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and they cut his thumb until enough blood | necessary, punish his persecutors. Rehas flowed to smear the effigy. He then marks of this last kind rarely fail of their takes the oath and sets fire to the saint. purpose, for cases are known where jury, The candidate is afterwards required to men and witnesses have been murdered shoot at a crucifix as a symbol of his will, the day following that on which a prisoner ingness to assassinate any person, how has been found guilty. Money is used ever dear to him. Colacino, in his with both jurymen and witnesses, if they “Rivista di Discipline Carcerarie,” gives are susceptible to that argument; and the the oath of the Fratellanza as: “I swear organization seldom fails in its afforts to on my honor to be faithful to the Fratel- secure an acquittal. In fact, it is imposlanza as the Fratellanza is faithful to me. sible for a jury to do its duty with the As this saint is buried and these drops of Damoclean sword of the Mafia hanging my blood, so will I shed all my blood for over its head. the Fratellanza; and as these ashes and When the society is short of money, this blood cannot be restored, so can I subscriptions are requested with a politenever be released from the Fratellanza.” ness so formal as to be humorous. The

The formula for the recognition of one preliminary movement is a threatening member by another is somewhat interest. letter, full of “humility," and couched in ing. The colloquy begins with a familiar artful terms of diplomacy. It begins with question: "Have you a cigar stump? a flourish of titles: “ Your Excellency and My tooth aches." Yes." “What time your illustrious Lady have an abundance, is it?" My watch is thirty minutes and it is necessary to make an appeal to slow.” “ How long since ?" “Since your generosity, though it is unfortunate the 25th of March, the day of the Annun- that your Excellency should be disturbed. ciation.” “Where were you on that day?" Some poor fathers of family are in great “ I was at—" (here he names the place destitution, and ask for "[here the amount where he was initiated). "Whom do you is inserted] " because their dependents adore ?" "The sun

and the moon.” are many." They are sure he will grant “Who is your god ? ” “ Aremi” (a play their request, and beg to assure him of ing.card).

their eternal gratitude and unconditional The Mala Vita, the organization of which devotion, and they also add that he will be is very elaborate, is divided into three " left in peace.” If, after some days, no sections — the Camorristi, Picciotti, and response is made, a second letter follows, Giovinotti. The oath of initiation is com- in which the writer intimates that, because prehensive : “With one foot in the grave of the delay, he himself is being suspected and the other in chains, I swear to aban- of treachery to his fellow-sufferers, who don father, mother, wife, children, and all are now discussing the use of harsh meas. kindred in order to make war upon the ures. Then, if the recipient of these infamous and to protect the humble.” communications still remains silent, woe The object of this society is theft, the betide him! The heads of family issue fundamental principle being that “those their final warning: “You are a dead who possess nothing have a right to live man!” or, “ You will pay dearly for this !" at the expense of those who have prop: The police are informed, and make a fruit. erty." The license to steal is given to all less search for the offender and his accommembers; but they are required to divide plices. For a time, when the informer the spoils with the Camorristi. The other goes out, he takes a protective escort of a obligations imposed upon members are few friends or servants; but lulled to a similar to those already mentioned. sense of security by two or three months

If a member of the Mafia is arrested, of immunity from attack, he finally venthe machinery of the fraternity is put into tures out alone, is assassinated, and all the play at once, and much ingenuity is dis neighborhood knows whence the blow played to secure his release. Should it fell. happen that the case is referred to the That the strength and influence of the criminal court, there commences a series Mafia is recognized with apprehension by of intrigues and intimidations that con- the Italian goveroment is uodeniable; and tinue until the jury have given a verdict. facts revealed at the recent trials at Bari The names of the jury are first procured, and New Orleans tend to confirm the and attempts are made to influence those opinion that it is now closely allied with who may be engaged. A possible jury. the Anarchist movement. Notwithstandman hears intimations that ihe prisoner is ing the efforts of the Italian police, its the victim of the plots of his enemies, but power is rapidly increasing, and its attithat he also has many powerful friends, tude towards both government and society who will defend him at any cost, and, if I is certainly the reverse of reassuring.

a

From The Spectator. astical intolerance held them were the THE ULSTERMAN IN AMERICA.

main cause of the long.continued exodus; Now that the eyes of the whole country but the confiscation on a colossal scale of are turned towards Ulster, the moment is their improvements by some of the greater opportune for a brief glance at the not. landlords was a constant source of irrita. able share her sons took in the founding tion and rupture. The Scotch-Irish imof America. To any one who is in touch migration was unlike any other great with genuine American feeling on these movement of population into America, matters, it would seem almost cruel to either before or since. Such towns as compare the position held by the two there then were they gave no thought to. branches of the Irish race in the Transat. The older farming settlements they left at lantic miod. The modern Irish-American, once behind them. The half-settled terri. the Catholic from the South and West, tory further back they rarely stopped in; numerically powerful though he be, is an but by far the greater portion went straight importation of yesterday. As a social to the wilderness, and prepared to fight element in American life, he belongs both the forest and the Indian. New Enwholly to the latter half of the nineteenth gland seems to have been uncongenial to century. It would be ludicrous to pretend these Irish Puritans, and the stream that he is regarded by any American who flowed, and continued for fifty years to is independent of his vote with either lik flow, into the middle and southern coloing or respect. In fact, the contemptuous nies for the most part. The Ulstermen, bitterness with which educated Americans however, mingled neither with Quaker, in private life inveigh against the Irish nor with Dutchman, nor with Cavalier. element in their midst is so unmeasured, To appreciate the singular independence that even the brutal Saxon and most aban- of their settlement, one must call to mind doned of Balfourians cannot help feeling the map of the American colonies of that something like a touch of weariness, and date, and the distribution of the colonist even resentment, at this wholesale depun population. Roughly speaking, the Enciation of his late fellow-subjects.

glish settlements south of New England In almost grotesque contrast to this is consisted of a strip upon the Atlantic the veneration, the profound respect, ac- coast, averaging perhaps two hundred corded to everything connected with the miles in width. Behind this strip - along Scotch-Irish stock and their history. It is the whole line of its rear — from Georgia hardly too much to say that the two races to the borders of New York, towered the stand, in the estimation of the average frowning ranges of the Alleghany Moun. American, at the opposite poles. The tains, while behind the Alleghanies were modern Irish immigrant suggests to his chaos and the dreaded Indian. Into the imagination at once a pauper who shuns troughs of the mountains, into the densely the forest and the prairie, swells the slums wooded and well-watered valleys that lay of the big cities, amasses money by para between the lateral ranges, far in advance sitical rather than industrial methods, and of the mansion of the planter and the uses it to debauch the body politic. The farmhouse of the English settler, the Scotch-Irishman, on the other hand, is a Ulstermen threw themselves with fearless historical figure. In the most critical and and splendid confidence. They had carved dramatic periods of American history, out homes once on the stony hillsides of when the sword and the plough, the rifle Ulster. Their reward had been contempt and the axe, were carving out great States, and banishment. This time they were the Ulsterman was conspicuously pre determined the fruits of their "labors eminent. In the Middle and Southern should be their own. The exodus was States to-day, when a man is spoken of as divided, and took two different routes. being of Scotch-Irish stock, a compliment One stream poured into the country at is implied as a matter of course in this Philadelphia, the other at Charleston. simple statement of a fact.

Thence they wect straight to the frontier. The Irish-Protestant Nonconformists As years passed on, the northern stream began their great exodus to America about pushed its way southwards along the 1720. It would be futile to lament at this slopes of the Alleghanies, and the southlate date the direful policy that drove thou- ero stream moved northward along the sands upon thousands of the virile race that same great mountain rampart, till they had conquered and civilized Ulster to a dis. met. Their ministers, their customs, and tant land. A hundred thousand are said their religion went with them. They to have crossed the Atlantic in ten years. were nominally within the boundaries and The civil disabilities under which ecclesi- jurisdiction of various colonies. Yet they were neither Carolinians, Virginians, or to the last extremity, for death was infiPennsylvanians, but Scotch-Irishmen al- nitely less to be dreaded thao captivity ways, - a sidewy band of fighting farmers, when the Red Indian was the foe. The that for half a century stood between the Indian in warfare, it must be remembered, colonists and the Indians. A generation was really formidable in those days. born in the woods arose, that came to be Regular troops, or ordinary colonial miliknown simply as backwoodsmen. And tia, were at his mercy in the woods. The the backwoodsmen of the eighteenth cen- trained backwoodsman alone was able to tury were a type apart as much almost meet him, and even he could not do so from the ordinary colonial as from the upon more than equal terms. The great European. The vanguard of Western fight at the Greenbriar levels, in West civilization in those days, it must be re- Virginia, in 1774, is one of the most stirring membered, was almost stationary for two in the whole of Indian warfare. About generations, while the Indian contested eleven hundred warriors fought upon each upon even terms every foot of its advance. side, the whites being tried backwoodsmen The Scotch-Irishman, with a leaven of from the Ulster settlements. The latter kindred spirit, formed the vanguard; and won the day, and it is said by one of the a thin line of hardy settlers, stretching one greatest authorities on this subject, that it thousand miles from north to south, stood is the first authentic occasion on which a almost the whole brunt of lodian warfare large body of white troops had actually for fifty years. All this time the back-defeated an equal number of Indians. woodsmen from Ulster remained a race Every one knows what a part the Ulster apart. Isolation and the ceaseless strain immigrants played in the Revolutionary and hardship of their lives modified many War. But the crossing of the Alleghaof their characteristics, and intensified nies, and all that is implied in that short others. The most religious grew more phrase, is the greatest contribution that fanatic, the least zealous lapsed into irreg- the Scotch-Irishman has made to American ularities. Every man was a warrior, liable history. The great states of Kentucky at any moment and ever ready to meet the and Tennessee, the valley of Virginia, and Indian — that greatest of all known savage the fat plenty of the Ohio basio, are lasting warriors - in deadly conflict alone per- monuments to his valor. The familiar haps in the sombre forests that covered names and many of the characteristics the whole land. The settlements pushed still stamp whole regions as civilized toslɔwly forward. While the plough was day as Kent or Hampshire, and we have being driven along the furrow, a loaded rifle seen ourselves in more than one roomy leant agaiost the nearest tree. The house-mansion, the old Kentucky rifle and even wife was ready in her lord's absence to the hunting-shirt of the pioneer ancestor defend the shanty with powder and ball from Ulster, preserved as sacred relics.

ARTIFICIAL “WATER Marks." - Every- | distinguish between the real and fictitious. thing is artificial nowadays, from rubies down. Like many such things, it is extremely simple wards. One would have thought that, except when you know how to do it. In the genuine for the possible purposes of fraud, no object water mark the lines consist of portions of would have been gained by the production of paper which actually contain less material the “ water mark” in paper by other than than similar neighboring parts, while in sputhe legitimate means, which consist in form- rious cases the quantity of paper pulp is the ing the device constituting the water mark in same all over, and it is only compressed into slight relief on the surface of the roll used in less thickness along the lines of the so-called forming a film of paper pulp as the initial water mark. If then the paper be caused to step towards its becoming a sheet. Misplaced swell by immersion in a strong solution of ingenuity has, however, sufficed to produce a caustic soda, the compressed fibre will return spurious water mark by mere pressure on the to its original thickness and the water mark finished paper, and it is sometimes of impor- disappear, while a genuine water mark simitance, particularly in forensic chemistry, to larly treated will become more prominent.

Industries.

Fifth Series, Voiame LXXIX.

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No. 2514. – September 3, 1892.

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CONTENTS.
I. SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. By Sir Henry Elliot, Nineteenth Century,
II. AUNT ANNE. Part IX.,

Temple Bar,
III. HISTORICAL RIMINI,

National Review,
IV. ENGLISH COURT LIFE IN THE EIGHTEENTH
CENTURY,

Temple Bar,
V. THE GREAT WATER-CRESS TRAGEDY, Blackwood's Magasin,
VI. LORD TOLLEMACIIE AND HIS ANECDOTES, Fortnightly Review,
VII. THE DEATH OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, Scottish Review, .

608 621 632 638

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Single copies of the Living AGE, 18 cents.

IN GREEK WATERS.

REMEMBRANCE. I saw a beacon lighted on a hill,

SHE hath forgotten all our songs and chimes, Rising from out the smooth Ionian Sea; And all the foolish and the fond old times. Soon it took shape and spread itself, until She hath forgiven us; shall we not forget,

Another light it showed itself to be - As others use, and be at peace, my rhymes ?
The rising moon. It was no light of earth;
This island-beacon owned a heavenly birth.

But ye make answer,

“ We remember yet,

Though she forgets us, we cannot forget, I saw the sun rise straight out of the sea,

Not though remembrance were the crown

of crimes, Gilding green Scio's isle with newborn light, Till all before me, mountain, tower, and tree, And of all sins most pardonless, regret. Was crowned with glory. 'Twas a goodly Nay, while one cell within the dying brain sight.

One ghost of old illusion may retain, Its fair remembrance shall abide with me,

We shall remember; while the heart can When on this drooping soul falls the dull

keep night.

One pulse of her familiar comrade, pain. We passed Colonna's Cape, where Sunium

“From our whole life this harvest do we reap, stands,

While tears remain this one sin do we weep; With its white temple warning us away; One face we'll follow if we wake again, Bidding us back with deprecating hands,

And this one dream shall haunt us if we Lest on th' enchanted ground we rashly

sleep.stay.

Longman's Magazine. Like ghosts they hover o'er the perilous steep, As those who have received a charge to keep,

To keep the mariner lest he go astray;
Not as those Sirens luring to the shore,
Thy columns, Sunium, haunt us evermore.

EVENING PRIMROSE.
G. J. COWLEY-BROWN.
Chambers' Journal.

Thou dost not love the morning light,

The noontide hour;
Thou lov'st the first-born peace of night,

Fair flower:

LINES ON A STORMY PETREL,

FOUND DYING IN KENSINGTON GARDENS.

He flew long miles over barren lands,

Driven ashore by the stormy seas,
From the purple crags and the golden sands,
From foam, and freedom, and fresh salt

breeze;
Into a city of gloom and smoke,

With its roar of wheels for the ocean's roar, Where the air is heavy, and foul fogs choke;

What does it matter - one victim more?

Not courting gaze of public view,

But glad to bloom
When stars begin to tremble through

Night's gloom.
How many a soul through sunny light

Is sealed fast,
But opens to the touch of night

At last!
The gilded hand of sunlight's power

Has failed; but grief
Awakens into fragrant flower

And leaf.
Sunday Magazine. ARTHUR L. SALMON.

But it's well that a calm green garden lies

Away from the dust, and glare, and din, And that, sad and wearied, with glazing eyes,

The sad little outcast has flown within. So the passer-by at the noontide sees,

Stretched upon leaves that are sere and red,
Under the arms of the sheltering trees,

That a stormy petrel lies stiff and dead.
Oh! wild sea bird, by the tempest tossed,
There are some, alas! who must seek in

vain
For shelter and peace; but their way is lost,

And kind death comes not to end their pain. When youth is passed, with its dreams that

blessed,
And passion is dead, and love has flown,
God grant us rest of his gifts the best -

Ere we drift away to the Great Unknown!
Temple Bar. FLORENCE HENNIKER.

THREE STAGES OF LIFE.
First the fine, faint, dreamy motion

Of the tender blood
Circling in the veins of children

This is life, the bud.
Next the fresh, advancing beauty

Growing from the gloom,
Waking eyes and fuller bosom

This is life, the bloom.
Then the pain that follows after,

Grievous to be borne,
Pricking, steeped in subtle poison -
This is love, the thorn.

NORMAN GALE

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