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the possessors of ill-gotten gains who with so liberal an allowance of deadly made public restitution.
sins? Perhaps not. Sigismondo probably Cario wrote a beautiful handwriting, thought that, with his pious attitude, his and founded the library of Rimini; but favorite dogs near him, his modest civilian one thing is remembered against him. costume (the Malatesti, though all soldiers, Although fond of learning, he was, as has never cared to be painted in martial dress), been seen, inclined to fanaticism, and it he looked a model of every amiable virtue. is said that once, when, as a young man Still, it must be owned that it is a physiogin command of his brother-in-law's troops nomy which attracts you less the more you at Mantua, he caused an ancient statue of study it. This picture should be compared Virgil to be thrown into the Mincio be with the likeness of Sigismondo's brother, cause he thought that divine honors were Malatesta Novello, Lord of Cesena, in the paid to it. It seems that on what they medallion by Pisanello. The resemblance supposed to be the poet's birthday the is extraordinary; but Malatesta Novello is Mantuans were in the habit of placing the of an almost Greek beauty. We can well statue on a sort of altar decorated with fancy that from him we may form an idea flowers and tapers. Unluckily, Carlo of Paolo il Bello. Malatesta Novello, wise reached Mantua just in time to witness the and munificent, is one of the most sympaobservance, which so much scandalized thetic figures of the time. If moral tenhim that he took the shortest way of put-dencies be hereditary, it is unfortunate ting an end to it. On hearing the anec- that the virtuous Malatesti never left any dote, Isabella d'Este wished to raise an direct heirs. Carlo had no children, nor expiatury monument to Virgil's memory, Malatesta Novello, nor Galeotto il Santo. and even obtained a design for it from the Malatesta Novello is said to have regreat Mantegna ; but the scheme remained spected a vow made by his wife in childa pious intention.
hood when she wished to enter a cloister; To a hereditary military capacity the Galeotto made a similar vow on his own Malatesti joined the instinct of govern- account. Galeotto was a foolish ruler; he ment. Their hold on their more recently expelled the Jews, who were excellent acquired territory — which at one moment subjects, and brought wealth to the city. comprised nearly all the marches of An. Yet Rimini liked him, as she impartially cona, as well as a large part of Romagna — liked all the Malatesti, saints or sinners. may have been from the nature of things He must, too, have had something lovable precarious; but Rimini stuck to them, in_him, since his girl-wife, Margherita through good and evil fortune, from the d'Este, remained faithful to his memory first to leave the mountain castle of Veruc- for forty-four years, ordering, when she chio, till the race showed signs of irreme- died, that her body should be laid at the diable effeteness, which was foretokened feet of her husband's. The poor youth by the change of their noses from aquiline succumbed in 1432 to the abominable tortó a kind of nose that had lost its way and tures he chose to inflict upon himself, was looking about to find it. No house heedless of the lectures they provoked preserved through a long space of time a from the Vatican. more stationary cast of face. A low fore- He was succeeded by a lad of fifteen, head, eyes that are not large, but can Sigismondo Pandolfo; illegitimate son of pierce and fix, a nose which, though the Malatesta known as Pandolfo III. arched, starts in a nearly straight line with The race would have been again and again the brow, a short upper lip, and rather in danger of extinction had not natural prominent mouth and chin; the face short. offspring been recognized as able to inIt was probably this type, already well herit. In the same year, this surprising developed in the centenarian, which won boy, Sigismondo, led his troops to victory for an early ancestor the nickname of at Lungarino; nor was that his first warlike Wronghead, accepted by the Malatesti as exploit. In battle, from the beginning, he their patronymic. People who knew the was aiways to the front, and shared not only type only from the fresco in St. Francis, the perils but also the privations of his representing Sigismondo Pandolfo kneel. soldiers. Born, one may say, with a sword ing before his patron saint King Sigis- in his hand, he was as fond of scribbling mund of Burgundy, have not failed to rhymes as any university student. In his trace in it all the qualities which the world first verses, " Ad Isottam," there is the associates with the name of Malatesti : freshness of a folk-song: thé Aowers bend cunning, cruelty, perfidy, lust. Would any before her as she walks; the sun looks out one who saw the portrait without knowing in the morning, but when he has seen her for whom it was meant credit the original | hides his diminished head. With such ingenuous flattery the ogre, the bogie of strange church it is. Children at their the fifteenth century, wooed the woman games, after the manner of Luca della who was to possess his soul till death. Robbia ; fantastic choirs of processional His poetic effusions tell us what without singers ; recondite allegories wrought in them we should not know: that Isotta, who the most costly marbles Italy and Greece was motherless, but had been carefully could yield; symbolical figures of the arts, brought up, did not yield at once or will sciences, virtues, music, medicine, botany, ingly. When she did yield, the excuse she astronomy, philosophy, prudence, strength, offered is one which sounds strange as the sigos of the zodiac, the planets, Venus applied to Sigismondo Pandolfo: “We rising from the foam, Mars on his car, Satneeds must love the highest wben we see urn, and Mercury. Some of the figures it.”
have curious inscriptions, so arranged as That traveller has an advantage who to form an ornamental border to the drapery takes to the Church of St. Francis, or in which they are clothed. These ioscripCathedral of Rimini (as it became by a tions were long a puzzle ; but at length it decree of the first Napoleon), the fewest was discovered that they were Latin, writpreconceived ideas, artistic and historical. ten in Greek characters, and among the It will have struck him as vaguely odd that words deciphered were Jupiter Arimino Riminese calls it a church at all — the neus, Apollo Arimineus. very street leading to it bears the only The list is not only incomplete, but name by which it is known : Via Tempio also, like all lists, it is poor even in sugMalatestiano. On entering through the gestion, and can give po potion of the vast great central door in the beautiful, though array of extravagant, yet mostly beautiunfinished, façade, his first impulse may be ful, fancies which fill every nook and corto seek the intense light of which his sight ner of the building. But it serves to show is suddenly deprived; and, looking up that we are brought into somewbat unexwards, he sees the low, ugly, naked, wooden pected company. When the Vatican roof that substitutes the dome which was desired to clench Sigismondo's excommuan essential part in the original plan. pication by a charge of heresy, it accused Then gradually, as everything becomes him of having raised a pagaa edifice under clearer, a surprise, an excitement, almost the pretence of building a church. It is a mystification, join and end in an over- true that the whole is dedicated "To Impowering sense of pleasure. The dignity mortal God and to the City” – a dedicaof outlines saves the mass of intricate and tion than which it were difficult to find one elaborate design from falling into triviality. worthier. It may be argued, bowever, The eyes are completely satisfied; whether that this speaks less of Christianity than the mind is, will depend on whose miod it of the Deism underlying the more serious is.
side of Italian renaissance. The absence When Sigismondo proposed to trans- of Christian emblems (the few there are form the plain Gothic church, in which now having been introduced later) is so several of his ancestors lay buried, into marked as to appear hardly accidental. the most sumptuous building of the age, Sigismondo's little private cult for his he called to his aid the illustrious human- pious namesake of Burgundy was, of ist, the universal genius, Leo Battista course, more egoistic than religious — it Alberti — Leonardo's precursor in the was of the nature of the discovery of St. magician-like power of doing to perfec- Napoleon. The saintly, protector finds tion whatever he put his hand to — who his way into the temple by reason of the excelled in feats of strength, in riding, unsaintly protected. Everything is dein manual dexterity, in music, science, signed with a view to impressing Sigis. painting - let alone architecture. His mondo's own personality on the spectator : character was as remarkable as were his every separate section in the scheme of capacities. He appeals to us especially decoration is artfully identified with bim. in his passionate love of nature and in his Now it is his motto — wise but cynical — tender love of animals. He had the rare Tempus loquendi, tempus tacendi; now and charming veneration for the old which the rose and the great African elephants bespeaks alone a host of good qualities. of the Malatesti; now some other more This incomparable man got on admirably or less easily recogoized allusion to himwith Sigismondo, and never had the least self or his career. One reminiscence is quarrel with him.
everywhere; sown, as it were, over the With a bold exercise of imagination, entire ioterior; the monogram formed of Leo Battista changed San Francesco into the initials I. and S. the fairy-garden of renaissance art. Al Sigismund and Isolde !
What a mag
nificent idyl might not these dames have mondo, the lack of surviving children, or spelled had all been right instead of all some suspicion, most likely unfounded, of being wroog! He, the great soldier, the bis wives' cocstancy, is more likely to princely humanist; she, who, less by out. have been the cause than any desire to ward charms (for she was not beautiful) legalize Isotta's position. Five or six than by fine sympathy, high patience, and years after Polissena's death he had still discriminating judgment, alone and endur- no intention of marrying Isotta. That the ingly dominated his turbulent spirit. marriage did in the end take place is not The implacable pope who wrought Sigis- thought to be a matter of doubt; but no mondo's ruin called Isotta “ entirely record of its celebration has yet come to worthy” of the unique devotion which light-only after a certain date she is she inspired. No one ever threw a stone styled Donna Isotta de' Malatesti instead at her; in bringing the foulest charges of Donna Isotta degli Atti. against Sigismondo no one even distantly Whether or not Sigismondo was really hinted at her complicity.
guilty of these murders, and of other of The connection began during the life-the monstrous misdoings attributed to time of Ginevra d'Este, and continued him, cannot be determined with judicial through that of Polissena Sforza - the certainty. Contemporary gossip, even first and second wives of the Lord of when circumstantial, is not proof. Rumor Rimini. Both marriages were political. based on what is thought in the abstract Princes were ever ready to offer up their to be probable has always had an active daughters to political expediency, a sacri- existence in Italy. For example, in the fice often more cruel than female infanti- first years of the pontificate of Leo XIII. cide as practised in China. When there was a daily expectation in Rome Polissena Sforza went to say her prayers, that he would be poisoned. Had the pope whichever way she turned, she saw the died suddenly, expectation would have monogram of her husband and her rival ; passed into a rooted belief. Rumor she saw, besides the splendid tomb of the charged Sigismondo with abominable acts; dead Malatesti, two others, prepared for but, true or false, the charges would have Sigismondo and for Isotta. The latter, by scarcely gained the endorsement of hisfar the more ornate, rests on huge Mala- tory had Æneas Sylvius Piccolonomi never testian elephants, and displays the epi. worn the papal tiara. Æneas Sylvius, as graph : “ D. Isotta. Ariminensi Sacrum." a Sienese, could not forget how, when The “ D.” is variously interpreted as Sigismondo was employed to defend Siena, “ Dive” and “Domina" - it matters there was considerable reason to think little. In a hundred battles Sigismondo's that he played fast and loose with her insoldiers bore upon their shields the famil-terests.' To Pius II. was due the downfall iar monogram.
of the great Malatesta, and the post he It has to be remembered that society occupies in the lowest Bolgia of the his. still felt the influence of the Provençal torical “Inferno" is the lasting legacy of moral code, according to which public the same triumphant foe. It is useless to homage of the most extravagant kind was observe that a former pope received Sihabitually rendered to women, who might gismondo literally with open arms after be anything you pleased except the wives the date of the alleged atrocities, and that of their poets and champions. The fact a later one bestowed on him the Golden that many of these women were of un. Rose — that mark of special favor which questioned virtue caused the evolution has brought such bad luck to the soverout of hopeless passion (real or counter- eigos who have been honored with it in feit) of a new and idealized theory or love. our day. Æneas Sylvius, pot satisfied But the way of thinking which led to this with excommunicating him, had him burat conclusion countenanced after a fashion in effigy - no worthless Guy Fawkes prethe notoriety given to such connections as sentment, but a beautifully made image, that of Sigismondo and Isotta, which the work of the celebrated Paolo Romano, seems to us more astonishing than the which it was a world of pities to consign connections themselves.
to the flames. On the death of Polissena Sforza ru. In his extremity the object of these mors of foul play were circulated, as had proceedings called the French into Italy, happened, though in a less degree, when and even meditated calling in the Grand her predecessor, Ginevra d'Este, died. Turk. It may have been the first, but it Each of these wives gave birth to a child was very far from being the last, time an that lived but a short time.
Italian ruler looked to Stamboul for as. If the crimes were committed by Sigis- sistance; oor is the Vatican any freer from the reproach than are the principal. he pleaded his cause, imploring on his ities and the republics. Nothing could knees that Rimini should not be taken help Sigismondo. As a final resource be away from him. The pope did not misdecided to turn roving condottiere once read the submission — at bay the kneeling more; and, leaving the faithful city to the man would still prove formidable. The wise and popular government of Isotta, he appeal was granted without conditions. offered his sword to Venice. He hoped Sigismondo fell dangerously ill, and althus to restore his credit and to do some though he apparently recovered, the menthing towards refilling his empty coffers. tal crisis he had gone through undermined In the former hope he was not deceived ; his strength. Two years later he died for, although the campaign which he at Rimini, aged only fifty years. commanded in the Morea led to no prac. To the last he was distressed that it had tical results, it amply confirmed his mili- not been in his power to finish his temple. tary reputation, and it surrounded him He left Rimini to the regency of Isotta with the halo of a defender of the faith, and eventually to her eldest son Sallustio But the faith was the last thing he was — making no mention in his will of Rothinking about in the Morea. It is said berto Malatesta, fruit of an early intrigue that he looked forward with pleasure to with a lady of Pesaro, who was already meeting the great Platonist, Gemisthus grown to manhood, and was noted for de. Pletones, whom he supposed to be liviog cision of character and military talent. there ; but on arriving he found that the Roberto Malatesta had not treated his philosopher had lately died. What is cer father well; but to pass him over was a tain is that he brought home to Rimini piece of imprudence for which those Gemisthus's bones, and had them rever- whom Sigismondo cared most for were to ently placed in one of the tombs which, pay dearly. Roberto did not show his by a fine thought, he had prepared in the hand at once; but he kept his end steadily wall of his temple for the poets and men in view till it was reached. He had his of letters whom he attracted to his court. brother Sallustio murdered, contriving He always treated artists and literary men that the crime should be imputed to a
- not with grinding condescension or in young noble, against whom he excited solent tolerance, but — as the true kings the vengeance of the populace, whilst be of the earth.
himself wept a pond of crocodile tears. The Church never ceased to cast long- His second half-brother was "removed " ing eyes on Rimini, and it now occurred on a flimsy charge of treason. Isotta only to Paul II. that fair words might obtain remained in his way, and he is reported to wha: savage treatment had been powerless have caused poison to be administered to to achieve. Professing a tender interest her. But what poison could more surely in his new friend, he suggested that he produce the cruel, wasting disease of should renounce Rimini in exchange for which she died than the anguish at the Foligno and Spoleto, where he would be loss of her children? much quieter and more comfortable than Roberto was fond of costly pageants, in the exposed city on the coast. When and hence was called “the magoificent.” Sigismondo seized the drift of the mes. The “Veni, vidi, vixi” of Cæsar was apsage, such a rage overtook him as never, plied to him when, in 1480, by a rapid since the wrath of Achilles, possessed a march and a victory of uncommon brilhuman being. For this one moment, who liancy, he saved Rome from falling into will withhold him sympathy? Give up the hands of the Duke of Calabria --dehis birthright for a mess of pottage?scribed by Comines as “the cruelest, Abandon Rimini, where he had built his worst, most vicious, and basest man ever temple and his Rocca, that marvel of seen. The gratitude of the Romans, who scientific fortification, esteemed impreg. had made sure of being given over to fire nable? “ Tell the pope,” he cried, " that and the sword, was unbounded ; a cardiI will bring the answer myself.” Frantic nal led the victor's horse, the sacred colwith passion, he rushed to Rome, intend-lege walked behind him. The streets still ing (so the story goes) to slay the pontiff rang with the plaudits that greeted bim, with a dagger hidden, or scarcely hidden, when he was taken ill, and in a few hours under bis cloak. The pope got wind of he expired. Some historiaos have thought the scheme, and, contrary to his custom, that Sistus IV. wished to get rid of a too was attended by a strong force of his powerful ally; but a rival condottiere in guards when he received his visitor. ihe papal service is much more plausibly From an assassio Sigismondo became a held accountable for the disappearance of suppliant. The pent-up emotion burst the last great Malatesta. forth, and tears choked his utterance as After a precarious tenure of another half century, the family ceased to rule was John, Duke of Argyll * who, ever Rimini, which fell to the portion of the since in his seventeenth year he had been Holy See, of whose dominion the fortified entrusted with the command of a regiment walls raised by Paul V. are a picturesque of horse by Dutch William, had been in reminder.
the van of battle wherever hard fighting Not Rimini only, but the whole of Ro- was to be found. magna, was bit by bit absorbed by the A laurel-crowned hero of illustrious power which could wait. If long desire birth and exalted rank, in the flower of makes fulfilment sweet, then this must his manhood and the full fush of martial have been the sweetest of political tri- triumph; handsome, accomplished, and umphs. Nevertheless, the acquisition of possessed of manners of singular fascina. the most turbulent of Italian populations tion, could hardly fail to prove a valued was a boon of mixed value to the temporal acquisition at the court of Queen Anne, papacy. The Ravennati threatened Leo where rival statesmen now competed for X. with bestowing themselves voluntarily his support and alliance; where poets in. on the sultan, and from this single fact voked the inspiration of the muse to sing may be judged the temper in which the the praises of Romagnols accepted their subjection. The partisans of the Church among the Argyll, the State's whole thunder born to inhabitants were at times nearly as embar. And shake alike the Senate and the Field ; rassing as its opponents; Romagna has been the scene of white terrors as well as
where beauty lavished her sweetest smiles of red. The papal legatees gradually upon this favored son of Mars. yielded to the conviction that this prov.
None the less sweet were these smiles, ince was beyond the power of human pay, to him perhaps only the more flattergovernance, and took the consequences ing, for the fact that they could meet with with as much Christian resignation as
no honorable return, since some ten or they could muster.
twelve years back, the duke had conferred In March, 1815. Joachim Murat issued his hand upon a city heiress, whose comat Rimini the proclamation which was as panionship he had 'found less agreeable good as his own death-warrant. Few re than her fortune, and from whom he had member it now ; yet few such documents long lived apart. better deserve to be remembered. Inde
Among Queen Anne's maids of honor pendence from the Alps to the Straits of there was at that time, a ruddy-cheeked, Scylla, “scontri dal suolo italico ogni do- awkward-mannered girl named Jane War. minio straniero.” We have often heard burton, who created much amusement this language since; but then it was un- among her companions by her rustic ignoaccustomed indeed.
rance of etiquette and social usages. As The Vatican always dimly discerned an illustration of this we are told that bethe Nemesis of its temporal ascendency ing required to account for her failure to in that unity of Italy of which Dante and attend upon her Majesty on a certain ocMacchiavelli dreamt, but which it was
casion, the excuse she assigned for her reserved to
absence was that she had not been warned us to
see accomplished. Rimini, with the rest of Romagna, became for this service by the Scavenger, as in part of the Italian kingdom by the decree her innocence she described the court offiof March, 1860.
cial charged with keeping the duty roster E. MARTINENGO CESARESCO.
of the ladies of the royal household, under the title of " Harbinger.”
Lady Louisa Stuart, writing a century later, is at a loss to understand how her
great-aunt, Mistress Jane Warburton
From Temple Bar. “respectable young women,” we are told, ENGLISH COURT LIFE IN THE
were not yet styled misses” – - had at EIGHTEENTH CENTURY..
tained such a position, since, “though well FOREMOST among the distinguished born in the Herald's sense of the word, soldiers whom, on the conclusion of the her education had not fitted her for the peace of Utrecht in 1713, England wel. stately elegant court,” to which, raw from comed back to her shores, second perhaps Cheshire, she had “ brought with her a only to the great Marlborough himself, coarseness of language and manners,
• Derived from the "Letters and Journals of Lady • The second Duke of Argyll, created Duke of Mary Coke," printed for private circulation in 1889, by Greenwich in the peerage of England. the Earl of Home.
† Pope's Epilogue to the Satires,