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that way was by Lynn. Lyon was the key is just the time of the year when the of Norfolk from the west and north if you sheep-breeders “make up their flocks," as wanted to get into it by land. I am not the phrase is, in preparation for the next going into the physical geography of the lambing season, and it is just the time matter, aod I am not going to prove my when the drovers who have more hoggets point
than they can keep during the winter are the proof is complete glad to turn them into money. If only I've stated it thrice.
St. Lawrence's day fell on a Wednesday Now, during the long reign of Edward in this year 1306, and since the feeling the First, which was now drawing to a against Sunday trading had been steadily close, the trade and commerce of the growing for well-nigh a hundred years, county had been going on increasing from the time when Eustace de Flay had hugely, and from Norfolk there was a gooe about from place to place preaching large export trade of wool and fells and against the desecration of the Lord's Day, hides. That means that Norfolk had be. I assume that the king's writ had ordered come a land of flocks and herds more than that the Harpley Fair should be held in it had ever been before, and the time was future on the first Wednesday after St. coming when men would begin to grumble Lawrence's day. For on that day the loudly that so much land which had grown fair continued to be held for more than corn in their fathers' days was now turned five hundred years, and there are scores, into sheep-walk. But at present the cry and perhaps hundreds of living men who was for more sheep and larger herds. remember it, and have even attended it. Where were they to be got? Wherever There was a stretch of open heath in Harpthere is a demand, there the supply will ley which extended from a spot called follow; and as the Norfolk men could not Harpley Dam to a place called Kipton Ash, breed the sheep and cattle fast enough, where still grows a clump of ash-trees they looked about them for a source of trees that are the successors or descendsupply. It came. From the dreary bigh- ants of some venerable and conspicuous lands of the Pennine range, from the old tree which stood as a landmark in the Yorkshire moors and wolds, from the days of the Rev. John; and here the Cheviots — for Scotland by this time was drovers and flockmasters used to assemble, -- for Scotland — peaceable and tame - and here the fair was held. At the beginthe sheep and stunted cattle were driven ning of this century the fair was far and slowly along; and Lynn became naturally away the largest sheep fair in the county. in the fourteenth century what it is at this Old men, and men hardly yet old, rememmoment, by far the largest cattle market ber the strange look of the Scoich shepin the east of England. Our Norfolk berds, with their bare legs and their plaids, dealers persist that it is "the largest out stalking about and bargaining; remember of London.” The more the trade grew the booths and stalls; the impossibility of the more apparent it must have become finding any shelter for their horses, ridden that Lyon itself was ill adapted for any or driven a score or two of miles in the great assemblage of the shepherds and heat; remember the crowds, and the noise, Their flocks. In the rich meadows and and the fights, and the drunkenness, and, marshes the cattle might do very well; a above all, the dreadful difficulty of getting few days of such pasture for the sheep water, which in the morning was to be would be ruinous — they would die by the bought for a penny a pail, and at night was hundred. It occurred to the rector of not to be bad for love or money. There Harpley that he might make a great coup is some conflict in the reports that have for himself, and in doing that might be an reached me, but this is certain, that the immense benefactor to his neighbors, and fair was called Kipton Ash Fair, and to indeed to the whole county in which he this day men talk of the very mixed quality was born. So he made his advances in of the animals that were brought ihere; due form to his lord the king, and he made and to this day when a Norfolk dealer out his point so well, and he managed his wishes to commend a horse, he calls it a diplomacy so adroitly, that in this year " Hyde-parker;" but if he wishes to ex1306 he received the royal license for press his contempt of the broken-down holding a fair annually on his own estate old beast, he bursts forth into what in at Harpley; and inasmuch as Harpley Norfolk serves for poetry, and says :Church was dedicated to St. Lawrence,
That there hoss be a Kip'n Esh, the fair was to be held on St. Lawrence's
High in the bone and low in the flesh! day -- that is, the 10th of August. There was good reason for fixing this date, for it Kipton Ash Fair had a sudden and
tragical end. About fifty years ago, when ! no notes of admiration in his manuscript. the flocks were assembled in the old place, One has to read the whole thing through a frightful form of what my informants and pick out the several items which are assure me was small-pox broke out among to be found under very different heads. the sheep, and they died by hundreds. Having done that, this is what comes out There was dismay amounting to despair as clear as daylight. among the drovers, there was panic un. The Rev. John was mightily pleased speakable among the dealers and the that he had gained his object, and there farmers. Of course there were high was just the least little shadow of anxiety words, and of course everybody explained as to whether the king's license would ar. the calamity after a theory of his own. rive in time. It did come in time, how. But there was one theory which prevailed ever, and when the official who carried it extensively among the chief sufferers. produced it to the Rev: John, he was so That year there had been an enormous pleased that he there and then tipped that number of starlings observed in this dis official's boy who had come with him. It trict, and, as most people know, starlings was not a very heavy tip, but then such like nothing better than to settle on the tips were not the rule in those days, and back of a sheep and hunt for ticks and the boy, you may be quite sure, had as other parasites that are to be found in the much victuals and drink as he could carry; fleece. Where there are sheep there are and I am not sure that this tip was any. sure to be starlings. This year the shep-thing more than the earnest of something herds were appalled by the number of the more substantial, but it was all that Mr. starlings, and they swore that the starlings Bulur had to account for on the audit day. inoculated the sheep, and that the Norfolk / You would like to know what the amount farmers had caused the plague by not of that tip was, I dare say, but I am not keeping down the starlings. But any way going to tell you. When the rector had the poor dead sheep had to be buried got his license, and due notice of the fair where they dropped, and the area which a was published far and wide, the least the few days before had been one living mass good man could do was to prepare for a of focks and herds and human beings great feast, and it should be a real feast became, at the end of a week or so, a
The neighbors came from all the breadth of land which had been turned country round; the mayor of Lyon I doubt up to hide the carcases. And it was as if not was there;, and Stephen Astley, the a great blight and curse had swept over great man of Melton Constable; and Sir the sweltering heath, and the sickening Richard de Rokele, who had only lately stench of the half-covered mass of putre. acquired the manor of Sandringham; and faction was horrible. Then the farmers peradventure Sir Hamo le Strange from round about said they would have no more Hunstanton; and Sir Thomas de Infairs at Kipton Ash, and they posted great goldesthorpe from Rainham, what time bills and notices on the barns and gates the Townshends were but very small folk along the roads for miles round about, and there, though their time would come a the annual gathering came to an end; un. century and a half later; and Sir Henry til after a year or two the need of a fair de Walpole, too, from Houghton. His had made itself felt as a very pressing brother Ralph had ceased to be Bishop of one; and then — the terror of ihe plague Norwich some seven years before, and being still upon them - the farmers agreed was now Bishop of Ely, and he himself to remove it to another spot, and since had got his foot upon the ladder – not the then it has been held a mile or two off, at lowest rung of that ladder either -- and Hempton Green.
many another whose posterity English But I did not sit down to write the his- history would remember in the after time. tory of Harpley great fair. If I had, 1 But why dwell upon the possible or probshould have taken more pains to find out able guests at the Harpley manor house ? accurate information about its death and I know it was a grand feast, and I know burial, as we may call it. My business is that all the servants of the guests could with the Rev. John who started the fair. not be accommodated; for Mr. Bulur had What does this shrivelled bit of vellum, to pay for the lodging and expenses of with Adam Bulur's account upon it, say some of them even on the Sunday before. about the fair ? It says a great deal, But when the Tuesday came — i.e., the though, of course, it says much less than Vigil of St. Lawrence, being a Tuesday, some of us would wish to find there. remember, and therefore by no means a What is told us is set down in a very fast day -- there was a little special dinner simple and stolid way, and the bailiff has for a favored few, at which they had fish,
and actually wipe! Fish was a very dear formalities, and the witness to the transacluxury in the Middle Ages, that is quite tion * was Mr. Henry Spendlove, who was, certain. By fish I do not mean herrings, I think, the rector's agent and steward though they too were dear, but I mean and friend and right band man, and whose fresh fish, such as we serve up as an name is mentioned more than once by adjunct to our dinners now. On Tuesday Adam Bulur, with a certain sort of re. the gth of August, 1306, the Rev. John spect. We have a word to say about Mr. provided herrings galore, but he provided Spendlove before we have done. some plaice also and some other fish which the bailiff does not give us the
But all things come to an end. -- Debename of; and I make no doubt the good mur morti nos nostraque. man had to send for it to Lynn, as many The fair came to an end as
we have a worthy rector has done hundreds of seen, but it outlasted the founder more times since those days and will do again. than five hundred years. He must have As to the wine, that too must have come been in the prime of life in 1306 and he from Lynn, for the Rev. John had no lived twenty-five years after that date. wine cellar and only indulged in such He had a younger brother, as it seems, prodigality as this on very, very, very rare who died young; and when he had occasions.
finished building the chancel of Harpley But when the next day came and the church, he bethought him that life was fair was opened, and the king's letter uncertain, and that he had duties to those read, and the people shouted, and the buy who should come after. So he made over ing and selling began, then indeed there his manor of Harpley and other property was a real feast! Fish? I should think hereabouts to iwo trustees, who, I am there was fish! There was fish enough pretty sure, were members of the Astley to come to at least 15l. of our money, but iamily, of which the Marquis of Hastings the guests appear to have gobbled it all is the present representative; one of up, so that the rector actually had to give them was rector of the adjoining rectory an order for an extra allowance of herrings of Little Massingham, and the other was to be bought for the servants the day lord of the manor of Burgh Parva, a mile after the feast, and he sent a man or two from Melton Constable; and he Lynn, as it seems, to buy the herrings and settled the estates upon his nephew John bring back the bill, and that roan was and his heirs, with remainder in tail to Adam the harper. What! should there his two other nephews William and not be "a taking down the fiddle and the Edward ; and this settlement was made in bow”? Should there not be minstrelsy the ninth year of King Edward II., i.e., in and song ?
the year of our Lord 1316, ten years after Though the Rev. John had the good of the Harpley fair had been established, his people and of the neighborhood and and he himself was little more, I take it, of the whole county at heart in obtaining than forty years old. It is pretty certain the king's license for holding this fair, and that the nephews were still but boys, for though it proved for several centuries a the eldest of them did not marry till eight real boon and a solid advantage and a years later, and their uncle survived that very important matter for the agriculturists event nine years, and then bis summons of Norfolk, it is not to be supposed that it came and be passed away some time in did not bring profit to the lord of the December, 1331, and was laid in his own manor and the landowners in the neighbor- church, and they raised for him a costly hood. Of course the hundreds of people tomb, and they laid upon him a marble who gathered together would want meat slab, and on it they carved his unpretendand drink, and these had to be supplied ing epitaph :on the spot. Living men remember the
HIC: IACET : CORPVS : IOHIS: DE:GVRNAY: booths and stalls at Harpley fair. Ac.
QVONDAM: RECTORIS: PATRONI: HVIVS: cordingly there came in a very respectable amount from the rents of the stalls and the dues that were levied, and these are There the good man lay undisturbed for set down in Adam Bulur's account. More. over, it appears that the rector was not On this subject some readers will be glad to be above having a stall of his own, at which referred to the First Report of the Royal Conumis
sion on Market Rights and Tolis," p. 15. That and bread was sold and what else I cannot the Final Report, issued in 1891, exhaust the subject. tell; and though I do not find any record It is obvious that this splendid résumé of an enormous of his buying any sheep or cattle, yet I do body of evidence must have been the work of a single
hand, and that a master's hand, however many sigpafind that he bought a horse with some tures it may bear at the end.
498 years. But in the year 1829 they | They that come after will have no bad opened that tomb and they “displaced report to make of me and of my doings, the roof thereof.
and that which I have done may He within And underneath, about a foot and a half Himself make pure! You I have in no from the surface, a figure was revealed, clad wise wronged, you are my heir. But have in a silk priest's robe [query, a cope?), and a thought for the young man whose father holding in its hand a sacramental cup, from was my friend, and let him take my place which the stillness of five hundred years had and follow me as shepherd of the little only stolen silently the flesh from the bones flock whose pastor I have been for thirty and the gilding from the cup; all else re
years and more." mained unimpaired.
And then a young man's voice breaks What became of that plundered cope in, and there is a promise given, and the and that precious chalice ? Did they find dying village parson sinks back and there their way to Wardour Street?
is silence; till somehow there comes up There is one more little fact that comes the sound of many voices chanting loud to light, and to my mind it is a very elo- and sweet, and their song is : quent and pathetic fact as I read it. Heory Spendlove, who had been, as it Lord : praise Him and magnify Him forever.
O all ye priests of the Lord, bless ye the seems, the lifelong trusted friend and steward of the rector, had, I think, a son,
And there are other voices that make and his name was Thomas. When the answer again, and their song is like unto rector died and the living fell vacani,
the first: Thomas Spendlove was a lad at Cam- O all ye holy and humble men of heart, bridge, but he had already been admitted bless ye the Lord : praise Him and magnify to minor orders. In those days it was Him forever. never safe to keep a benefice open an hour
Do not try to persuade me that all this longer than was absolutely necessary, and was no more than such stuff as dreams it so happened that the Bishop of Nor- are made of. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP. wich, William de Ayremine, was away in foreign parts at the time the living of Harpley fell vacant. The bishop had, however, left his brother Adam as his
From The Cornhill Magazine. commissary, in charge of his diocese. Adam de Ayremine was a great don at
CURIOSITIES IN OUR CATHEDRALS. Cambridge, though what his position in MANY, if not most, of our cathedrals the University was I have never been able have curiosities treasured in them that are to discover. Before him, on the 2nd of no part of the fabrics, but yet from assoJanuary, 1332, young Thomas Spendlove ciations have come to be identified with presented himself armed with the neces. them, or with their history. In rarer in. sary legal instrument, and by him he was stances, these curiosities are part of the insiituted in due form, as rector of Harp structure in which they occur, as in the ley, on the presentation of “ John de Guro case of the whispering galleries in nay the younger, then lawful patron of the Gloucester Cathedral and St. Paul's; and benefice.”
in others, without being actually a portion And here my story ends. But I have of the construction, they are parts of its my day dreams as I walk through the ornamentation, as in the case of the figure lanes and fields of Arcady; and I have of a demon looking over Lincoln from the my visions in the night as I lay my head roof of the south-east side of Lincoln Caupon my pillow, and at times there rise up thedral, and of the fiddler fiddling over before me scenes and sights and sounds, York on the roof of York Minster. Somewords and men and women so vividly times a recent discovery imparts an interpresent, that I find it hard to believe them est as of a curiosity, as in the matter of other than real. I find myself standing the grooves lately noticed in the shafts of beside the deathbed of the old parish the Norman triforium in the south tranpriest of the Norfolk village, and there are sept of Oxford Cathedral, whereby we others round him, and one of them is John may see the management with which the de Gurnay the younger, who is holding Norman masons used for their purpose his uncle's hand. And I hear the dying portions of the Saxon windows they found, man speak low but clearly; and this is in the edifice they were improving, ready what he says:
Nephew mine! I am to their hands. passing away and going home. I have In Hereford Cathedral there are two lived my life and I have not lived in vain. relics of considerable extraneous interest. One is a map of the world more than five tion of the Crucifixion. The ark is deliohundred years old; and the other is a eated with various creatures and three chair of Norman workmanship. It is human figures. A mermaid also occupies thought that the map was originally in a prominent place. Curiously, Africa is tended for an altar piece, as it is embel- called Europe, and Europe is marked lished with a representation of the Last" Affrica.” Englaod is divided into CorJudgment and other drawings of sacred nubia (Cornwall), Lindeseya (Lincoln. subjects. It gradually became faded and shire), and Norhuba, and, owing to the browned, torn and neglected. Dingley, scale, probably, but one hill is named in the seventeenth-century herald, mentions it - Clee Hill. Twenty rivers are marked having seen it in the Lady Chapel. and named, and twenty.six cities and “Among other curiosities in this library towns, of which one between Winchester are a map of ye world, drawn on vellum and Exeter, marked Cadan, has not been by a monk, kept in a frame with two doors, identified. Scotland has two divisions and with guilded and painted letters and fig- six towns. Three towns are marked in ures," he says. Before his time it was Wales, and four in Ireland. Without hidden under the wooden floor of a chan-going into details, it is sufficient to say try chapel for a season, it is said, which that the work generally is of extreme in. circumstance may have saved it from de. terest and curiosity from many points of struction and given it a new interest when view, not the least being the fact that found. Nevertheless, it became so much Richard of Haldingham has been identidilapidated that it was eventually sent 10 fied as having held the prebendal stall of the British Museum in 1855, that it might Norton in the cathedral from A.D. 1290 to be cleaned and repaired with the requisite A.D. 1310. The chair in this cathedral is skill and judgment; and, since then, it has of still greater antiquity. Word has been been placed in the south choir aisle of the passed down through century after century cathedral, and protected with plate glass. that King Stephen sat in it on Whit Sun. It is drawn in black ink, with some of the day, A.D. 1142. It consists of upwards of initials and the names of places in ver- fifty pieces, and stands three feet nine milion and gold, and the rivers are colored inches high. It is thirty-three ioches blue. The map is of a circular outline, wide, and measures twenty-two inches and the framework on which it is displayed from back to front. Four upright pieces, is rectangular, leaving spandrils at each with knobs or finials, whereof two form angle that are filled in with drawings and the supports of the back, and two of a less inscriptions. It covers about eighteen | height termioate at the arms in front, form square feet. Here and there, all over it, a framework which is filled with rows of are small outline drawings of fish, birds, smaller rails arranged in an ornamental animals, human figures, and buildings. manner. Below the seat, in front, is a row Some of these are exceedingly curious, of semicircular arches resting on sinular the most so being a representation of a rails or shafts to those without this dis. man, apparently suffering from elephanti-tinctive treatment at the sides. The seat asis, with only one leg, which is of suffi. is formed of plain boards placed in a cient dimensions to be turned up over his groove; and the back has been also filled head. Between two circular lines forming with an arrangement of moulded rails a border to the map are various inscrip- similar to that of the sides, some pieces of tions, and in the four corners are single which, however, have been lost. It is not letters, which, put together, read MORS. a little singular that Richard de HaldingIn the right-hand corner there is also a ham drew a chair of precisely the same delineation of the author, attended by a construction as a seat for the pope in one page and followed by his greyhounds. of the spandrils of his map, which has His name is given in a short Norman- been accepted as evidence in favor of the French legend : “ All who have or shall probability that it was in the cathedral in have read, or shall see this history, pray his time. Before leaving this subject, it to Jesus in Deity (that) He may have may be mentioned that the chair in which mercy on Richard of Haldingham and Queen Mary was married to King Philip Lafford, who has made and contrived it, of Spain is preserved in Winchester Cathat joy may be given to him in Heaven."thedral; and that which was required, in The map gives us the measure of the geo- addition to the coronation chair, for the graphical information of the day. In the coronation of William and Mary, is precentre of it is Jerusalem, which is in served in Westminster Abbey. As in the scribed “ Civitas lerusalem and Mons case of the coronation chair, a close scru. Calvarie," and adorned with a representa- tiny discloses the fact that color and gild