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meots may have taken place. A reason interior of the bodies to give rise to enorable explanation may perhaps be found, mous eruptions of the hotter matter from if we venture to assume, though with some within, immensely greater but similar in hesitation, as the subject is very obscure, kind to solar eruptions. two gaseous bodies, or bodies with gaseous In such a state of things we should atmospheres, moving away from each other have, in the existence of portions of the after a near approach in parabolic or same gas at different levels and temperahyperbolic orbits. If our sun were nearly tures, conditions so favorable for the proin the line of axis of the orbits, the com- duction of reversed lines undergoing ponents of the motions of the two bodies continual change, similar to those exhibin the line of sight after the bodies had ited by the lines of the nova, that we swung round, might well be as rapid and could not suppose them to be absent. The remain relatively as unchanged as those integration of light from all parts of the observed in the new star. Unfortunately, disturbed surfaces of the bodies might decisive information from the motions of give breadth to the lines, and might ac. the two bodies at the critical time of the count for the varying irregularities of outburst is wanting, for the event through intensity of different parts of the lines. which the star became bright had been The source of the light of the continu. over for some forty days before observa. ous spectrum, upon which were seen the tions were made with the spectroscope. dark lines of absorption shifted towards Analogy from the variable stars of long the blue, must have remained behind the period would suggest the view that the cooler absorbing gas; indeed must have near approach of the two bodies may have formed with it the body which was ap. been of the nature of a periodical disturb- proaching us, unless we assume that ance arising at long intervals in a com- both bodies were moving exactly in the plex system of bodies. Chandler has line of sight, or that the absorbing gas was recently shown in the case of Algol that of very enormous extent. the minor irregularities in the variation of The difference of state between the its light are probably caused by the pres two bodies, as shown by the receding one ence of one or more bodies in the system emitting bright lines, while the approachbesides the bright star and the dusky one ing body behaved similarly to a white star which partially eclipses it. To a similar in giving a continuous spectrum with cause are probably due the minor irregu. broad absorption lines, may perhaps be larities which form so prominent a feature accounted for by the two bodies being in in the waxing and waning of the variable different evolutionary stages, and differing stars as a class. We know, too, that the consequently in diffuseness and in temstellar orbits are usually very eccentric. perature. We appear, indeed, to have a In the case of y Virginis, the eccentricity similar state of things in the variable star ß is as great as oʻ9, and Auwers has recently Lyræ, of which one component star gives found Sirius to have the considerable bright lines, and the other a spectrum eccentricity of o.63.

with dark lines of absorption. In the case But a casual near approach of two bodies of the nova, we must assume a similar of great size would be a greatly less im- chemical nature for both bodies, and that probable event than an actual collision. they existed under conditions sufficiently The phenomena of the new star scarcely similar for equivalent dark and bright permit us to suppose even a partial col. lioes to appear in their respective spectra. lision, though if the bodies were diffused We know nothing of the distance of the enough, or the approach close enough, nova from our system, but the assumption there may bave been possibly some mu- is not an improbable one, that it was as tual interpenetration and mingling of the far away from us as the nova of 1876, for rare gases near their boundaries.

which Sir Robert Ball failed to find any An explanation which would better parallax. If this be so, the emission of accord with what we know of the behavior light suddenly set up in the very faint of the nova may, perhaps, be found in a stars, certainly within two days, and posview put forward many years ago by sibly, as in the case of the nova of 1866, Klinkerfues and recently developed by within a few hours, was much greater Wilsing, that under such circumstances than the light emitted by our sun. Yet of near approach enormous tidal disturb within some fifty days after its discovery ances would be set up, amounting, it at the end of January, its light fell to about may be, to partial deformation in the case the one-three-hundredth part, and in some of a gaseous body, and producing suffi. three months to the one-ten-thousandth cicatly great changes of pressure in the part. So long as its spectrum could be observed, the chief features remained un fact, covering the dust of the Poet; the changed. Under what conditions could Figure itself standing at the head of the we suppose the sun to cool down suffi- grave, against the wall. — And so enough ciently for its light to decrease to a similar of it; and may the poor little Package extent in so short a time, and without the arrive safe, and kindly bring me before incurring of material changes in the solar you again ! spectrum ? It is, therefore, scarcely con- I have been silent this long while, only ceivable that we have to do with the con- hearing of you from third parties ; the version of gravitational energy into light more is the pity for me. In fact, I have and heat. On the view we have ventured not been well; travelling, too, in Scotland, to suggest, the rapid calming down, after in Ireland; much tumbled about by mani. some swayings to and fro of the tidal dis. fold confusions outward and inward ; and turbances, and the closing in again of the have, on the whole, been silent to all the outer and cooler gases, together with the world; silent till clearer days should want of transparency which often comes come. I have still no fixed work; nothin under such circumstances, might ac.ing in the dark chaos that it could seem count reasonably for the very rapid, and at beautiful to conquer and do; - no work to first curiously fluctuating, waning of the write at; and as for reading, alas that has nova, as well as for the want of change in become, and is ever more becoming, a its spectrum.

most sorry business for me, and often The writer may be permitted to state enough I feel as if Caliph Omar, long ago, that the view suggested by Dr. Allen was pretty much in the right after all ; as Miller and himself in the case of the if there might be worse feats than burning nova of 1866, was so far similar that they whole continents of rhetorical, logical, ascribed its outbursts to erupted gases, historical, philosophical jangle, and insinbut with our present knowledge of the cere obsolete rubbish, out of one's way; light-changes of stars, the writer would and leaving some living God's-message, now hesitate to make the further sug. real Koran or “ Thing worth reading” in gestion that chemical action may have its stead! These are my heterodoxies, contributed to its sudden and transient my paradoxes of which too I try to know splendor. WILLIAM HUGGINS. the limits. But in very deed I do expect

from the region of Silence some salvation for myself and others; not from the region of Speech, of written or Oral Babblement,

unless that latter very much alter soon! From The New Review. Cant has filled the whole universe, - from LETTERS OF CARLYLE TO VARNHAGEN Nadir up to Zenith, — God deliver us !

Preuss's “ Friedrich" has not yet Chelsea, London: Decr. 16, 1846. reached hither, except through private MY DEAR SIR, – Yesterday there went channels; but I mean to make an effort from Mr. Nutt's shop, imbedded, I sup- for sight of it by and by. I have the old pose, in a soft mass of English Litera. "Euvres de Frédéric" beside me here; ture, - a small box bearing your address; but without chronology and perpetual which I hope may reach you safely, in commentary they are entirely illegible. – time for a New-year's remembrance of me. “ Zinzendorf" received long since, and It is a model of the Tomb of Shakespeare, read : thanks ! – Yours ever truly, done by an ingenious little artist here;

T. CARLYLE. which may perhaps interest you or some of your friends, for a moment. I under.

Chelsea, London: March 3, 1847. stand the likeness in all respects to be MY DEAR SIR, – Some ten days ago nearly perfect, — which indeed is the sole your new volume of " Denkwürdigkeiten merit of such a thing ; - a perfect copy of was safely handed in to me; I fancy it the old monument, as it stands within must have been delayed among the ice of Stratford Church for these two centuries the Elbe, for the note accompanying it and more :— only with regard to that part bears date a good while back. Thanks of the Inscription, "Sweet friends, for for this new kindness; a valued Gift, to be Jesus' sake," &c. to these lines, which in counted with very many other which I now the model have found room for themselves owe to you. Some time before, there directly under the Figure of Shakespeare, had arrived your announcement that the you are to understand that, in the original, little Tomb of Shakespeare had made its they lay on the floor of the Church, some way across the impediments and, what three feet in advance of the Figure ; in was very welcome to me, that you meant

VON ENSE.

to show it to Herr Tiek. Surely, there is be excited and ever anew excited, till it also no man in all the world that deserves bet- had to kiodle and flame along with him. ter to see it! Will you say to him, if he "Kerle, Ihr sehet aus wie Schweine !" knows my name at all, that I send him my and then these scenes, as at Katztadt, affectionate respects and salutations ; that," Napoleon just behind me, say you ?" or for the last twenty years and more, he has to the enthusiastic Public on the streets flourished always in my mind as a true of Halberstadt, “ So mögt Ihr denn alle noble “Singing.Tree" in that German !"- I have laughed aloud at such land of Phantasus and Poesis, that I, and paivetes, every time they have come into very many here, still listen to him with the my mind since. Thanks again and again friendliest regards, with true love and rev- for painting us such pictures, a real poserence, and bid him live long as a veteran session for all men. very precious to us. Your king did no act Of my own affairs I can report no alterthat got him more votes from the instructed ation hitherto. I remain contentedly idle; part of this Community, than that of his shall doubtless feel a call to work again recalling Tiek in the way he did, to a by and by, but wait unbeschreiblich ruhig couotry where he was indeed unique, and (as Attila Schmelze has it) for that ques. which had good reason to be proud of tionable consummation! I am very seri. him.

ous in my ever deepening regard for the I have read the new volume of “ Denk- "Silences” that are in our Existence, würdigkeiten ; "and am veritably called to quite unheeded in these poor days; and thank you, not in my private capacity do, for myself, regard Book-writing in alone, but as a speaker for the Public such a time as but a Pis-aller. With withal. If the Public thought as I do on which nevertheless one must persevere! such matters, that is to say, if the Pub-Adieu, my dear Sir, enliven me soon by lic were not more or less a blockhead - the another letter.— Yours ever, Public would say to itself, “This is the

T. CARLYLE. kind of thing that before all others is good for me at present! This, to give me an

Chelsea, London: Nov. 5, 1847. account of memorable actions and events, MY DEAR SIR, — It is a long time since in more and more compact, intelligent, I heard from you; a long time since I illuminative form, evolving for me more wrote to you, -a still longer indeed ; so and more the real essence of said ac- that, however I may regret, there is no tions and events, - this is Literature, Art, room for complaining : it is my own blame ! Poetry, or what name you like to give it; Your last letter found me in Yorkshire; this is the real problem the writing.man wandering about the country, as I long has to solve for me, at present." Truly if continued to do, in the brightest Autumn I had command over you, I should say, weather; I did not get the Schiller book

Memoirs, and ever new Memoirs !” | into actual possession till my return home, There are no books that give me so lively some little while ago; when I found there an impression of modern Facts as these had a second volume also arrived. Many of yours do. Withal I get a view as if kind thanks to you for such a Gift. For into the very heart of Prussia through its own worth, and for sake of the Giver, them; which also is highly valuable to it is right welcome to me. I finished the me. I can only bid you persevere, give second volume last night; my most interus what is possible; and must reflect with esting book for many months past; in regret that one man's capabilities in such great haste, I send you forthwith a word of respect are limited and not uolimited.

hasty, acknowledgment:- in great eagerLast week too I have read with the live- ness for the Sequel too! The book does liest interest your book on “ Blücher," not say who is Editor ; have not You yourwhich I had not sufficiently studied before. self perhaps some hand in it? Whoever A Capital Book; a capital rough old Prus- the Editor may be, the whole world is siao Mastiff set forth to us there! I seem bound to thank him. Never before did to see old Blücher face to face; recognize one see Schiller; the authentic homely his supreme and indispensable worth in Prose Schiller, out of whom the Hero that vast heterogeneous Combination, Schiller as seen in Poetry and on the which also to him was indispensable ; for Public Stage hitherto, had to fashion himin a common element, one sees, he might self and grow! And truly, as you say, very easily have spent himself, as hun- they are one and the same. For the dreds like him have done, to compara veracity, and real unconscious manliness tively small purpose ; but that huge, inert of this poor, hungry Schilier of Prose, mass was always there to fall back upon, to fighting his battle with the confusion of

LIVING AGE. VOL. LXXIX. 4083

were

the world, are everywhere admirable. No | ally had some image of you_kept lurid cant in him; no weak sentimentalism; he and vivid in our circle here. Forgive my has recognized the rugged fact in all its silence — silence is not good altogether, contradictoriness ; looks round, with rapid, when there are kind hearts that will listen eager eye, upon his various milk-cows of and reply! The advent of the New Year finance, “ This one will yield me so much, admonishes me that I should open my that so much, and I shall get through leaden lips, and speak once more, after all !" -- and is climbing towards the it but as Odin's Prophetess, from the belly Ideal, all the while, by an impulse as if of the Grave! In the language of the from the Gods. Throughout I recollected season, I wish you a right brave New that portrait you sent me; with its big Year, and as many of them as your heart jaws, loose lips, hasty, eager eyes, - all as can still victoriously port in such a world. in loose onset and advance, “ Forward ! Courage! En avant! I will start up Forward !” Poor Schiller, there is some too, some day, and march along with you thing that one loves extremely in that again, I doubt not. ragged, careless aspect of him; true to Some weeks ago your little Pamphlet on the very heart: a veritable Brother and the question of German Unity (Schlichte Man! Körner too I hear universally rec. Reden) came to me, a welcome little word, ognized as a Tüchtiger; full of sense, of which' I read with entire assent. This friendly candor and fidelity: it is rarely was your message hitherward; and now, that one reads such a Correspondence be the other day, I despatched for you a tween two modern men. Thanks to you little old Book of mine which they have all for giving it to us; thanks to you indi. been republishing here ; – a book of vidually for sending it me at once. no moment; which probably you already

I would fain send you some news of have received: let' this be a small me. myself; but alas, that is a very waste mento from me, when you look upon it. Chapter, not fit for entering upon to-day! Whether I shall ever write another book I have no work on hand that can be in this world has often seemed uncertain named; I feel only that the whole world to me of late ; but I believe I shall have of England, of Europe, grows daily full of to try it again before long, or else do new meanings, which it well beseems all worse ! persons of intelligence to try if they can What a year we have had since Febread and speak. For the rest, I am very ruary last!' The universal breaking down solitary; by choice and industry, keep of old rotten thrones, and bursting up of solitary: the world here, especiaily the street-barricades; enfuriated Saosculot. world of " Literature " so called, is not my tism everywhere starting up, and glaring world. In fact I begin very greatly to like a world-basilisk into the empty Wan. despise the thing they call Literature," Wan that pretended to be a god to it. - and to envy the active ages that had “What art ihou, accursed contemptibility none of it. A waste sea of vocables : of a Wan-Wan?" – It is to me the most what salvation is there in that? Ranke's sordid, scandalous, and dismal sight the failure does not surprise me: If I were a world ever offered in my time ; and if Prussian or even German, I would decid- there were not in the dark womb of that edly try Friedrich. Adieu my dear Sir: “abomination of desolation" be kind and write again soon. Yours eternal light for me, I should think (like ever truly,

T. CARLYLE. poor Niebuhr) the universe was going

out, and pray for my own share, “ From Chelsea : Decr. 29, 1848. me hide it !" But withal I discern well, MY DEAR SIR, - It is a long sad time pone more loyally. It is a sacred phe. since I have written to you, or could ex- nomenon, a fulfilment of the eternal propbpect to hear any word directly from you: ecies, the begioning of a new birth of the for indeed I have been, and still am, in an world. A general“ bankruptcy of Imaltogether inarticulate condition ; writiog posture” (so I define it); Imposture, long to nobody; in the highest degree indis-known the wise for what it was, is posed to writing or uttering of myself in now known and declared for such to the any kind! You do not doubt but many foolish at the market-cross, and admits kind thoughts and remembrances have openly that it is a bankrupt piece of scancrossed the sea to you, all this while ; nor dalism, and requests only time to gather do we want evidence of the like on your up its rags, and walk away unhanged. part; nay, from Miss Wyone and other. How can í lament at this? Dismal, wise, we have pretty accurately known abominable as the sight is, I caonot but how you were going on, and have gener-intriosically rejoice at it. And yet what

a ray of a Future lies before us, for centuries to not good for much, - hardly one or two come, – if we had any thought within us, by persons of any note or singularity, which very few have.

whom you are not already acquainted with, The feeling here among considerate so far as bandwriting can bring acquaintpersons is, that Germany, in spite of all ance : such were those now fallen aside, the explosions of nonsense we have seen, such are these now sent; if they yield you will certainly recover some balance; and a moment's amusement in your solitude, march, like a brave country, — not towards and kindly bring you in mind of a friendly Chaos, as some others seem to do! We hand far away, they will do all the function can understand that it is all the dirty, the they are fit for. About a fortnight ago I foul and mutioous folly that comes first despatched, without any letter enclosed, a to the top; but Germany deceives us all volume I have been publishing lately, if there be not abundant silent heroic Biography of a deceased Friend of mine. faculty in the heart of it; - and indeed it This also I hope you have got, or will is to England and Deutschland that the soon get, and may derive a little pleasure Problem seems to me now to have fallen : from. It will give you a kind of glimpse and a dreadful Problem it is, — insoluble into modern English life; and may sug. by the Southern genius, as we see. God gest reflections and considerations which, assist us all! I am ever your affectionate to a human reader like yourself, are not friend,

T. CARLYLE. without value. I wrote it last summer Goethe and Frau von Stein : but that when we were all in Babel uproar with the deserves a chapter by itself! I read your

thing they called "Crystal Palace," — such copy. With pleasant wonder, which has a gathering of jubilaót Windbeutelm from

all the four corners of the world as was not yet subsided into clear appreciation.

never let loose on our poor city before ! [There is a “Memorandum” joined to in which sad circumstances all serious this letter, on a particular bit of paper :) study was as good as impossible ; and, not

My wife, for above a year past, is ac. to go quite out of patience, one had to quainted with your works done on paper need study. Thank the gods, we are now

resolve on doing something that did not fingers with despair, - the female heart rid of that loud delirium, of street cabs, with desire to possess for itself a few stump-oratory, and general Hallelujah to specimens. Can you kindly think of this,

the Prince of the Power of the Air, some after-dioner? - T. C.

what I used to call the Wind-dust-ry of

all Nations"; – and may the angry Fates Chelsea: Octr. 29, 1851. never send the like of it again in my time! MY DEAR SIR, – Mr. Neuberg inti- What my next task is to be? That is mated to me, the other night, that he is the question ! If I were a brave Prussian, about returning to Germany, probably to believe I should forth with attempt some Berlin among other places, and that he Picture of Friedrich the Great, the last will take charge of any packet of " Auto-real king that we have had in Europe, graphs" or other small ware, which I may a long way till the next, I fear - and bothhave to send you. By way of acknowl. ing but sordid loud anarchy till the next. edgment for your great kindness to But I am English, admonished towards Neuberg, if not for infiaitely more solid England;- and Friedrich, too, is sure reasons, 1 ought to rouse myself, and con- enough to be known in time without aid stitute him my messenger' on this occa of mine. — And so I remain in suspense ; sion ! He is deeply sensible of your have however got Preuss' big book, and goodness to him; and surely so am I, to decide to read that again very soon. I whom it is not the first nor the hundred-am much at a loss for maps and good and-first example of your disposition in topographies on that subject : if you could that respect. Many thanks I give you select me a very recommendable pame or always, whether I express them in words two, it might be of real help. We have or do not at all express them. This I huge map-dealers here, a wilderness of believe you know ; and so we need not wares; and can get any German thing at say more of it at present.

once, if we will know which. Item, I There were other letters I had laid up have been reading again (for curiosity for you ; which seem, in some household merely) about Catharine Il.:- you who earthquake, to have been destroyed, at koow Russian might guide me a little least they are undiscoverable now when I there too. Catharine is a most remarkable search for them: but by the present sam- woman; - and we are to remember that, ple I think you will infer that they were if she had been a man (as Francis I.,

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