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Fifth Series, Volume LXXIX.
No. 2512.- August 20, 1892.
451 457 465 476
Good Words, IX. THE CASTLE OF MIRAMAR,.
All The Year Round, . X. GIRLS OF THE PERIOD,
POETRY. WATCHING THE DOVES,
450 | A GOLDEN HOUR, TO THE GOLD CREST BUILDING IN MY TIME AND LOVE, . GARDEN,
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WATCHING THE DOVES.
And you shall tell me how you dream'd HERE in London some daisies are decking
Of 'storm-bent firs in northern lands, The grass of the squares and the parks,
Of frozen waves, and rocky strands, And windblown laburnums are flecking
All tempest-seam'd. The pavement with fluttering sparku.
And how thou fleddest o'er the waste And doves in the sun are flying
Of waters, through the deep of night, Round a mighty old dome above, While I watch from the worn flags, sighing,
League upon league, till morning light “O, had I the wings of a dove!"
My yew-tree traced.
And I will weave it into song,
Brimful of love as is thine own;
By many, wren, thou shalt be known
And cherish'd long.
JOHN Jervis BERESFORD, M.A.
The golden-crested wren, the smallest, and one Their rapturous songs I think.
of the rarest, of our British birds, stays with us all the
year; but Mr. Selby, the naturalist, observes that the But instead of the voice of the throstle, number of our home gold-crests is augmented each I hear the hurry of feet,
winter, especially in severe seasons, by comers from
the North And the vehicles crush and jostle,
And the crowd grows thick in the street.
Aloft round your stately dome,
A GOLDEN HOUR.
A BECKONING spirit of gladness seemed afloat,
Of Nature's happy chorus.
The leafless boughs across the lane were I LOVE thee, wren, thy golden crest,
knitting : Thy sudden song, thy hanging home; The ghost of some forgotten Spring, we said, Alas, that thou shouldst ever roam
O'er Winter's world comes flitting. From this thy rest!
Or was it Spring herself, that, gone astray, Hard by my yew the lilac's bloom
Beyond the alien frontier chose to tarry? Blesses thy brood with every breath; Or but some bold outrider of the May, Like thee, it quickly vanisheth –
Some April-emissary? Such is life's doom,
The apparition faded on the air, No bird, unless it be the thrush,
Capricious and incalculable comer. That sung the winter froin the land, Wit thou too pass, and leave my chill days Is dear as thou. Fain would my hand
bare, Caress, not crush.
And fall’n my phantom Summer?
WILLIAM WATSON. Come, nestle in thy lover's palm,
Safely as in thy high-hung nest,
That'him thy tiny beating breast May comfort, calm.
TIME AND LOVE. Thou wilt not! Then I needs must bless
Sly old Time took little Cupid, Thy fledglings, featherless and small;
Tied a kerchief o'er his
eyes; They do not fear my touch at all
Turned him round, exclaiming, “Stupid, They answer, “Yes !!
Tell me where your true love lies."
Long as moons shall shine above,
To wield a sceptre, wear a crown;
Cupid, of his power reminded,
Showed old Time what he could do;
And, that though his eyes were blinded, Good-night, good-night, my little wren, Yet his heart would guide him true. The shadows fall, the day is done;
Long as suns the heaven shall climb,
ROBERT BROWN, JUNR.
From The National Review. population of the city of Rome compare ANCIENT ROME AND MODERN LONDON. with that of London? We may take it
It is commonly believed among En- that London, in its widest extent, has a glishmen that in respect of extent, of circuit of nearly fifty miles, and that it is population, and of wealth, London is the nearly seventeen miles from north to south greatest city the world has ever known. and from east to west. The population Probably, however, Nineveh, Babylon, the may be taken as about five millions. Egyptian Thebes, and Rome in the second Rome was of much less extent; but it century of our era and in the third were does not follow that its inhabitants were at least equal to London. Nineveh and fewer. The circumference of the city was Babylon appear to have occupied a greater only about twenty miles, and its diameter area. Nineveh was described as a city seven miles; but its limits were fixed by of three days' journey; Babylon, which is the fourteen quarters marked out by Auexpressly said to have been four-square gustus, and afterwards enclosed within and twelve miles in every direction, would the walls of Aurelian. Suburbs analogous occupy one hundred and forty-four square to Hendon or to Croydon were not reckmiles. The square miles in greatestoned in the population of Rome. A curi. London are one hundred and twenty. As ous proof of this is to be found in the fact to Nineveh, Babylon, Thebes, we have no that in the census of Rome only large data by which we can with certainty esti- houses or palaces, and houses let out in mate their population and wealth. We flats, domus and insula, are mentioned. know that these were very great; but we The villas, which are frequently mentioned cannot measure this greatness by exact by Juvenal and other writers, appear to figures. When we come to Rome we have been entirely beyond the boundary. have precise information. Apart from Even within this limited area the populaarea, ancient Rome was probably supe- tion, it is probable, was as large as that of rior to modern London. It was at the greatest London. The streets of Rome least as popular and as wealthy, and it was were very narrow. Over nearly all Lonmore beautiful. I know that this conclu. don the houses vary from two to four stosion differs from that of Gibbon, and that, ries in height; those of Rome varied practically, Gibbon's work is the only ac. from five to seven stories. And Rome knowledged authority in our public schools was much more completely built over than and universities. To relieve the fears of is modern London. There were, indeed, those who hesitate to differ from so great few vacant spaces ; not one of them could a master, I will give a few instances of the compare with Hyde Park, Kensington historian's inaccuracy. Gibbon reckons Gardens, Regent's Park, Greenwich Comthe area of the Roman Empire at one mil. mon, Hampstead Heath, and other public lion six hundred thousand square miles ; recreation grounds which are all included really, it was about three million two hun. in London. dred thousand square miles. He gives Gibbon — who was, in every case of the probable tribute of Spain, Gaul, and large figures, extremely sceptical — calEgypt as about five millions sterling each ; culates that the city of Rome contained at yet he reckons the total revenue of Rome the most about a million and three-quaras from fifteen to twenty millions. Thus, ters of inhabitants. Lipsius, in his “De he allows, at the most, only five millions Magnitudine Romana,” reckons at least from the rest of the world – Africa, Asia five millions; but Gibbon puts this aside Minor, Austria, European Turkey, and with the remark that "the book, though Italy itself. He seems to take no account ingenious, betrays signs of a heated image of any revenues other than the tribute or ination." It is singular that both writers land-tax; for, although he accurately enu- rely for their conclusions on the same fig. merates the additional taxes imposed by ures, and differ in their interpretation. It Augustus, he makes no attempt to esti- is distinctly recorded that in the fourth mate their produce.
century, in the reign of Theodosius, there How, then, in the first place, did the were enumerated 1,730 domus, or great
houses, and 46,602 insula, or large build- proposal was rejected. Seneca asked the ings, let out in flats or single rooms, and Senate to consider “quantum periculi im. corresponding very closely with our model mineret si servi nostri nos numerare coelodging-houses. But how many people did pissent.” Tiberius in the year A.D. 21 each of those buildings contain ? Lipsius condemned the number and variety of reckons an average of a hundred. Gibbon slaves, “familiarum numerum reckons an average of twenty-five. The tiones."* In short, the evidence provonly reason given for Gibbon's estimate is ing that there were very many slaves in that in his time the houses in Paris were the palaces of Rome is overwhelming, mostly let out in flats, and contained only and appears to justify the estimate of twenty-five people in each house. Thus at the least a huodred people in every the question is narrowed. Did the pal- domus. aces on the one hand, and the insule or Then as to the 46,602 insule. Did they lodging-houses on the other, contain an contain twenty-five people each (as Gibbon average of twenty-five people or one hun conjectures), or more than one hundred? dred? The larger number is more prob- There are many reasons for thinking that able, and therefore the estimate of a here Lipsius is nearer to the truth than population of five millions is the more Gibbon. These lodging-houses contained acceptable. As to the domus, or palace, many flats; for we know that laws were we must recollect that it contained not passed by Augustus, Tiberius, and Nero, only the master and his family, but many with the object of limiting the height to slaves.
seventy feet from the ground - edicts The slaves included (besides domestic wbich are said to bave been constantly servants) librarians, doctors, hairdressers, disobeyed. On the authority of Heine. painters, carpenters, architects, and so ceus, Gibbon says that the annual rent of forth. “ Almost every profession," Gib- the several flats cocnacula was about
“either liberal or mechanical, £360 a year. It may be taken for granted might be found in the house of an opulent that in most cases each flat was occupied senator." *
Pedanius Secundus, prefect by several families, or that in any cases of the city, whose office corresponded with where a whole flat at such a rent was occuthat of the lord mayor of London, was pied by a single family there was a conmurdered in his own house in the reign of siderable company of slaves. Thus, the Nero, A.D. 61, and the murderer was not estimate of one hundred persons in each identified. It was thereupon proposed insula seems not excessive. that all the slaves in the house should be The ground floor of the insula was often crucified; and, after a long debate in the occupied by shops; the next two or three Senate, which is fully reported by Taci- floors either by several families on each, tus,t the proposal was adopted. It was or by single families wealthy enough to then found that the slaves in this one own a staff of slaves. The upper stories house numbered four hundred. Again, we were let in smaller compartments, and are told that when a great man went to often in single rooms. Juvenal † says that make a call, he would, although his jour. a man could purchase in the country, and -Dey might not be more than a few hundred within twenty miles of Rome, the freehold yards, have a retioue of at least fifty slaves. of a good house and a small garden for Ammianus Marcellinus, quoted by both the same sum as was required for the Lipsius and Gibbon, gives a long descrip- yearly rent of a dark chamber in the attics tion of the progress of a wealthy citizen (sub tegulis) in Rome; from which we from Rome to his country residence, a may conclude that a single room, at the description which clearly suggests a house top of a house, would let for something hold of four or five hundred slaves. It is like £20 a year. It seems safe, therefore, certain that when it was proposed that the to conclude that each of the five or six slaves should wear a distinctive dress the fats of an insula contained twenty people,
• Gibbon's Decline and Fall. Cap. a.
• Tacitus, Ann., iii. 53.
and that the 46,602 insule would hold a paigos.'
."* This fund was afterwards kept population of nearly five millions. As up by taxes. there were 1,780 palaces, we may be sure Again, Augustus, by his will left, after that the total population of the city was, legacies to bis relations and friends,t as Lipsius and others have calculated, more than £350,000 to be divided viritim more than five millions. It may be said among the people of Rome, £83,000 for that the number of houses, of both kinds, the ten thousand Prætorians, £15,000 for in the reign of Theodosius is no guide to the city militia, and £4 35. 4d. each to the ihe number in the reigos of Tiberius, legionary soldiers. Those legacies would Claudius, Nero, and Antonious. If that require nearly two millions sterling. Nero be true, the argument is still good for the spent in presents alone more than eighreign of Theodosius; but we might ex- teen millions sterling during his reign of pect that the migration under Constantine fourteen years. Vitellius is said to have in the fourth century would have reduced squandered seven millions and a half ster. the population of Rome. The enormous ling in his reign of less than a year.& growth of the population of Constantinople These are, of course, examples of the is ascribed by Gibbon mainly to the great wealth of emperors, but of emperors in emigration from Rome of opulent senators, their private capacity, on which no public officials, tradesmen, and slaves. If there claim could be made. We shall, however, was so vast an exodus in the reign of arrive at a similar conclusion as to the Constantine, it is probable that the popula. wealth of Rome from other consideration of five millions in the reign of Theo- tions. Seneca, a man of vile character, dosius was not greater than that under yet of almost saintly reputation (so differTiberius or Hadrian, or at least during eat was his life from his writings), was the second century.
worth at least two millions and a half It is difficult to compare the realized sterling || Yet Nero said to him: “You wealth and the annual income of Rome know that there are very many men in this with that of London. We can only pick city, and these by no means your equals out isolated facts and indicate the conclu. in accomplishments, who possess still sions which they seem to warrant. It more. As to the freedmen, who are may be well to begin with the private wealthier than the richest citizens, I am fortunes of the emperors, who for a long ashamed to speak." Much of Seneca's time rejected any kingly title and claimed wealth came from the lavish gifts of Nero; to be oply citizens elected to high office, but he derived a great revenue from the as Priocipes Senatus, Tribuni Plebis, and extortionate interest which he charged for Imperatores; not as civil rulers, but only loans in the provinces. In fact, a rebel. as commanding the armies of the State. lion was caused in Britain by Seneca's Most of them began their reigos with large usuries. fortunes. They had, indeed, to provide Claudius Felix was a freedman. Yet from the various revenues for all the ex- he was the governor of Judæa who judged peoses of government; but the surplus of St. Paul. His brother Pallas also was a receipts over expenditure was constantly freedman of Claudius. He is said by very large, and that surplus was as com- Tacitus to have possessed two millions pletely under their control as if it had and a balf sterling. A present of £130,been private property. Neither Seoate 000 ** was voted by the Senate.ft Yet he nor people had any voice in the matter. had formerly been a slave of Antonia, the Before the Empire was fully established, mother of Claudius. It is to him that Augustus says, “ In the consulship of M.
• Arnold, p. 101. Lepidus and L. Arruntius I paid 100,700,
Tac., Ann.. i. 8. 000 sesterces (about £900,000), in the
1 Tac., Hist., i. 20. Dame of Tiberius Cæsar and myself, into
$ Tac., Hist., ii. 95.
| Tac., Ann., xiv. 55. the military treasury for the fund designed
1 Tac., Ann., xii., 53. to pay bounties and pensions to soldiers
** Arnold, p. 132. who had served twenty or more cam.
tt Tac., Ann,, xiv. 53.