If I were fair,

Oh! just a little fair, with some soft touch We drove along the lonely ridge

About my face to glorify it much! Last night, towards the edge of dark.

If no one shunn'd my presence, or my kiss, A single star in tranquil skies

My heart would almost break beneath its Shone white above the dreaming park;


'Tis said, each pilgrim shall attain his goal, And over all the shadowy plain

And perfect light shall food each blinded Of empty fields and fading trees

soul, The darkness slowly crept and filled

When day's flush merges into sunsct's bars, The dewy hollows of the leas,

And night is here. And then beyond the stars.

shall be fair! From the pale gold of dying elms


Edith RUTTER. And auburn of the beeches drew The radiant tints, and gently hid

The unknown woods of misty blue.
Then, as we journeyed in the dusk,

And heard the wild owls hoot and cry
From moss-grown barns and haggard trees,

THE rarest of honeysuckle is on the hedgetop Our talk was all of things gone by;


The reddest of rose-red apples swings on Until we almost seemed to see

the good tree's crest; Lord Essex lead his troops again,

The gladdest of songs and singers are lost in And hear the thund'ring crash and thud

the heart of the sky. Of Rupert's horsemen on the plain.

Hark to the lark, and his anthem, soaring Speaker. C. FELLOWES.

away from the nest. Go higher and higher and higher, the high

est is ever the best! Green are the fields of the earth, holy and

sweet her joys; "IF I WERE FAIR."

Take and taste, and be glad - as fruit and [" Then she looked into her mirror."']

blossom and bird, If I were fair!

But still as an exile, soul; then hey! with a If I had little hands and slender feet;

singing voice, If to my cheeks the color rich and sweet

For the stars and sun and sweet heaven, Came at a word, and faded at a frown;

whose ultimate height is the Lord! If I had clinging curls of burnish'd brown;

Ripe, lovely, and glad you shall grow, in If I had dreamy eyes aglow with smiles,

the light of his face and his word. Good Words.

And graceful limbs, and pretty girlish wiles;
If I were fair, Love would not turn aside;
Life's paths, so narrow, would be broad and

If I were fair!

If I were fair,

It was up in the morn we rose betimes
Perhaps like other maidens I might hold From the hall floor hard by the row of limes.
A true heart's store of tried and tested gold.
Love waits on Beauty, though sweet Love It was but John the Red and I,

And we were the brethren of Gregory.
It seems to me, for aught might well atone.
But Beauty's charm is strong, and Love obeys Of the valiant men beneath the sun,

And Gregory the Wright was one
The mystic witchery of her shy ways.
If I were fair, my years would seem so few; And what he bade us that we did,
Life would unfold sweet pictures to my view, For ne'er he kept his counsel hid.
If I were fair!

So out we went, and the clattering latch
If I were fair,

Woke up the swallows under the thatch.
Perhaps the baby, with a scream of joy,
To clasp my neck would throw away its toy,

It was dark in the porch, but our scythes w And hide its dimples in my shining hair,

felt, Bewilder'd by the maze of glory there!

And thrust the whetstone under the belt. But now -ohshadow of a young girl's face; Through the cold garden boughs we went Uncolor'd lips that Pain's cold fingers trace, Where the tumbling roses shed their scent. You will not blame the child whose wee hands close,

Then out a-gates and away we strode Not on the blighted bud, but on the rose O'er the dewy straws on the dusty road. So rich and fair.


From The Contemporary Review. a part, and indeed a great part, of history; THE MIGRATIONS OF THE RACES OF MEN they create nations and build up states ; CONSIDERED HISTORICALLY..

they determine the extension of languages BY JAMES BRYCE.

and laws; they bring wealth to some reTHERE are two senses in which we may gions and leave others neglected; they claim for geography that it is a meeting, mark out the routes of commerce and point of the sciences. All the depart. affect the economic relations of different ments of research which deal with external countries. pature touch one another in and through No line of historical inquiry sets before it - geology, botany, zoology, meteorol. us more clearly at every stage the connecogy, as well as, though less directly, the tion between man as an associative being various branches of physics. There is – toiling, trading, warring, ruling, legis. no one of these whose data are not, to lating - and that physical environment a greater or less extent, also within the whose influence over his development is province of geography ; none whose con- none the less potent and constant because clusions have not a material bearing on he has learnt in obeying it to rule it and geographical problems. And geography to make it yield to him constantly increas. is also the point of contact between the ing benefits. The topic is so large and sciences of nature, taken all together, branches off into so many other cogoate and the branches of inquiry which deal inquiries, that you will not expect me, with man and his institutions. Geography within the narrow limits of an address, to gathers up, so to speak, the results which do more than draw its outlines, enumerate the geologist, the botanist, the zoologist, the principal causes whose action it sets and the meteorologist have obtained, and before us, touch upon its history, and presents them to the student of history, refer to a few out of the many problems of economics, of politics — we might, per its consideration raises. The migrations haps, add of law, of philology, and of of peoples have been among the most architecture – as an important part of the potent factors in making the world of data from which he must start, and of the to-day different from the world of thirty materials to which he will have to refer centuries ago. If they continue they will at many points in the progress of his be scarcely less potent in their influence researches. It is with this second point on the future of the race; if they cease, of contact, this aspect of geography as that cessation will itself be a fact of the the basis for history, that we are to oc- highest economic and social significance. cupy ourselves to-night. Understanding At the outset it is convenient to dis. that the Scottish Geographical Society tinguish the different forms which movedesires to bring into promioence what ments of population have taken. These may be called the human side of the sci-forms may be grouped under three heads, ence, and to inculcate its sigoificance for which I propose to call by the names of those who devote themselves to the pres transference, dispersion, and permeation ently urgent problems of civilized society, dames which need a few words of illus. I have chosen, as not uosuitable to an tration. inaugural address, a subject which belongs

By transference I mean that form of almost equally to physical and descriptive migration in which the whole, or a large geology on the one side, to history and majority of a race or tribe quits its ancient economics on the other. The movements seats in a body and moves into some other of the races and tribes of mankind over region. Such migrations seldom occur the surface of our planet are in the first except in the case of nomad peoples who instance determined maioly by the phys- are little attached to any particular piece ical conditions of its surface and its of soil ; but we may almost class among atmosphere ; but they become themselves the nomads tribes who, like our own

remote Teutonic ancestors, although they An inaugural address delivered at the first meeting of the London branch of the Scottish Geographical cultivate the soil, put no capital into it in Society.

the way of permanent improvements, and


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build po dwellings of brick or stone. The migrating population becomes fused with prehistoric migrations usually belonged to that which it finds, depends chiefly on the this form, and so did that great series of difference between the level of civiliza. movements which brought the northern tion of the two races. Between the En. races into the Roman Empire in the fifth glish settlers in North America and the and sixth centuries of our era. In mod native Indians there has been hardly any ern times we find few instances, because mixture of blood ; between the French in such nomad races as remain are now shut Canada and the Indians there was a little up within narrow limits by the settled more; between the Spaniards and the less states that surround them, which have barbarous inhabitants of Mexico there has possessed, since the invention of gun. been so much that the present Mexican powder and of standing armies, enor- mation is a mixed one, the native blood mously superior defensive strength.* We doubtless predominating. Something, should, however, have had an interesting however, also depends on the relative case to point to had the Dutch, when numbers of the two races; and some. pressed by the power of Philip II., em-times religion keeps a dispersed people braced the offer that came to them from from commingling with those among England to migrate in a body and estab- whom it dwells, as has happened in the lish themselves, their dairying, their flax case of the Jews, the Armenians, and the cultare, and their linen manufacture in stance of an extremely small nation -- for the rich pastures and humid air of Ire. Parsees. These last are a remarkable inland.

there are not eighty thousand of them all Under the head of migrations by dis- told — who, without any political organ. persion, I include those cases in which a ization, have by virtue of their religion tribe or race, while retaining its ancient preserved their identity for more than a seats, overflows into new lands, whether thousand years. Dispersion has been the vacant or already occupied ; in the latter most widely operative form of migration event sometimes ejecting the original in- in modern times, owing to those improvehabitants, sometimes fusing with them, ments in navigation which have enabled sometimes dwelling among them, but remote parts of our large world, separated remaining distinct.

by broad and stormy seas, to be colonized Examples are furnished by the case of more easily than in the tiny world of the Norsemen, who found Iceland prac. ancient or mediæval times was possible tically vacant, while in England they be even by land. came easily, in Ireland and Gaul more The third form, wbich we may call slowly, mingled with the previous inhabi- permeation or assimilation, is not in tants. When our own ancestors came from strictness a form of migration at all, bethe Frisian coast they slew or drove out cause it may exist where the number of the bulk of the Celtic population; when persons changing their dwelling-place is the Franks entered Gaul they became extremely small; but it deserves to be commingled with it. It is by such a proc. reckoned with the other two forms because ess of dispersion that the British race it produces effects closely resembling has spread itself out over North America theirs in altering the character of a popu. and Australasia. In much smaller num- lation. I use the term permeation to cover bers, the Spaniards diffused themselves those instances, both numerous and impor. over southern North America, and the tant, in which one race or nation so spreads northern and western parts of South over another race or nation its language, America ; and by a similar process the its literature, its religion, its, institutions, Russians have for two centuries been very its customs, or some one or more of these slowly filling the better parts of Siberia. sources of influence, as to impart its owa Whether in each case of dispersion the character to the nation so influenced, and

thus to supersede the original type by its In 1771 a great Kalmuk horde moved en masse from the steppes of the Caspian to the frontiers of

lo such a process the infusion of China, losing more than half its numbers on the way. new blood from the stronger people to the



weaker may be comparatively slight, yet | native races, possibly with little social inif sufficient time be allowed, the process timacy between them. The instances just may end by a virtual identification of the mentioned show in what different ways two. Of course, when there is much in and varying degrees assimilation may take termarriage, not only does the change pro- place. In some of them the assimilated ceed faster, but it tells on the permeating race still retains a distinct national char. as well as on the permeated race. The acter. The Moor of Morocco, for inearliest instance of this diffusion of a stance, differs from the Arab much as the civilization with little immixture of blood Greek-speaking Syrian and the Latin. is to be found in the action of the Greek speaking Lusitanian differed from a Greek language, ideas, and manners upon the of Attica or a Roman of Latium. But the countries round the eastern half of the Finnish tribes of northern and eastern Mediterranean, and particularly upon Russia, Voguls, Tcheremisses, TchuAsia Minor. The native languages to vasses, and Mordvios, who have been some extent held their ground for a while gradually Russified during the last two in the wilder parts of the interior, but the centuries, are on their way to become upper classes and the whole type of cul- practically undistinguishable from the true ture became everywhere Hellenic. In the Slavonic Russians of Kieff. And to come same way the Romans Romanized Gaul nearer home, the Celts of Cornwall have and Spain and North Africa. In the same been Anglified, and those of the Highlands way the Arabs in the centuries immedi- of Scotland have in many districts become ately after Mohammed Arabized not only assimilated to the Lowland Scotch, with Egypt and Syria, but the whole of North no great intermixture of blood. Africa, down to and including the maritime It is worth while to be exact in distinparts of Morocco, and have in later times, guishing this process of permeation from though to a far smaller extent, established cases of dispersion, because the two often the influence of their language and religion go together — that is to say, the migration on the coasts of East Africa and in parts of a certain, though perhaps a small numof the East Indian Archipelago. There is ber of persons of a vigorous and masterful reason to believe, though our data are race into a territory inhabited by another scanty, that in a somewhat similar way the race of less force, or perhaps on a lower Aryan tribes, who entered India at a very level of culture, is apt to be followed by a remote time, diffused their language, reli- predominance of the stronger type, or at gion, and customs over northern Hindus- any rate by such a change in the character tan as far as the Bay of Bengal, changing of the whole population as leads men in to some extent the dark races whom they later times to assume that the number of found in possession of the country, but migrating persons must have been large. being also so commingled with those more The cases of the Greeks in western Asia numerous races as to lose much of their and the Spaniards in the New World are own character. Hinduism and languages in point. We talk of Asia Minor as if it derived from Sanskrit came to prevail | had become a Greek country under Alex. from the Indus to the Brahmaputra, al- ander's successors, of Mexico and Peru as though it would seem that to the east of Spanish countries after the sixteenth cen. the Jumna the proportion of Aryan intrud- tury, yet in both instaoces the native popers was very small. We ourselves in ulation must have largely preponderated. India are giving to the educated and If therefore we were to look only at the wealthier class so much that is English in changes which the speech, the customs, the way of ideas and literature that if the the ideas and institutions of nations have process continues for another century, our undergone, we might be disposed to attribtongue may have become the lingua ute too much to the mere movement of franca of India, and our type of civiliza- races, too little to the influences which tion have extinguished all others. Yet if force of character, fertility of intellect, and this happens it will happen with no mixture command of scientific resource have exerof blood between the European and the cised, and are still exercising, as the lead



ing races become more and more the gates of the empire, found those gates owners and rulers of the backward regions uodefended, entered the tempting coun. of the world.

tries that lay towards the Mediterranean II. We may now proceed to inquire and the ocean, and drew others on to fol. what have been the main causes to which low. Of modern instances the most rean outflow or an overflow of population markable is the stream of emigration from one region to another is due. Omit. which began to swell out of Ireland after ting, for the present, the cases of small the great famine of 1846–7, and which has colonies founded for special purposes, not yet ceased to flow. these causes may be reduced to three. Among civilized peoples the same force They are food, war, and labor. These is felt in a slightly different form. As three correspond in a sort of rough way to population increases the competition for three stages in the progress of mankind, the means of livelihood becomes more the first belonging especially to his savage intense, while at the same time the standand semi-civilized conditions, the second ard of comfort tends to rise. Hence those to that in which he organizes himself in on whom the pressure falls heaviest (if political communities and uses his organ- they are not too shiftless to move), and ization to prey upon or reduce to servitude those who have the keenest wish to better his weaker neighbor; the third to that their condition, forsake their homes for wherein industry and commerce have be- lands that lie under another sun. It is come the ruling factors in his society and thus that the Russian peasantry have been wealth the main object of his efforts. The steadily moving from the north to the correspondence, however, is far from exact, south of European Russia, till they have because the need of subsistence remaios now occupied the soil down to the very through the combative and the industrial foot of Caucasus for some five bundred periods a potent cause of migration, while miles from the point they had reached a the love of war and pluoder, active even century and a half ago. It is thus that, among savages, is by no means extinct in on a smaller scale, the Greek-speaking the mature civilization of to-day.

population of the west coast of Asia In speaking of food, or rather the want Minor is creeping eastward up the river of food, as a cause, we must include several valleys, and beginning to re-colonize the in. sets of cases. One is that in which sheer terior of that once prosperous region. It hunger, due perhaps to a drought or a is thus that North America and Australasia hard winter, drives a tribe to move to have been filled by the overflow of Europe some new region where the beasts of during the last sixty years, for before that chase are more numerous, or the pastures time the growth of the United States and are not exhausted, or a more copious rain. of Canada had been mainly a home growth fall favors agriculture.* Another is that from the small seeds planted two hunof a tribe increasing so fast that the pre-dred years earlier. That the mere spirit existing means of subsistence no longer of enterprise, apart from the increase of suffice for its wants. And a third is that population, counts for little as a cause of where, whether or not famine be present migration, seems to be shown not only by to spur its action, a people conceives the the slight outflow from Europe during last desire for life in a richer soil or a more century, but by the fact that France, genial climate. To one or other of these where the population is practically stacases we may refer nearly all the move- tionary, sends out no emigrants save a few ments of populations in primitive times, to Algeria, while the steady movement the best known of which are those which from Norway and Sweden does little more brought the Teutonic and Slavonic tribes than relieve the natural growth of the popinto the Roman Empire. They had a hard ulation of those countries. As regards life in northern and eastern Europe; their European emigration to America, it is natural growth exceeded the resources worth noting that during the last thirty which their pastoral or village area sup. years it has been steadily extending, not plied, and when once one or two had be only eastwards towards the inland parts of gun to press upon their neighbors, the Europe, but also downwards in the scale disturbance was felt by each in succession of civilization, tapping, so to speak, lower until some, pushed up against the very and lower strata. Between 1840 and 1850

the flow towards America was chiefly from • A succession of dry seasons, which may merely the British Isles. From 1849 onwards, it diminish the harvest of those who inhabit tolerably began to be considerable from Germany humid regions, will produce such a famine in the inner parts of a continent like Asia as to force the people to also, and very shortly afterwards from seek some better dwelling-place.

Scandinavia, reaching a figure of hundreds

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