, did give a great resem- No course of conduct could have been blance. To make amends there were fine better calculated to mortify Lady Mary. teeth, an agreeable smile, a handsome The laugh had been turned against her, neck, well-shaped hands and arms, and a and she was very sensitive to ridicule. majestic figure. She had the reputation Her estimate of her personal attractions of cleverness when young, and in spite of was an exaggerated one, and her vanity all her absurdity, could not be called a was now cruelly wounded by the bridesilly woman; but she was invincibly groom's cold indifference, and disregard wrong-headed, and her understanding lay of her charms. She was not at a loss, smothered under so much pride, self-con- however, to discover the means of retaliaceit, prejudice, obstinacy, and violence of tion. Knowing that the Earl of Leicester temper, that you knew not where to look had eagerly promoted his only son's marfor it.

riage, with a view to securing the succesIn her nineteenth year Lady Mary sion, she determined to disappoint these Campbell, whose will, since her father's hopes by strictly maintaining the position death, no one in her family dared to dis- which Lord Coke had assigned to her on pute, announced her intention to confer her wedding day. From this resolution, her hand upon the young Viscount Coke, neither threats nor persuasion could move the only son of the Earl of Leicester. her. She was a wife in name only, aod She did not profess any affection for him such she would remain as long as they and, after their engagement, treated him both lived. with a distant coldness and haughty dis- Outward appearances were for a time dain, indicative of downright aversion; kept up, but during a visit to Holkham, but when questioned as to her feelings, father and son determined to put an end thought it sufficient to reply, that it was to a state of things which the old earl her pleasure to marry Lord Coke. piously denounced as “contrary alike to

On a hitch occurring in regard to set the laws of God and man." Hereupon tlements, she was quite prepared to break her resolute ladyship retreated to the cit. off the marriage, unless the proposed an adel of her own apartments, which she nuity of £2,500, besides £500 a year pin persisted in defending against her bemoney, were secured to her. This diffi- siegers, who finally converted her volunculty overcome, she allowed herself to be tary seclusion into compulsory durance, led to the altar, assuming for the occasion, demanded her keys, seized ber papers, however, the demeanor rather of a martyr intercepted her correspondence, and prosubmitting to sacrifice, than of a bride hibited all intercourse between the pris. voluntarily marrying the man of her oner and her relations. choice.

These strong measures had not been Lord Coke had borne this treatment adopted without legal opinion having been with admirable good humor and patience, taken as to "whether a wife's obstinately uttering no word of remonstrance or re- refusing her husband his conjugal rights proach; but no sooner had the marriage did not justify him in placing her under ceremony been completed than he pro- unusual restraint?" and from the result it ceeded to pay off the long score of inso- is evident that a hundred and fifty years lence to which he had been subjected. ago the law took a different view of mari.


tal privileges and wifely obligations, from with specification of time and place, would that which has been recently enunciated only give such vague answers as: “Oh, a in a case of a similar character.

thousand times every day;""never was Lady Mary's family did not at first show a human creature treated as I have been;" any disposition to make themselves the

my usage was most barbarous." champions of her cause; they seem, on In the end her accusations amounted to the contrary, to have placed 'no faith in no more than that her father-in-law had the grievances which she represented her called her “a piece of useless lumber, fit self as having suffered at the hands of only to be locked up in a garret," and that her husband. When, however, she had her husband had struck ber on the arm, actually passed six months in a state of torn her lace ruffles, and, on a certain ocimprisonment, during which time the casion, finding her employed in reading gates of Holkham were strictly closed Locke, “On the Human Understanding," against them all, the Duchess of Argyll told her that "he did not believe that she began to apprehend that whatever her understood one word of the book," which daughter's faults may have been, such was probably true, and that she was “an treatment was not justifiable. Indeed, she affected b- for her pains," which was went so far as, in a letter to Lady Dal- undoubtedly rude. keith, to express her conviction that These uncorroborated acts of violence though Lord Coke had probably received failed, in the opinion of the court, to afford provocation, the blame rested at least as grounds for a divorce. The case accord. much with him as with his wife; and that ingly collapsed, and Lady Mary would “if he had married a woman with a tem- bave been left to the mercy of her enemies, per of an angle (sic) she would have been but for the kind offices of Lord Hartington miserable with him."

(afterwards fourth Duke of Devonshire), Written representations remaining un- who induced Lord Coke so far to modify noticed, her Grace, accompanied by Mr. the sentence he had passed upon his ré. Stuart Mackenzie and a solicitor, appeared bellious wife, as to allow her to live unmoat Holkham and, in presence of witnesses, lested in the country, on condition that formally demanded access to her daugh- she formally withdrew her charges against ter. This being refused an affidavit was him, paid all the expenses of the lawsuit, presented to the judges of the King's engaged not to set foot within twenty Bench, and a writ of habeas corpus ob- miles of London, and waived her claim to tained requiring Lord Coke to produce a separate maintenance. his wife before the Spiritual Court on the In this unhappy position of a wife defirst day of term in November.

prived of a wife's privileges, Lady Mary The scene is graphically described by lived for five or six years upon very limLady Louisa Stuart, who relates how her ited means under the roof of a mother aunt appeared to swear the peace against with whom she could not agree. Her conher husband, and to institute an action for tinued attempts to pose as a martyr failed divorce on the ground of cruelty. The to excite sympathy, and her friends grew court was densely crowded by a fashion-weary of her persistent lamentations over able audience of her friends and relations, her unmerited sufferings. But there were while Lord Leicester and his son “having better times in store for her. Lord Coke, no great interest with respectable women, never much troubled with moral scruples, gathered together a numerous posse of now considered himself free from every lively, clever, wild young men. . . . All obligation imposed by matrimonial ties; the rakes, and all the geniuses of the age, and while he caused a strict surveillance came to back Lord Coke, or to enjoy an to be exercised over the conduct of his exhibition in their eyes very diverting.” wife, he himself plunged into a course of

It was far from diverting for poor Lady reckless profligacy and dissipation which Mary, who in order to enlist the public undermined his health and brought him to sympathies appeared in court, “pale, an early grave. feeble, and dressed almost in tatters," Thus, in her twenty-seventh year, Lady while her mother sat beside her crying Mary emerged from her dull retirement bitterly, and Lady Strafford, who was sub- and a state of constant fear and humiliaject to “the falling sickness," repeatedly tion, into the unclouded atmosphere of fainted away.

tearless widowhood, with unrestricted freeThe petitioner appears to have held pe dom of action and the enjoyment of a culiar notions as to the character of legal large dowry. evidence, and on being required to furnish After the expiration of the full period particulars of the alleged acts of cruelty, prescribed for mourning a dead husband,

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