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Knox, the policeman, go by, and you said there,” she added, in a low voice, “is a you wanted him.” Alfred Wimple stared half-crown to recompense you for your at her in astonishment, and his face trouble." blanched. Aunt Anne recovered her self- " It's very wet, ma'am; is the gentleman possession in a moment, though she trem. obliged to go to-night?” bled from head to foot.

and, winking sternly, she “ If you will ask him to stay in the opened the street door wide. “ Yes, he is kitchen, I will speak to him," she said. obliged to go to-night.” With a puzzled Then she turned to Alfred Wimple again. air Jane picked up the portmanteau. Al

" You will only get yourself laughed at," fred Wimple took it from her with sulky he said. She was silent a moment; she reluctance. For a moment they all stood saw what was in his thoughts and took looking out at the blackness of the fir-trees advantage of it.

and listened to the falling rain. Aunt “You do not deserve my clemency,” Anne turned to the little hat-stand in the she said, “but I will extend it to you, pro- hall. “Here is an umbrella, Alfred," she vided you will go from the house this said, “and you have your lozenges. Good. minute. If you do not I shall take meas- night, officer" and she did not say ures to punish you."

another word. The two men went out He was trembling so that he could not together. She shut the door, double. speak.

locked it, and drew the bolts at the top She opened the door. “Jane,” she and bottom – it was the last sound that called, "get Mr. Wimple's portmanteau; Alfred Wimple heard as he left the cothave you put everything into it?"

tage. “Everything but the slippers. It's For a moment she stood still, listening raining, ma'am,” Jane added, not in the to his footsteps; she waited to hear the least understanding what was going on. click of the gate as it shut behind them. But Aunt Anne had shut the door, and Then, with a strange, dazed manner, as if turned to Alfred Wimple again.

she were not quite sure that she was “Now you will go !” she said. awake, she went back to the drawing.

“I cannot go in the rain," he answered, room. and made a sound in his throat; “you “If you please, ma'am," asked the ser. know how bad my cough is. You cannot vant, " isn't Mr. Wimple coming back toturn me out in this weather. I was angry night? - for you won't like being left just now. I did not mean it."

alone, and I don't know what to do about “ You will go immediately,” she said; mother." you shall not remain another hour under “ You can go to her," Aunt Anne an. my roof.

swered. A desperate longing to be alone “ It will kill me to go in this rain," he was upon her; she wanted to think quietly, said doggedly.

and it seemed impossible to do so while any “You would have killed me when you one remained beneath the same roof with thought you would get William Ram- her. She was impatient for a spell of lonemage's money by it; you are not fit to liness before she died. She felt that she remain another hour in the same house was going to die, that she had heard her with the woman you have wronged, and death-sentence in the shed beyond the val. you shall not. Your coat is in the hall, ley. There was no gainsaying it - shame ready for you" – and she went towards and agony were going to kill her. But the door. " You will go this very moment, first she wanted to be alone, to realize all and you will never venture to come near that had happened, and how it had come me again.”

about. She remembered suddenly, but “ I have been coughing all day,” he al- only for a moment, that Alfred had stated most pleaded, utterly confounded by the that Sir William Rammage was dead. turn things had taken.

It was untrue, of course — Alfred could “I brought you some lozenges from not have known. Besides, William RamLondon, before I knew all your baseness” mage's life or death concerned her no

and she fumbled in her pocket. “Here longer; in his money she took no further they are, and you can take them with you." | interest. She only wanted to be alone She put them down before him on the and to think. “ You can go to your table, and went slowly out to the kitchen. mother, Jane," she repeated; “I wish to * Officer,” she said, “I will not detain you be left alone; I have a predilection for about the wood this evening. I want you solitude." to walk with Mr. Wimple as far as Steg- Yes, ma'am," the girl answered hesgalls', and see him into a wagonette; and itatiogly — "and you said I was to remind you about the wages; I wouldn't, dered and died away, and her excitement only mother's bad."

with it. But she had not strength to rise "I will pay them.” She opened her from the floor on which she had been purse and counted out the few silver kneeling ; she pulled the cushion down coins left in it. “I must remain a six- from the back of the easy-chair, and sauk, pence in your debt; this is all the change a miserable heap, upon the rug. I have for the moment." She put her empty purse down on the table, and knew that she had not a penny left in the world. For a moment she was silent; she looked puzzled, as if she were doing

From The National Review. a mental sum. Then she looked up.

HISTORICAL RIMINI. " Jane," she said, “ you can take the re- As we cross the bridge which, with five mains of the chicken and the sole to your immense arches of white marble, spans mother, and anything else that was left the Ariminus, antiquity is brought very from dinner. I shall not require it.” She close. A theatre or a temple only gives dreaded seeing anything that Alfred the measure of the gap that separates us Wimple had touched. She felt that, even from its occupants; but a bridge which down to the smallest detail, she must rid for nearer nineteen than eighteen hundred herself of all that had had to do with her years has been in daily use inspires one life of shame and disgrace, and there was with a strange sensation of being drawn not much time left her in which to do it. by this unbroken human chain into a magShe must begin at once; when she had netic contact with the first to pass over made ner life clean and spotless again it. They read, as we read, its inscriptions she would look up and meet death un- telling how, begun by Augustus, it was abashed.

finished by Tiberius; they, too, looked “I am ready, ma'am,” Jane said pres. along the low-lying lands where the quails ently, and looked in, with her basket on collect, to the buttresses of the Apennines her arm. Aunt Anne got up and fol. that come to a point in the crown of rocks lowed her to the back door, in order to called formerly Titanus, and now San see that it was made fast. She shook Marino. The river, the “still Marecchia with fear when she beheld the night. cold and bright," Aows as of old to its rest Under that sky and through the darkness in the Adriaiic; but the Ariminus had a Alfred Wimple was making his way to shorter distance to go than the Marecchia, Liphook. The very air seemed to have because the sea here, as along all the pollution in it. She retreated thankfully coast, has receded and is still rapidly to the covering of the cottage ; but the receding. stillness appalled her, once she was The Emilian Way ends with the bridge ; wholly alone in it. She stood in the hall on the opposite side of the town the Via for a moment and listened; there was Flaminia opens with the arch of massive not a sound. She waited for a moment and stately proportions which was raised at the foot of the stairs and remembered in gratitude to Augustus for having mend. Alfred's room above, from which every ed the great highroad to Rome. Like the trace of him had been removed, but she bridge, it is of pure white travertine, melhad not courage to mount the stairs. lowed, not stained, by age. It is surShe went back into the little drawing, mounted by a battlement in the Scaliger room and shut the door, and taking up style which was probably placed in its her empty purse from beside the candle present position by well-meaning if not stick put it into her pocket. As in the particularly happy restorers after the dammoroing her hand touched something that age suffered when Rimini was besieged should not be there; but she knew what by the Goths. Anyhow, the battlement it was this time, and pulled it out quickly. has aided the preservation of the monuIt was the blue tie that she had kissed in ment. From before the tenth century the train. With almost a cry of horror, bridge and arch have figured on the great as if it were a deadly snake, she threw it seal of the city, which has never lost its on the fire and held it down with the pride in them as historical landmarks. poker, as William Rammage had held But the classical legend most dear to down his burning will. As she did so Rimini is of an earlier date; the arch and her eyes caught the wedding ring on her the bridge did not exist when Cæsar left hand; in a moment she had pulled it crossed the Rubicon and made his first off her trembling finger and put it in the halt in this, which up to that day was the fire, too. The flame blazed and smoul. outpost, city of Italy. Although the stone in the Piazza Giulio Cesare has nothing to garded that art and that history as coming do with any actual stone on which Cæsar io a standstill with the ancient world. It stood to harangue his legions, it has served might be worth tracing the reasons why to impress the fact of his passage on the the Italian Renaissance is so much more Riminese child of many generations. The interesting to us than it was to men of stream that deviates at Savignano in the culture in the last century. What is direction of Cesena, near which it falls stranger than that Addison should have into the Pisciatello, is probably the true seen nothing to admire in the Tempio Rubicon ; but it has altered its course so Malatestiano is that he should have man. much since it formed the boundary be- aged to write about Rimini without mentween Gaul and Italy that every rivulet in tioning Francesca. In these days its the district answering to Lucan's descrip- association with Francesca is the only tion, “small in summer, swelled by the thing that makes it generally known melting of the winter snows," has been not, indeed, that Rimini was her birthput forward in turn as a claimant to the place, as Mr. Freeman, by a slip of the name.

pen, called it; but as the scene of her Italy, the geographical expression which hapless love it is familiar to thousands had been creeping up from somewhere in who, perhaps, would not be sure where to the old kingdom of Naples, and was des- look for it on the map. tined to creep on till it got to the Quar- They are not the least fortunate that nero, had comprised Rimini for about a know her story in no other form than in the century and a half when Cæsar made his sublime laconicism of the version which sudden appearance there in the guise of a rendered it immortal. Who of all dead rebel. The city was taken by the Romans lovers are so real as Paolo and Francesca, from the Senonian Gauls, who took it from their grace unmarred by the eternity of the Etruscans, who had conquered its doom in which they move? For whom original Umbrian founders. Plenty of do we feel a more genuine pity than for history might be found buried underneath the actors in this "saddest tragedy in it were there spades to dig it up. During these alti guai ?" Not that the justice the Empire it enjoyed great prosperity, of their punishment is permitted to be and public works of all kinds were carried questioned; were it so, the singularity of out, including the construction of a port standpoint that makes this different from and the paving of the streets. In the all other stories of guilty love would be fourth century it was the scene of the lost. “If the king of the universe were council which for a moment made the our friend,” says Francesca, “we would world Arian, the twenty dissentient (i.e., pray him for thy peace.” It is a womanly orthodox) bishops escaping with a few of touch of charming courtesy; one of those their followers to the part of the country touches that make her the most womanly still named La Cattolica. In the sixth it of heroines. But never in the everlasting was incorporated in the exarchate; it was years will the king of the universe be their then that Romagna was first so called, not friend. from its connection with Rome, but from Dante the severe, Dante the tender, being a province of the Holy Roman Em- nowhere else struck a chord so purely pitpire. On the collapse of the Byzantine iful. In the Ugolino canto there is another government, Pepin, summoned by the note, there is horror; here nothing interpope, wrenched the exarchate from its feres with the appeal to one sole emotion. Lombard conquerors and made a present Only the greatest poets in their greatest of it to the Church and Republic of Rome. moments have triumphed thus in unmixed It was an instance of how generous people pathos, which needs the maximum reserve can be with what does not belong to them. Of strength, as it needs the strongest fin. Rimini thus passed under the nominal gers to draw from the violin its most control of the Holy See; but it continued pathetic tones. The beauty and impresto manage its affairs much as it chose, and siveness of Dante are enhanced by the it was so managing them when, in the extreme simplicity of his classic style thirteenth century, the star of the Mala- simple sublimity, feeling, imagination, all testi rose.

combined with the most minute exactness “Rimini,” said Addison, “has nothing of description. Where Milton is grandly modern to boast of." “ Charmante petite vague, Dante is graphically precise; he ville . . . si féconde pour l'art et pour never describes anything without giving l'histoire,” writes its great illustrator, you some object as a guide by which you Charles Yriarte, to whom it would seem may see what it is like. Besides all this, inexplicable that any one should have re. the Italian language attained in his hands



a majesty and sweetness of mere sound | particular, we need not refuse to believe which, as we do not know what ancient that some mistake existed in Francesca's Greek sounded like, we must call unique. mind - the mistake, possibly, of a second In the fifth canto of the “Inferno" each only; but alas ! seconds will do the work of these characteristics comes into play. of centuries when this sad business of It is music, it is painting. What melody love is concerned. The wide sympathy is there more musical than

excited by her fate almost compels acAmor che a nullo amato amar perdona?

ceptance of a theory which would go far

to explain it. As a young man Dante felt What painter's brush can add to the pic that thrill of sympathy when it vibrated ture of the lovers borne through the hell through all Italy; the intense actuality of fog :

the “Divina Commedia" proceeds preQuali colombe dal disio chiamate ? cisely from this, that it is full of the hates,

the hopes, the tears of a whole people. The consummate artistic treatment of any Italy wept for Francesca as she never subject should, as a rule, warn away later wept for any other erring wife who suffered interpreters; instead of which, it fatally condign punishment for her fault. In the attracts them. “The young man had bet. case of Beatrice da Tenda what awoke ter have let Dante alone,” Foscolo said of compassion was the certainty that the acSilvio Pellico; it is likely that he thought cusation against her was false, that there the same of Leigh Hunt. Yet Pellico's never was a more perfect wife than Facino play and Leigh Hunt's poem are imbued Cane's widow had been to Filippo Maria with a spirit so full of respect towards Visconti. Where there was even a mod. their mighty prototype as almost to disarm erate probability of guilt, no one disturbed criticism. The story has been dealt with himself when it was announced that the by a host of painters, from Ingres and Ary husband had taken the usual course; it Scheffer to Watts, and by as many musi. caused much less scandal than is caused cians, among whom one of the most suc- nowadays by a divorce. cessful is the Brescian composer Bazzini, It has been pretended that Paolo left whose “symphonic poem,' “ Francesca Rimini at the date of the marriage, and da Rimini,” is a thoroughly Italian, and did not return till the eve of the tragedy. in parts a beautiful, work.

It is more likely that he and Francesca The details given by Boccaccio in the lived very near each other for the best “Comento,” if not strictly historical, were part of ten years in the old houses belong, written down when there was still a living ing to the Malatesti which were levelled tradition about the facts to which they when Sigismondo built his Rôcca. But, relate; they are therefore not to be lightly whatever was the first fatal impression dismissed. We are told how Madonna exchanged between them, they remained Francesca, the young, fair, and proud- without thought of evil for nearly the spirited daughter of Guido da Polenta, whole of this long period. Towards the was affianced to Gianciotto, elder son of end of it Gianciotto was appointed poMesser Malatesta of Rimini, as a pledge destà of Pesaro. The podestà, who was of peace between the two families, which always a stranger, could not take his wife had been at enmity. Here Boccaccio is to the town where he held office. During in error; the marriage was devised in Gianciotto's absences, Paolo and Franconsideration of military services ren- cesca read for their delight the old rodered to Guido by Gianciotto, who, al- mances, and the spark of love, struck long though misshapen and a hunchback, was a ago, burst into a conflagration. A servant capable soldier. Well-meaning friends warned Gianciotto, who hastened secretly persuaded Guido that if Francesca saw back, and, on finding his fears confirmed, her ill-favored betrothed before the wed- aimed what he meant for a mortal blow at ding no power on earth could get the self- his brother. Fratricide though it was, willed girl to consent to it. So it came to there is a redeeming manliness in the onbe arranged that the marriage should take slaught on the man — not on the woman place by proxy, and that the proxy should – which is so out of the common that be Gianciotto's brother, who was so hand- here again, I think, Boccaccio must have some that even in legal documents he is been correctly informed. Francesca, termed Paolo il bello. The plan was care. " whom he loved more than himself," he fully carried out. According to Boccaccio, would have spared; how great the love Francesca believed Paolo to be her hus- needful then to dictate such forbearance band until the day after her arrival at it is not easy now to understand. But Rimini. Without putting faith in that she, aware of Paolo's danger, intercepted


the thrust and fell dead; seeing which, 1 bathos of the at the so-called Gianciotto struck again with his rapier at tomb of Juliet at Verona. Were the place Paolo and killed him. He left Rimini in. of their burial as authentically certified as stantly and returned to his post. Next that of Abélard and Héloïse, what good morning the lovers were buried with many would it do us — or them? Ignorant of tears in the same grave.

the prose of dust and ashes in the freedom Such is Boccaccio's narrative, with a of the sea and air, our thoughts fly back few amplifications due to later research. at Rimini to Paolo and Francesca, as Two or three other trifles have come to when the December wind sweeps the cold light. Francesca had one daughter, Con- grey Breton shore we dream of another cordia, who was presumably eight or nine pair years old when her mother died; Paolo

who lived and loved was already married and a father when he

A thousand years ago. first became acquainted with Francesca ; his wife's name was Orabile (poor lady! Nor does the rule hold good only of those nobody has wept any tears for her). Gi. " Ch'amor di nostra vita dipartille: ” of anciotto remarried after two years of wid- martyrs in a nobler sense it may be said owhood, and had five children by his that they enjoy almost the glory of translasecond wife. He was still alive in 1300, tion whose graves are forever lost, who lie the date assigned by Dante to his vision; in the deep or in the desert, to whom an but, as he died not long afterwards, we ocean or a continent serves as monument. cannot tell whether he was in truth alive Gianciotto died before his father Malaor dead when the terrible “ Caina aspetta "testa da Verucchio, the centenarian, was written. Many commentators have Dante's “old mastiff,” who was succeeded imagined that the fifth canto was com by his son Malatestino dell'Occhio, the posed at Ravenna, when the poet was the young mastiff” of the “Commedia." guest of Francesca's nephew. There is the centenarian founded the greatness of no proof of this. In any case it was re- his family, which in the fifteenth century served to Francesca's kinsman to close was to culminate in the person of SigisDante's eyes and place the poet's laurel mondo Pandolfo. Between those two, the on his brow in death. The act had hardly most interesting Malatesta is Carlo, who been performed when the house of Polenta was no less distinguished as a soldier than was engulphed in complete ruin, and its as the friend of literary men and artists. members were obliged to fly into exile. He was the first to discover the genius of

One English writer speaks somewhat Ghilberti, who would have remained at his wildly of Verucchio as the scene of the court had he not gone to Florence to comtragedy. In Italy Pesaro has been sug- pete for the commission of making the gested; but the rule referred to that bronze gates of the baptistery – the the podestà were not accompanied by “Gates of Paradise," as they were to be their wives — puts this out of the ques. called one day. in Carlo Malatesta's tion. A more serious plea in favor of reign Rimini witnessed one of the singular Sant' Archangelo was put forward by a scenes which accompanied the recurrent patriotic ecclesiastic, a native of that waves of religious emotion that flooded place, who supported bis argument with Italy at the time when she was most given zeal and learning ; but there is not the up to carnage and materialism. They slightest real doubt that the coppia d'Ari- were transient in their effect, as simply mino (as Petrarch calls them) died at emotional movements always are (at least Rimini. Such was the opinion of Luigi in the West); but the same amount of Tonini, librarian of the Gambalunghiana, fervor directed in the cause of definite who devoted all his abilities to the history religious reform or political revolution of his city without having the satisfaction would have carried all before it by the of seeing his principal work published in mere force of the explosion. Some white his lifetime. Few people know how much pilgrims were marching through the counpatient research is going on in Italy, the try with the cry of Pace and Misericordia; more praiseworthy because it is to be on their arrival at Rimini, Carlo and his feared that the recompense it brings is ex- wife Elisabetta Gonzaga severally headed ceedingly small.

the processions of nine thousand men and Owing to the destruction of the old eight thousand women, all dressed in Malatesta houses by Sigismondo, there is white, which collected in their train. not a trace left of Francesca's abode. Finally the prince harangued his subjects, The grave of the lovers is unknown even exhorting them to good works; and many to tradition. Better so; we are spared the were the enemies who made peace, and

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