Kirkebo. They resolve to atone for this the handsomest men in Faroe, with a delittle dalliance later in the evening, when meanor almost regal; and exceedingly the great ball opens.

well suited to bim is the white neck fril) Of the parliamentary banquet towards of office, which recalls the Elizabethan eight o'clock much of a serio-comic kiod ruffs in England. Law and medicine, too, might be written. It takes place in the each have to be answered for. The docroom under the Senate Chamber. Great tor probably makes a jest about “la is the concourse of candles and dishes and grippe,” which in one form or another bottles; and while the members, with the notably as the Kruim, or epidemic of colds, few privileged guests, stand talking to- which seems a characteristic of spring and gether outside in the cool air, they see the the arrival of strangers here, as in St. pasties and cakes and things carried past Kilda - often afflicts little Faroe, though ihem from the town into the banquet. it does not seem to be a very fatal scourge. room. It is essentially a speech-dinner. As for the law, it cannot be said to flourish The governor proposes “the king" al. in the archipelago. An island community most as soon as the first pie is passed of this kind, where most people are cousins round; and no time is lost in following up to each other, and the tenures of property one toast with another. This circulates are of a simple nature, is a bad field for the claret rapidly. Sandwiches of ham litigation. Still, for the sake of effect, and beef and cheese follow the pie; then there are two or three advocates in the buttered biscuits and sweet cakes. These isles, though they no doubt sigh for the last are a feature of the repast. They animation and clients of Copenhagen with stand about the tables tall and ornate with all their heart. sugary decorative work, like so many If a stranger be present, his owo health bridecakes. Nor can it be denied that will in all probability be drunk, and he they taste very good — although the may be toasted in French. Of the assem. hypercritical stranger may be oppressed bled members of Parliament naturally not with grim fancies that whale oil is one of one in ten understands anything of the their constituent parts instead of butter. language of Molière. It is an accomplishlodeed, they prove so attractive to the ment that pertains to those only who have banqueters that the temptation to pocket lived their student days in the Danish sections of them is irresistible to more capital. Nor do they claim to be very exthan one member of Parliament, who pert in it. There is not much intercourse doubtless wishes to share his pleasure with France up_here. The claret and with those little round-faced effigies of him- cognac in the Thorshavn stores do not self which consecrate his farm a score or so necessarily come direct from Bordeaux in of miles away. But the governor condones French bottoms. Only once in a way a this larceny, even as he condones the con- war-ship iying the tricolor looks in at dition of certain other members long ere Thorshavn after a spell off the Iceland the feast is ended. He may not think fishing.banks, where she has been dallying much of the civilization of the Faroes. for a number of weeks to protect the inYet he knows that Denmark has relatively terests of the French fishers for cod. few colories, and that in his application At length, however, there is a general for removal from this little archipelago he rise from table; and the Scandinavian may, for aught he can tell, be sentencing tournament of band-shaking begins. This himself to Greenland or Iceland, both is a most laborious affair for a man unused even more distant from Copenhagen than to the exercise. It behoves a person to the bleak stone residence above the Bay touch palm with every one present, after of Thorshavn. St. Olaf's day, like Christ- which only is he free to go his way with a mas, comes but once a year; some license clear conscience. As some of the guests may therefore be permitted to accompany are by this time “merry,” it is a lengthy it.

business to part from them. Their friends Throughout the feast there is a constant do their best to enable them to make a ripple of speeches. One gentleman after pretence of dignity during the lasi few another rises to say something, to flourish minutes of the official day; but one wonhis wineglass, nod enthusiastically to his ders how they will be got home through particular friends, and finally collapse upon the darkness outside and up and down the his chair, exhausted by the oratorical miry rough alleys which are Thorshavn's strain, or pulled thither by his neighbors, apologies for streets. who conceive that he has said as much as From the banquet-room to the ballroom becomes him. For the Church, of course is a very proper transition for the more the prost or dean responds. He is one of enterprising of the feasters. The room is

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bired by subscription. It is not waxed, his first adventurous voyage of 1492. Alpor is it decorated with aught except oil' though no public commemoration is arlamps. One steers for it by the heavy ranged for in this country, the Royal sound of many feet on the boards. At the Geographical Society, fully conscious of entrance the Thorshavn children stand in a the momentous nature of that first voyage, crowd, gazing with admiration at the shad- and of the enormous expansion of geoowy procession of men aod maids at the graphical science which has resulted from upper wiodows. They are not old enough it, set apart last Monday evening for a to be admitted. We others, however, are special Columbus meeting. The usual able to please ourselves; and so, with exhibition of maps and pictures included considerable effort, we squeeze into the a number of early charts of great beauty, midst of the mass of hot Faroe folk, whose and a fioe photograph of a contemporary faces are streaming with perspiration. portrait of Columbus, recently made known There is not much to learn in a Faroe na- by Mr. Markham. The paper of the eventional dance. We do no wrong, therefore, ing, read by Mr. Clements Markham, C.B., to the symmetry of the dance by joining F.R.S., was occupied with an account of hands in one of the circles which exist as recent discoveries with regard to Columbest they can in so close a compass. The bus, and the correction of many erroneous fiddle squeaks, and from men and maids ideas, widely entertained until now. As goes forth a low_song, while their feet a critical summary of perhaps one of the begin to move. The circle tries to rotate. most difficult branches of research — that It does not succeed very well, but still the into the actual life of a popular hero song continues. The words of the song enbaloed with centuries of tradition are old Faroese - a language that has no this paper is of great value. An abstract grammar, and which rarely gets printed. of it, and of the appendices on other fif. " Love-nonsense" of course is the founda. teenthcentury explorers, is given below. tion upon which they are built. Aod in Much new light has been thrown upon the pressure of haods during this solemn the birth and early life of Columbus of pretence of a dance, and in the tender late years by the careful examination of glances between one red face and another, monastic and notarial records at Genoa ope disceros more love-nonsense.

and Savona. Adjacent to this big room, in which the There is no doubt as to the birthplace fishermen and girls find their pleasure, is of Columbus. His father was a wool. another smaller one, where the daughters weaver of Genoa, whose house was in the of the officials and others dance politer Vico Dritto di Ponticelli, which leads dances with the students of law, medicine, from the gate of San Andrea to the and theology home for the holidays, and church of S. Stefano. It was battered with the sons of the more considerable down during the bombardment of Genoa townspeople. The fun here is of a milder in the time of Louis XIV., was rebuilt kind. But here, as well as in the big with two additional stories, and is now the room, the sport lasts for hours after the property of the city of Genoa. members of Parliament have been led to Here Columbus was born, the date of their beds by their devoted wives. In his birth being fixed by three statements deed, St. Olaf's day is past and over ere of his own, and by a justifiable inference the dance in honor of it is at an end. from the notarial records. He said that

It was in the year 1024 that Olaf the he went to sea at the age of fourteen, and Holy was acknowledged king in Faroe. that when he came to Spain in 1485 he Every 29th of July ought to recall to Faro- had led a sailor's life for twenty-three ese minds this sacrifice of the island inde years. He was, therefore, born in 1447. pendence nearly nine centuries ago. As The authorities who assign 1436 as the à matter of fact, the day is one of mere year of his birth rely exclusively on the enjoyment, quite unattended with patriotic guess of a Spanish priest, Dr. Bernaldez, pangs of any kind.

Cura of Palacios, who made the great discoverer's acquaintance towards the end of his career.

The potarial records, combined with incidental statements of Columbus him

self, also tell us that he was brought up, THE FOURTH CENTENARY OF COLUMBUS. with his brothers and sister, in the Vico

DURING the present year great celebra. Dritto at Genoa ; that he worked at his tions will take place in Spain, Italy, and father's trade and became a “lanerio," or America, in memory of Columbus and / wool-weaver; that he moved with his

From Nature.

father and mother to Savona in 1472; and í Captain Duro, of the Spanish oavy, has that the last document connecting Cris. investigated all questions relating to the tofero Colombo with Italy is dated on ships of the Columbian period and their August 7, 1473. But in spite of his reg. equipment with great care; and the learnular business as a weaver, he first went to ing he has brought to bear on the subject sea in 1461, at the age of fourteen, and he has produced very interesting results. continued to make frequent voyages in the two small caravels provided for the the Mediterranean and the Archipelago voyage of Columbus by the town of Palos certainly as far as Chios.

were only partially decked. The Pinta When Columbus submitted his proposi- was strongly built, and was originally tion for an Atlantic voyage to the Spanish lateen-rigged on all three masts, and she sovereigns, they referred it to a committee, was the fastest sailer in the expedition; presided over by Father Talavera, which but she was only fifty tons burden, with a sat at Cordova, and condemned it as im- complement of eighteen men. The Nifa, practicable. It is generally supposed that so called after the Niño family of Palos, the proposals of the Genoese were sub- who owned her, was still smaller, being sequently submitted to an assembly of only forty tons. The third vessel was learoed persons at the University of much larger, and did not belong to Palos. Salamanca, and again condemned. The She was called a "nao,” or ship and was truth was quite different. Columbus was of about one hundred tons burden, com. gifted with a charming manner, simple pletely decked, with a high poop and foreeloquence, and great powers of clear ex. castle. Her length has been variously position. It was an intellectual treat to estimated. Two of her masts had square hear him recount his experiences, and the sails, the mizen being lateen-rigged. The arguments for his scheme. Among those crew of the ship Santa Maria numbered who first took an interest in his conversa- fifty-two men all told, including the adtion, and then became a sincere and zeal. miral. ous friend, was the prior of the great Friday, August 3, 1492, when the three Dominican Convent of San Estevan, and little vessels sailed over the bar of Saltes, professor of theology at Salamanca, who was a memorable day in the world's hisshrewdly foresaw that the most effectual tory. It had been prepared for by many way of befriending Columbus would be by years of study and labor, by long years of affording ample opportunities of discuss. disappointment and anxiety, rewarded at ing the questions he raised. For this length by success. The proof was to be object there could be no better place than made at last. To the incidents of that the University of Salamanca, where nu- famous voyage nothing can be added. merous learned persons were assembled, But we may at least settle the long dis. and where the court was to pass the puted question of the landfall of Columwinter. The good prior lodged his guest bus. It is certainly an important one, but in a country farm belonging to the Domin- it is by no means a case for the learning icans, called Valcuebo, a few miles out and erudition of Navarretes, Humboldts, side Salamanca. Hither the Dominican and Varnhagens. It is a sailor's question. monks came to converse on the great If the materials from the journal were deductions he had drawn from the study placed in the hands of any midshipman in of scientific books, and from his vast her Majesty's navy, he would put his finexperience, discussing the reconciliation ger on the true landfall within half an of his views with orthodox theology. hour. When sailors such as Admiral Later, in the winter, Columbus came into Becher, of the Hydrographic Office, and the city and held conferences with men Lieutenant Murdoch, of the United States of learning, at which numerous courtiers Navy, took the matter in hand, they did were present. These assemblages for dis- so. Our lamented associate, Mr. R. H. cussion - sometimes in the quiet shades Major, read a paper on this interesting of Valcuebo, sometimes in the great hall subject on May 8, 1871, in which he proved of the convent-excited much interest conclusively by two lines of argument that among the students and at court. The Watling Island was the Guanahani or San result was, that the illustrious Genoese Salvador of Columbus. secured many powerful friends at court, The spot where Columbus first landed who turned the scale in his favor when in the New World is the eastern end of the crucial time arrived. Such is the the south side of Watling Island. This slight basis on which the story of the offi- has been established by the arguments of cial decision of the Salamanca University Major, and by the calculations of Murdoch, against Columbus rests.

beyond all controversy. The evidence is overwhelming. Watling Island answers, which his reckoning must have been kept, to every requirement and every test, and of his consummate skill as a naviwhether based on the admiral's description gator. of the island itself, on the courses and Jo criticising the Caotico map showing distances thence to Cuba, or on the evi. Cortoreal's coast. lines, Mr. Markbam dence of early maps.

We have thus showed that absurd mistakes had been reached a final and satisfactory conclu- made, not by the voyager or his pilots, sion, and we can look back on that mo- but by the cartographer, and subsequent mentous event in the world's history with commentators. Vespucci's description of the certainty that we know the exact spot his “first voyage "in 1797, was subjected on which it occurred - on which Colum. to very thorough criticism, and shown, in bus touched the land when he sprang from spite of the arguments of authors who his boat with the standard waving over his have tried to support the veracity of that head.

ingenious romancer, to have been a pure The discoveries of Columbus, during fabrication. Little or no credit could be his first voyage, as recorded in his journal, given to Vespucci in any case, as he was included part of the north coast of Cuba, forty-eight years old on first going to sea, and the whole of the north coast of Es- and in those days apprenticeship from pafola. The journal shows the care with boyhood was indispeosable for a koowl. which the navigation was conducted, how edge of seamaoship. observations for latitude were taken, how the coasts were laid down - every prom. ontory and bay receiving a name and with what diligence each new feature of the land and its inhabitants was examined

From The Saturday Review. and recorded. The genius of Columbus

THE EXTERMINATION OF SPECIES. would not have been of the same service THE extermination of species is a subto mankind if it had not been combined ject which has great and growing interest with great capacity for taking trouble, and for many people. It concerns British with habits of order and accuracy.

landlords, and the farmers who have been Columbus regularly observed for lati- fighting with hard times, even more than tude with Martin Behaim's astrolabe or zoologists, and sportsmen, and amateurs the earlier quadrant, when the weather of the picturesque in nature. The wild rendered it possible, and he occasionally places of the earth have been losing sadly attempted to find the longitudes by ob- in romance of late. Look at North Amerserving eclipses of the moon with the aid ica. No doubt the buffaloes, or rather of tables calculated by old Regiomonta- the bison, were inevitably doomed when nus, whose declination tables also enabled civilization began to stretch across the the admiral to work out his meridian alti- continent. But the destruction of those tudes. But the explorer's main reliance countless herds that used to range from was on the skill and care with which he the Saskatchewan to the Rio del Norte, calculated his dead reckoning, watching destroying everything in their course, like every sign offered by sea and sky by day the lemmings or the locusts, was some. and night, allowing for currents, for lee. thing wholly unexpected. The bull bison, way, for every cause that could affect the like the war-horse of Job, seemed the movement of his ship, noting with infinite very image of strength and ferocity ; and pains the bearings and the variation of his the red men, with their lances and puny compass, and constantly recording all phe bows, though they did fill the larders nomena on his card and in his journal. of their lodges with the jerked meat, Columbus was the true father of what we scarcely troubled the droves more than the call proper pilotage.

mosquitoes or the sandlies. Yet, thanks On his return his spirit of investigation to firearms and the prices of buffalo-robes led him to try the possibility of making a in the American markets, the only traces passage in the teeth of the trade wind. It that are left of the buffalo now are the was a long voyage, and his people were bones and skulls that still whiten the reduced to the last extremity, even threat- prairies, and the remains of their“ walening to eat the Indians who were on lows " and favorite fording places. board. One night, to the surprise of all Many of the small fur-bearing animals the company, the admiral gave the order are going the same way, or are being to shorten sail. Next morning at dawn, driven back to the inhospitable regions, Cape St. Vincent was in sight. This is a where the hardy pine-trees are dwarfed most remarkable proof of the care with | by the Arctic cold; and the once famous Fur Company of Hudson Bay is reduced zambique and Zanzibar, or gets entangled to eking out its dividends by land sales. among the missionary settlements on the The seals, as Nansen told us in his recent Shiré and the Lake Nyassa. His con. volumes, which used to swarm on the frères on the Upper Nile and its Abysalmost inaccessible coasts of East Green-sinian tributaries have fared little better; land are leaving the Arctic ice-foes for and were Sir Samuel Baker to revisit his the inland ice, and thither they are al- old forest-lodge on the precipitous banks ready being followed up in specially con- of the Atbara, he could no longer enjoy structed steamers. Should the seals be from the windows of his morning-room the ever thinned down towards the vanishing delectable spectacle of the daily parade of point, the Polar bears, to say nothing of stately tuskers and graceful camelopards. the roving Esquimaux, will necessarily The greed of the ivory dealers and ivory be starved out of existence. One sub- hunters has been killing the geese that Arctic resident has disappeared already, laid the golden eggs, and we shall soon in the shape of the great auk; the last of have to put up with vegetable substitutes the race is supposed to have been seen off for the handles of dinner-knives and the Iceland about the beginning of the cen- backs of our hair brushes. Talking of Sir tury; and zoologists pay a questionable Samuel Baker, we may turn to Ceylon. tribute to the memory of the mighty de. When he wrote “The Rifle and the parted by offering, fabulous prices for Hound,” nearly forty years ago, the island, even a cracked eggshell.

as he says, and especially in the malarious The changes in Africa have been even and sandy south-eastern districts, posimore general since tourists, commercial tively swarmed with big game. The great adventurers, and enthusiastic explorers tanks in the lonely forests of the interior have taken to traversing it in all direc- were infested by solitary rogue elephants, tions. The dominions of the truculent who were the terror of the unfortunate vil. potentate Moselekatse, where Cornwallis lagers. The buffaloes ranged about in Harris found a perfect paradise of sport, herds by the hundred; the number of the are now given over to the gold-seekers of elks and the spotted deer was legion. the Transvaal, and the quiet pools in the Though he had seldom scruples as to limpid streams of the Limpopo, where the holding his sanguinary hand, he was often "mighty hippopotamus wallowed at will,” disgusted and satiated with slaughter. He are troubled now by the rocking of the thought little of knocking over half-a-dozen gold-cradles. The elephant, who is as shy elephants of a morning, with two or three and modest as he is bulky, has been driven savage buffaloes thrown in; and, although northward beyood the Zambesi, mile by he had a train of some fifty coolies and mile, before the deadly inroads of profes- servants in his camp, the spare venison sional hunters, till he is headed back by turned bad in that burning climate before the Portuguese and the Arabs from Mo-l it could be cut up to be sun-dried.

JEWS AND THE ELECTRIC LIGHT. – A rules of conduct by switching off or on electric question has been asked in the Jewish Chron- glow lamps ? Professor Crookes replies : icle concerning the subject of Sabbath ob- * The words 'fire' and 'flame' have in all servance in relation to the use of the electric ages and countries been associated with the light, and Professor Crookes, the well-known idea of what we now term 'combustion.' electrician, has replied: “It is a rule of the That is, the rapid union of the atmospheric Jewish religion that, on the Sabbath day, no oxygen with conibustible material, which, in fire may be kindled. The observant Jews the majority of cases, would be compounds obey this law very strictly, and abstain from of carbon and hydrogen. The carbon burns any act which directly or indirectly can cause to carbonic acid and the hydrogen to water, the production of fire or the consumption both going off into the atmosphere in an inof anything by fire. The following acts, for visible form. Historical research shows that instance, are abstained from : Touching fire, the sacredness' of fire and fame in the old lighting or extinguishing fires; striking Eastern religions was intimately connected matches or smoking; lighting or extinguishing with combustion, and consequent purification. gas lamps, oil lamps, or candles; moving or All the instances of acts to be abstained from turning up or down gas lamps, oil lamps, or given above involve combustion and flame. candles when alight; putting anything into the The modern glow lamp has no connection, fire or taking anything out." The question direct or indirect, with 'fire,' 'flame,' or was, “Would a man be transgressing these combustion.'”

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