Fifth Series, Volume LXXIX.


No. 2505. — July 2, 1892.


From Beginning,


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Nineteenth Century,

Blackwood's Magasine, .

Quarterly Review, .


Temple Bar,




Saturday Review, .



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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

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Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


Pretty robin, there's a maiden tall, and fair, I am waiting alone while shadows grow,

and rather stately, and the light in the west departeth slow,

With a voice as soft as yours is, dwelling Waiting, while breezes come and go,

in that very cot, In the sunset glow.

And her tresses catch the sunbeams, though

she speaks and moves sedately, 4 rosebud gleams through the failing light, And her eyes are just the color of a blue Just the ghost of a rosebud, pure and white,

forget-me-not. In its heart a glistening dewdrop bright Will he come to-night?

Whisper, robin can you tell me is she wan

d'ring by the river, “I will come to you when the sun gleams red

Where the catkins clothe the willows and O'er the golden.sea in the west,” he said;

the water-cresses grow? Alas / the sun has already fled,

Tell me robin, pretty robin, and I'll be your And the day is dead.

debtor ever,

For her father does not love me, and so, The sea gleams grey 'neath the twilight sky, mind you, whisper low. The seagulls homeward wheeling fly

Chambers' Journal.

M. Rock. To their nests on the cliff-side, bare and high,

And still wait I.

He is tarrying yet upon his way,
Tarrying he, while I wait and pray

At the garden gate, 'neath the rose's spray,
Where the moonbeams play.

He carved a flute of elder green,

And notched it well and true, Ah! how the perfume of that rose

Then pursed his lips and puffed his cheeks, Amid the silence heavy grows !

And merrily he blew.
The wand'ring night-wind scarcely blows
In the dread repose.

For it was springtime holiday,

A sun-tanned boy was he,
“I will come,” he said. Ah! Love, come With russet freckles on his face

And a patch upon his knee.
For Time flies fast, I know not how.
I wait beneath the rose's bough,

The apple boughs above him flung
But where art thou?

Their tangled sprays on high,
Chambers' Journal.
LYDIA M. WOOD. With one dark, bristly blue-jay nest

Rough-sketched against the sky.
He knew the secrets of the grass,

The burden of the hour,

He saw the fierce, bluff bumblebee

Touse many a clover flower. OH, you pretty robin, keeping watch beside a lowly dwelling,

Orphaned and poor as poor could be, Where the happy sunshine rushes o'er the

The years before him lay gorse bloom bright and gay,

Dark billows of an unknown sea, Where the blackbirds and the thrushes are

No lighthouse on the way. their loud love-stories telling Do you know, I fancy, robin, you as sweetly and yet, and yet his elder flute sing as they

Could bring him comfort true; Do you see that verdant meadow where the He pursed his lips and puffed his cheeks buttercups are growing,

And blew, and blew, and blew ! Where the golden-hearted daisies twinkle

Maurice Thompson's " Poems." 'mid the tender grass ? Do you mark the lights and shadows that the

fleecy clouds are throwing, As across the sky of azure they fantastically pass?

DIY :RIEND. Just above it there's a cottage, sheltered by My friend is one whom I have fancied cold the budding beeches,

In early days of converse, but whose hold Where the cherry bloom is scattered on the Upon my heartstrings grew to links of gold.

serried crocus lines By the playful south wind's antics, where the Deep like the sea, with riches still unguessed, glistening ivy reaches

I cling to what is seen and dream the rest, To the red-tiled roof and chimneys where Knowing that what appears is not the best. the green wisteria twines.



From The Nineteenth Century. of the group, and on examining the whole, RECENT SCIENCE,

one cannot refrain from concluding that

the stars are simply spots upon which the I. A BREATH of youthful energy and youth and condensed to make new suns.

diffuse nebulous matter has agglomerated

The ful hopes inspires modern astronomical work. “ Astronomy, the oldest of the

same is also seen in the photographs of

the nebulæ in Orion - the more so as the sciences, has more than renewed her youth," as William Huggins said at the spectroscope reveals the unity of compoend of the inaugural address he delivered sition of both the stars and the nebula before the last meeting of the British As. which surround them and link them tosociation. Since the spectroscope, for

gether. merly used but to study and reveal the

Still more interesting results have been chemical composition of the celestial obtained by H. C. Russell with his photobodies, has become an instrument for graphs of nebulæ in the constellation of measuring their unseen movements and

Argus. His earlier photographs, obtained for penetrating into the secrets of their by a three-hours' exposure, have already history, and since photography has been

been referred to with admiration by Wil. taken as a necessary auxiliary by astron.

liam Huggins in his address. But when omers, a new chapter of astro-physics has

the photographic film was exposed for been opened. The proper movements of eight hours to the faint light of the nebula, the stars have acquired a new meaning; not only shows that the debulous matter

new facts were revealed. The photograph the faint masses of nebulous matter, scattered round and amidst the stars, have

extends far beyond the limits assigned to become animated indications of the gene servations at the Cape, while confirming

it by Herschel during his memorable obsis of solar systems; and the great prob- at the same time the great accuracy of the lems relative to the life of the stellar description of what he did see; it also worlds — their origin, their growth, their decay, and their rejuvenescence have

proves that the nebula has lived since come again to the front, supported by re

1837, and has altered considerably its newed hopes as to the proximity of their aspect during the last fifty years. At the ultimate solution.

very same place where Herschel saw one It is not possible, indeed, to examine

of its brightest and most conspicuous the splendid photographs, made by Mr. parts, we have now a dark oval space, upon Roberts, of the nebula in Andromeda, and which go trace of luminous matter can be to see this whirlpool of luminous matter, drawn elsewhere, or is luminous no more ;

detected. The matter either has been divided into dark and bright rings surrounding a large, undefined central mass,

may be, it is passing through some stage without perceiving in it a gigantic solar preparatory to the appearance of a new system in the way of formation, and with. star. We are thus convinced that these out concluding in favor of a similar origin, tic their dimensions, are living at a much

accumulations of matter, however giganon a much smaller scale, of our own solar system. The best drawings of the same

more rapid speed than we were prepared Debula, which were made by Bood and

to admit. Changes occur in them, even John Herschel with the aid of the best within the short limits of one man's life; telescopes, told nothing of the kind; the and as the new star in Auriga, rapidly complicated structure of the nebula, its passing through a series of transformalife, were missing in what was reproduced tions, reveals to us the secrets of the by the peo of a cautious observer.

birth of new suns,* so also we may hope Again, in another part of the sky - the

that the study of the modifications of the Pleiades - the photographs of the Broth. nebulæ will initiate us into the secrets of ers Henry show at once that this cluster

the earlier stages of development of the of suns is not an occasional gathering.

stellar worlds. In the movements of those Streaks of nebulous matter, revealed by See an article by Mr. Norman Lockyer in LIVING photography, connect together the stars Age, No. 2497, p. 323.

remote agglomerations we learn to feel | The spectra of the stars, tbe nebulæ, the the continuous life of nature, its continu- corona, and the protuberances of the sun, ous change, its evolution.

are now photographed; and by this means When the great photographic map of the powers of the astronomer are considerthe whole sky is ready, many a change in ably extended. He can study the specthe stellar worlds and nebulæ which es- trum in its ultra-violet part, which is not capes now our attention will be recorded visible to the eye, as it hardly acts upon forever. The preparatory work is already our retina, while its chemical rays act completed ; the instruments are chosen, very well upon the photographic sensitive and the uniformity of methods is secured. plate; he obtains greater enlargements of The sky is apportioned between the eigh- the spectrum, and he can study the spectra teen observatories which will perform the at his leisure and measure the positions of whole of this immense work, each of them the bright or dark lines which intersect having to make from one thousand to fif-them - the more so as the spectrum of teen huodred separate photographs in some well-known body (incandescent hy order to map all stars down to the sixteenth drogeo or iron) is photographed on the magnitude; and the first specimens already same plate for the sake of comparison. published satisfy the most severe exigen. This method has already given some excies of the astronomers. Many new facts cellent results. It has permitted us to are sure to be revealed by this grand sur- measure the movements of the stars in vey of the sky, because even now, when a the line of vision with a quite unexpected simple preliminary exploration is being accuracy. The proper movements of the made, we can already mention some dis- stars offer an immense interest; but while coveries due to photography. Thus, when we always could ascertain their movethe amateur astronomer, Dr. Anderson ments north and south, or west and east, (equipped with but a small pocket tele on the celestial sphere, we formerly had scope and the little atlas of the sky by no means of telling whether a star is apKlein), discovered on the 31st of January proaching us, or going away, during its the new star in Auriga, it appeared that displacements in space.

The spectro the newcomer had already been photo-scope gives those means. The spectrum graphed without astronomers being aware of a star usually consists of a band of faint of the fact. Professor Pickering found its light, intersected by several bright (or portrait on photographs taken on three dark) lines, corresponding to the lines apdifferent occasions since the ist of De- pearing in the spectra of hydrogen, cal. cember, and the indefatigable Heidelberg cium, iron, magnesium, natrium, and so astronomer, Max Wolf, also had it on his on. But if we reproduce under the specphotographs since the 8th of the same trum of the star the spectrum of, say, month. The appearance of the new star hydrogen, we often see that the hydrogen thus would have been recorded, even if lines in the former do not quite coincide nobody had remarked its appearance. with the same lines of the latter; they Another photographic discovery is due to are slightly displaced to the right or to the the same Max Wolf. Having photo-left. William Huggins long ago explained graphed one part of the sky on two con. that this displacement is due to the proper secutive nights in December, he sent his movements of the stars and gives a means negatives to Dr. Berberich, who at once of measuring them, and Mr. Christie ever noticed that two minute spots had changed measured in this way, several years ago, their positions in the twenty-four hours. the otherwise invisible movements of sev. One of them proved to be a new addition eral stars. In fact, the blue and violet to the list of minor planets, while the other light of the spectrum is due to very quick, was a previously known small planet of the luminous vibrations, while its red light is same group

due to much slower vibrations, just as the However, the chief progress recently high pitch of a sound depends on much achieved in physical astronomy is due to quicker vibrations of the air than the low the spectroscope aided by photography. I pitch. But if a star approaches us with a great rapidity, our eye will receive from ittance. We may calculate beforehand tha more vibrations in a second, and its light at a given moment Venus will approach will appear bluer, so to say; in other words, the Earth at a speed of 7.4 miles in a secits spectral bright lines will be shifted ond; and when we determine the same towards the blue end of its spectrum; and speed with the aid of the spectroscope, we they will be shifted towards the red end if find 7.8 miles. The spectroscope errs by the star goes away with the same rapidity. but four-tenths of a mile — by less than In our century of railways many of us must seven hundred yards ! * have witnessed an analogous fact when We may thus place full confidence in looking at an express train passing by a our new auxiliaries. When Mrs. Flemstation. When the rapidly running engine ming and Miss Maury, on examining the sounds its whistle, the pitch of the whistle spectrum of B Lyræ, remarked that it seems to become higher as the train ap- consists in reality of two spectra periodproaches us, and it seems to become lower ically superposed, and Professor Pickerwhen it goes away - the ear receiving in a ing concluded therefrom that the star must second of time more and more vibrations consist of two luminous bodies which in the former case, and less vibrations in rotate around a common centre of gravity the second case. So it is also with the at a very great speed, † or when we are stars, and the advantages of having the told that the new Auriga star consists of spectrum of the star and the comparison at least three separate agglomerations of spectrum photographed on the same plate incandescent gases, we can safely rely are self-evident.

upon these conclusions. If we examine, for iostance, the photo- And, finally, the spectroscope, combined graphed spectra of Sirius we see that their with photography, enables us to explore hydrogen lines are always shifted towards the ultra-violet part of the spectrum quite the blue end of the spectrum, and from invisible to the eye. By using this method, this we may safely conclude that the star Hale at Chicago, and Deslandres at Paris, is approaching us. And if we calculate obtain day by day the positions of those the speed of its approach, we find it (after solar emissions of incandescent gas, or having taken into account the movement protuberances, which consist chiefly of of the earth in its orbit) to be about seven incandescent hydrogen, and the light of miles in a second. The measurements which is so feeble that they escape obmay be made at different observatories servation, even during the eclipses of the and at different seasons of the year; the sun, when its light is screened by the final results will not differ from each other moon. The movements of these invisible by more than one mile, or even a fraction clouds are now studied like the movements of a mile. We do not know the immense of our own atmosphere, and we learn that distance which separates us from Sirius, the laws of cyclonic storms which prevail we only gauge it by saying that its light on the earth hold good for the hot vapors takes nearly sixteen and a half years to of hydrogen and calcium on the surface reach us; but a change of seven miles per of the sun. The unity of Nature and second in that enormous distance is re- her laws thus receives a further brilliant vealed by the spectrum. These results confirmation. seem almost incredible, and they could not be relied upon had they not been submitted to severe tests. Thus we know the ANOTHER question which, although it movements of the earth in its orbit, and we has a direct bearing upon our own terresconclude that they must be reflected in trial affairs, preoccupies astronomers conour measurements, if these measurements siderably, is the variation of latitudes. are sufficiently accurate; and they are reflected with perfect accuracy. Again, • Prof. Vogel at the Astronomical Society (Observawe know the distance which separates us

tory, January, 1892).

| Observatory, October, 1891. from Venus, and how the movements of I Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, both the Earth and Venus affect this dis- | 1891, t. 113, P. 307.


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