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Juvenal refers when he says that if con. Cilicia, found himself the richer, in one tent with a modest competence, “Ego year, by £20,000; and he was, perhaps, possideo plus Pallante et Licinio.". Nar. the only pro-consul who ever handed over cissus, another freedman of Claudius, is his surplus to the State. There can be said to have been worth more than three no doubt that Cicero and the younger millions and a quarter sterling. Lucius Pliny received large sums from their Cornelius Balbus, a native of Spain, a clients while those clients were still living. Roman citizen and senator, and a friend Balbus is not likely to have secured the of Tacitus, was considered to be worth argument “pro Balbo" for a mere trifle; two millions and a half sterling. Dio says and the gratitude of Sicily, for the prosethat he left by his will about 16s. 8d. to cution of Verres, undoubtedly took a very every man in Rome: “Populo Romano substantial form. Apart from all such vicitim legavit denarios viginti quinque.” honoraria, it is recorded that both Cicero This alone would require about £800,000. and the younger Pliny received legacies
P. Licinius Crassus Dives, whose name from clients to the amount of £170,000. is coupled by Juvenal with that of the Gibbon tells us * on the authority of freedman Pallas as a memorial of wealth, Olympiodorus, that several of the richest said that he would consider no man rich senators had an income of £160,000 a who was unable to equip an army and year -- without computing the stated pro keep it in the field. Yet he is credited vision of corp and wine, which, if sold, with only two millions sterling. This would have realized another £50,000. sum, however, is probably much below Gibbon continues: “An income of one the truth, for he had among his slaves thousand or fifteen hundred pounds of five hundred architects and builders. It gold (£40,000 to £60,000) might be conseems probable that, like many rich Ro. sidered as no more than adequate to the mans, whether senators or freedmen, he dignity of the senatorian rank. But the invested large sums in building and in wealth of such men as Pompey, Julius buying house property.
Cæsar, Lepidus, Lucullus, Mæcenas, and As another proof of wealth Lipsius other magnates, must have been much quotes from Pliny some instances of the greater than that of an ordinary senator. price paid for slaves. Thus, Daphnis, The wealth and luxury of the rich is who seems to have been a great linguist, almost incredible. The carrucæ (coaches) was sold for three hundred and seventy of the Romans were often of solid silver, thousand sesterces, about £3,500, “grande curiously carved and engraved; while the pretium in uno fluxo et mortali homine, et trappings of the horses were embossed quem solus Grammatici titulus commen- with silver and gold.t Pliny says that debat." *
Suetonius says that Laelius many Romans had more silver plate on Præconensis was sold for about £1,760. their sideboards than Scipio Africanus Seneca says that Calvisius had many brought from Carthage. According to slaves employed as readers, and that each Pliny's own estimate, that would be about of them had been bought for “centum £14,000 ; † and this we should probably millibus " nearly £840.1
adopt, although Livy says that Scipio Let us take some other illustrations at brought back £300,000. Juvenal tells a random. When L. Calpurnius Piso was well-known story of the mullet which appointed governor of Macedonia for one weighed eight pounds and was sold for year, he drew for his outfit from the public nearly £50.9 Several of the prætors in treasury eighteen million sesterces or the reign of Honorius are said to have £150,000. He did not want the money spent on public games alone £50,000, for that purpose; everything required by £90,000, £180,000. If we suppose the a pro-consul was supplied to him by the smallest sum to be correct, it is more than province. Piso simply took the money any lord mayor of London would like to for himself, and lent it out in Rome at spend. high interest. C. Verres was charged by So much for the senators, who may be Cicero with having robbed Sicily of compared with the nobles of England. £350,000 in three years, besides many The equites, also, who occupied the same valuable works of art. He practically kind of position as our knights and squires, admitted his guilt by retiring from Rome were a very wealthy class. From this without attempting any defence. Cicero, class governors of provinces were some. when governor of the poor province of
• Decline and Fall, cap. 31. • Pliny, Hist. Nat., Book viii.
† Pliny, Hist. Nat., xxxiii. 50. † Lipsius de Mag. Rom. Book iv.
1 Livy, xxx. 45. | Cic. in Pisonem, 35.
$ Juv., Sat. iv. 15.
times chosen. Pontius Pilate was a supporting the cause of Pompey, while notable example. Others were commis, the bankers at Adrumetum were fined sioners of revenue in the imperial, and £42,000 for the same reason.* sometimes in the senatorial, provinces. Banking has always been considered an But the great bulk of the equites were occupation more honorable than mere engaged in farming the taxes. Sometimes trade. But trade also must have been a single knight would farm the taxes of a considerable. It was chiefly carried on by small province; but as a rule the work freedmen. It will be sufficient to give a was undertaken by societates (companies). single example. The trade in silks and The taxes were farmed for five years, and pearls passing through Alexandria is said the terms were fixed by auction. Security to have amounted to £1,300,000 a year. for the due payment of the amount offered £560,000 was obtained from silks, which at the auction had to be provided. The were sold at their weight in gold (about equites thus employed were called publi- £40 a pound.)t Amber was imported cani (the publicans of the New Testa. from the Baltic, and diamonds from Benment); and, as the story of Zacchæus and gal. Of other trades, such as wool and other publicans prove, they often extorted iron, we have few particulars. But it is more than was legally due, and became quite clear that there must have been a extremely rich. When harvests and trade class of wealthy merchants to carry on the were good they made very large profits; trade of imports to Rome. A fleet of and, in all cases, they were able to escape one hundred and twenty vessels brought loss by illegal extortions. “If I have goods from Arabia, the Red Sea, and wronged any man I restore fourfold,” Zac-Ceylon. chæus said; but very few of the publicani Óf mere shopkeepers there are naturally reached this altitude of equitable dealing. very few notices in the histories written However, I am only concerned now to by Romans. It was beneath the dignity show that the equites as a class must of Latin historians to make any mention have been very rich. They had to give of traders. It was beneath the dignity of security for, and provide the punctual a Roman citizen to keep a manufactory or payment of, about fifty millions sterling a a shop. Cicero says, " Nec enim quicyear.
quam ingenuum potest habere officina." It is a common saying - even Gibbon But shops and manufactories were kept repeats it that there was no middle-class mostly by freedmen or Syrians or Greeks in Rome — only a luxurious aristocracy,
and we have many particulars of every and a clamoring crowd of plebeians. Such kind of trade, although little mention of a generalization must be wide of the mark. the traders. One barber is mentioned It is impossible that the necessities and twice by Juvenal,luxuries required by so great and wealthy, Patricios omnes opibus quum provvcet unus a community could have been provided Quo tondente gravis juveni mihi barba sonafor without a large middle-class of bankers, bat money-lenders, manufacturers, and shop. Difficile est saliram non scribere. S keepers. Many of the bankers and money. He is mentioned again as the owner of lenders were equites; but many more were private citizens and freedmen. The innumerable villas. So, too, Juvenal twice probable number of this last class has refers to Crispinus, a household slave scarcely been fairly considered; but it brought from Egypt, then a freedman and must have been very great, and in most a shoemaker, then a favorite with the encases the freedman had to earn a large peror; an exemplar of every vice, and the part of his living by commerce or by in most fastidious epicure in Rome. He dustry:, The amount of money invested greatly increased his wealth by the pur. abroad by the negotiatores was so great that chase or the building of villas and by buy. the war with Mithridates seriously affected ing land in the city. Both men must have public credit in Rome.* Cicero says that made money by trade before they could in Gaul not a single payment passed from speculate in lands and houses. hand to hand without the intervention of a
Demetrius and other silversmiths in negotiator. Three hundred of them were
Ephesus may be taken as examples of formed into a council or society by Cato, wealthy traders. In short, there was, of at Thapsus in Africa. These men had to necessity, both in Rome and in the provpay to Cæsar a fine of nearly £17,000 for
• See Merivale ii. 367.
Gibbon, cap. ii.
Cir. Off. i. 42.
Ś Juv., Sat. i. 24.
inces, a large and often wealthy middle were others. The earliest was built by class. It makes a good antithesis to say Curio, and was of wood. The first amphi. that all was luxurious splendor or squalid theatre of stone was that built in the poverty; but it is very far from being Campus Martius by Statilius Taurus. true. The common people, who are sup- Another was built by Julius Cæsar, and posed to have been so miserably poor, another by Nero.* There were three deserve the epithet used by Gibbon. principal theatres, --called after Pompeius They were lazy plebeians.” Poor in Magnus, Cornelius Balbus, aod Marcellus, hard cash they probably were ; but that the last built by Augustus in honor of was because they would not work. And his favorite nephew. Many thousands of they would not work regularly, because gladiators were employed at the amphi. that was thought to be the duty of slaves, theatres ; so many that at one time they and because, without work, they had so rebelled, and carried on a serious war many of the blessings of life provided for against the Republic. Three thousand them. Bread was given daily to two hun. dancers and as many singers daily amused dred thousand citizens, at the rate of a the public. If there were seats at places three.pound loaf for each. Formerly it of amusement for five hundred thousand had been given in corn, at the rate of five people at once, Gibbon's estimate of the modii (pecks) a month ; but, as the people total population as one million seven hundid not like the labor of grinding and bak. dred and fifty thousand is absurd. ing, it was afterwards supplied in loaves Such, then, was the condition of the from public baking ovens. Under the Roman poor. Food and wine and oil, later Empire bacon was distributed to the baths, theatres, and amphitheatres, were poor for five months in every year. In provided either free or at extremely low this way about thirty-two thousand hun. charges. There was no Union workhouse, dredweights were given away every year. no labor test. Newspapers were circu. Wine was sold on very easy terms. The lated regularly — not only in Rome, but commodities not given away were very - in all the camps and the provinces “per cheap.t Wine was sixteen pence a gal. provincias et per exercitus."| It may lon; bacon a little more than three half. safely be inferred that both in population pence a pound; and oil three half-pence a and in wealth the city of Rome under the gallon. But the oil required for lighting Empire was fully equal to modern Lon. and for the bath was given away; Africa don; while in the magnificence and beauty alone was compelled to contribute, as part of its public buildings, in the splendor of of its taxation, more than three hundred its gratuitous entertainments, and in the thousand gallons every year.
profusion of its liberality towards the poor, Besides all this, every Roman had the it was much superior. use of the public baths on payment of It may, perhaps, be objected to these about half a farthing. These were not conclusions that they affect the capital such structures as we call public baths, cities only, and that after Rome, Italy had; but superb buildings, lined with Egyptian no cities or towns to compare with Glasgranite and Nubian marble. Warm water gow, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham. was poured into the capacious basins But even this would not be the exact through wide mouths of bright and mas- truth. There were very large and opulent sive silver. The most magnificent baths cities in Italy besides Rome - cities such were those of Caracalla, which had seats as Venice, Milan, Naples, Tarentum, of marble for more than sixteen hundred Pompeii, Baiae. In fact, Italy, when the people; and those of Diocletian, which last recorded census was taken, contained had seats for three thousand people. For about seven million citizens - all adult the further delectation of the people there males. Adding the wives and children, were theatres and amphitheatres. Gib. we have a population of thirty millions. bon says that there were sometimes four Adding the liberti, the libertini, the forhundred thousand spectators at the amphi.eign residents, and the slaves, we have a theatres alone. The Colosseum could total population of more than sixty milonly seat one hundred thousand. There lions.
EDWARD J. GIBBS, M.A. • Gibbon, cap. 4. Cor., Theod., viii. 4, 17.
• Ramsay, Rom. Antiquities, p. 48. Gibbon, iv. cap. 31.
+ See the speech of Capito Cossutianus against Š Ramsay, Rom. Antiquities, p. 357.
Thrasca. - Tac. Ann., xiv. 32.
and that he would pass William RamCopyright, 1892, by Harper & Brothers.
"That worthy was at Cannes the other CHAPTER XV.
day I saw.” (continued.)
“ He is there till next month," she ex
plained, and then they were all silent until “ Here's a four-wheeler," Walter said, they reached the end of their journey. It as he stopped one. “This is quite an ad. was impossible to talk much to Aunt venture, only,” he added gently, “ you Anne, it seemed to interrupt her thoughts. don't look up to much, Aunt Anne." Silence seemed to have become a habit to
“I shall be better soon,” she said, and her, just as it had to Alfred Wimple. She dropped into silence again. She looked was a little excited when they stopped at almost vacantly out of window as they the house, and lingered before the enwent along, and they were afraid to ask trance for a moment. Almost sadly she questions, for they felt that things had not looked up at the balcony on which she gone well with her. Presently she turned had sat with Alfred Wimple, and slowly to Florence. “ Did you say the children her left eye winked, as if many things had were at home, my love ?”
happened since that happy night, of which “ Yes, dear.” The old lady looked out only she had a knowledge. of window again at the green trees in the They sat her down in an easy-chair, and park and, when they came to them, almost gave her tea, and made much of her, and furtively at the shops in Oxford Street. asked no questions, only showed their de. Then she turned to Florence.
light at having her with them again. My love,” she said, “I must take Gradually the tender old face looked those dear children a little present. happier, the sad lines about the mouth Would you permit the cabman to stop at softened, and once there was quite a a sweetmeat shop; we shall reach one in merry note in her voice, as she laughed a moment."
and said, “ You dear children, you are just “Oh, please don't trouble about them, the same.” It did them good to hear her dear Aunt Anne."
favorite remarks once more. Then Catty “ I shouldn't like them to think I had and Monty were brought in, and she forgotten them,” she pleaded.
kissed them and patronized them and “No, and they shan't think it,” Walter gave them their chocolates and duly sent said, patting her hand. “Hi ! stop, cabby; them away again, just as she always used Stay in the cab, Aunt Anne, I'll go and to do. get something for them.” In a few min- “I began to work a little hood for utes he reappeared with two boxes of Catty,” she said, “ but I never finished it; chocolates. "I think that's the sort of it was not that I was dilatory, but that my thing," he said. She looked at them care- eyes are not as good as they were.” She fully, opened them, and examined the said the last words sadly, and Florence Dame of the maker.
looking up quickly wondered if they were “ You have selected them most judi. dimmed from weeping. ciously, dear Walter," she answered.
“ Poor Aunt Anne," she said sooth" That's all right. Now we'll go on." ingly; " but you are not as lonely as for. She looked at the boxes once more and merly'?” put them down satisfied.
“No, my love, but Alfred has a great “ It was just like you, to save me the deal of work to do. It keeps him confatigue of getting out of the cab," she said stantly at his chambers, and his health not to her nephew." I bope the children will being good he is obliged to go out of like them, they were always most partial town very often, so that unwillingly," and to chocolates. You must remind me to she winked sadly, " he is much away from reimburse you for them presently, my me." dear.” And once more she turned to the “What work is he doing?” Walter window.
asked. " Aunt Aone, are you looking for any “ My dear,” she said, with geotle dig. one ? " Walter asked presently.
nity," you must forgive me for not anNo, my love, but I thought the cab. swering that question, but I feel that he man was going through Portman Square, would not approve of my discussing his
private affairs." A Novel By Mrs. W. K. Clifford,
“ Have you comfortable rooms in author of “Love Letters of a Worldly Woman,' etc. Post 8vo, cloth, ornamental, $1.25. Published by town?” Florence asked, to change the Harper & Brothers, New York.
• Aunt Anne.
“No, my love, they are not very com- / while she was talkiog a really brilliant idea fortable, but we are not in a pecuniary came to Walter. position to pay a large rent.” She paused “ Auot Anne," he exclaimed, “why for a moment and her face becaine grave should not you and Wimple go to our and set. Florence watching her fancied cottage at Witley for a bit? Oh! but I that there was a little quiver in the upper forgot, he stays with friends at Liphook, lip.
doesn't be?" " Aunt Anne, dear Aunt Anne, I am “No, my love, he lodges with an old certain you are not very happy; tell us retainer.” what it is. We love you. Do tell us, is “Oh," said Walter shortly, rememberanything the matter? Is Mr. Wimple ing a different account that Wimple had kind to you? Are you poor ? ”
given him the year before on the memo“Yes, do tell us !” Walter said, and put rable morning when they met in the his arm round her thin shoulder, and gave Strand. “I think it would be an excel. it a little affectionate caress.
lent thing, if you and he went to our cot. She hesitated for a moment. “My tage. It is standing empty; we don't dears," she said gratefully but a little want it just yet, and there you could be distantly, “Alfred is very kind to me, but together." Aunt Anne looked up with be is very much tried by our circum- keen interest. stances. He is not strong, and he is “Yes, why not?" exclaimed Florence. obliged to be separated from me very "I wish you would ; you could be quite often. It causes him much regret, al. happy there.” though he is too unselfish to show it." • My love," said the old lady eagerly,
“But you ought not to be so very poor, it would be delightful. But I am afraid if Wimple has lots of work,” Walter re- there are reasons that render it impossible marked.
for me to accept your kindness.” “I fear it is not very profitable work, “What reasons ? do tell us. Perhaps dear Walter, and though i have an allow. we can smooth them away." ance from Sir William Rammage, it does “ Florence," said the old lady, " I must not defray all our expenses," and she was be frank with you. I am indebted to some silent. Walter and Florence were silent of the tradespeople there, and I am not in too. They could not help it, for Aunt a position to pay their bills.". Anne had grown so grave and she seemed • They are all paid," Walter said joy: to lose herself in her thoughts. Only once fully, "so don't trouble about them; and did she refer to the past.
moreover, we told them they were never “Walter, dear," she asked, “ did you to give us any credit, so I am afraid they find my little gifts useful when you were won't give you any next time, any more
Aunt Anne always inquired than they will us, but you won't mind after the wear and tear of her presents. that."
“ Indeed I did," he answered heartily. “And then, my love," the old lady went “I was speaking of them only to-day, on," I have no servants.” wasn't I, Floggie ?" But he concealed “I can arrange that,” said Florence. the fact that all the scissors were lost, lest “I can telegraph to Jane Mitchell, the she should want to give him some more. postman's sister who always comes in and
“Aunt Anne," Florence asked, “isn'tdoes for us when we go alone from Saturthere anything we could do for you? You day to Monday, and take no servant. Do don't look very well."
go, Aunt Anne, it will do you a world of “The spring is so trying, my love," the good. I shall take you back to your old lady said gently.
lodgings, and get you ready, and send you “ I expect you want a change quite as off tomorrow morning." Aunt Anne much as Mr. Wimple.”
stood up excitedly. “Oh no, my love. I have been a little My dears,” she said, “ I will bless you annoyed by my landlady, who was imper- for sending me. I can't bear this separatinent to me this morning. It depresses tion; I want to be with him, and he wants me to have a liberty taken with me.” Per. me, I know he does; it makes him cross haps the rent was not paid, Florence and irritable to be away from me." There thought, but she did not dare to ask. was almost a wild look in her eyes. They Aunt Anne shivered and pulled her shawl were astonished at her vehemence. But round her again, and explained that she suddenly she seemed to remember some. had not put on her warm cloak as it was thing, and all her excitement subsided. so sunny and bright, and people might “ I cannot go until Sir William Rammage have observed that it was shabby, and returos to town, or his solicitor does. My