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of the Council, however, must be submit. | schoolmaster in Scotland), or the priest, ted to the approval of the States Deputies, or their landlord, or some other superior a permanent committee of the Provincial person. The Presbyterian form of Church States (which can be compared with the government, which, as in Scotland, has County Council), presided over by the for centuries accustomed the peasants to queen's commissary, or governor, who is hold office as elders and deacons, may appointed by the crown. The village have trained them for political self-governCouncil may appeal from the States to the ment as well.

Of course there are drawbacks to this The Council names all parish officials, as to every human institution. The Counsuch as the receveur (tax-gatherer), the cil is apt to be arbitrary in the matter of secretary, the schoolmaster. The burgo- local taxation. The system of "progresmaster is the head of the police (except sion," which is applied to some taxes in in large towns). The Council has the Holland (that is, the system of dividing power of making police regulations. It the ratepayers into classes, and making fixes the yearly budget and raises local them pay more or less, relatively as well taxes. Its income is derived from two as positively, according to their place in sources : a certain percentage on the gen. the financial scale), enables the Council to eral government taxes (on houses, ser. let the lion's share of public expenses fall vants, horses, etc.); and a kind of income on the unhappy shoulders of the great tax, the amount of which, within certain landowner of the parish. In some cases prescribed limits, it has the power of fix. the landowner has acted as the emperor of ing.

Germany lately advised his discontented The village Council is generally com- subjects to act, and has turned his back posed of the leading men of the place; upon the place. sometimes one or two country gentlemen, Another institution that must not rea few of the principal farmers, a head gar- main unnoticed is the government of the dener, a well-to-do iradesman. The subtle so-called waterschappen (water districts), line of demarcation that divides the labor- which cover a great part of the country. ing class from the higher peasantry is As every one knows, a silent warfare is apparent here. A mere laborer seldom being constantly carried on in Holland has a seat in the Council.

against the danger of inundation from sea The system which has lasted since 1853 and river, and it is only by an elaborate was parily a continuation of long-estab. system of dykes and drainage that a great lished municipal rights. In its present part of the land is made habitable and democratic form it is a result of the popu. productive. It will be easily understood lar movement which was the contrecoup in what engineering skill, what unceasing Holland of the revolutions that occurred vigilance, what strict and careful superelsewhere in 1848. It is considered to vision, and what tremendous expenses are work well on the whole, even by those who, involved where these grave issues are con. instead of holding the democratic opinion cerned. Now, the management of this that there is an inherent right in every important business is mainly in the hands man to have a share in the government, of private persons, elected by all landown. incline to the more practical view that the ers within a certain radius. The expenses duty of bearing the burden and responsi- are met by a tax levied among them bilily of government should devolve only according to the extent of their property on persons who show some fitness for it. in the district. The number of votes The electors themselves are aware of a possessed by one person depends on the certain power of judging for themselves in number of acres which he owns in the local matters. They are remarkably inde district; but there is a number of votes pendent where local elections are con beyond which no person may go. Women cerned, * while in general elections they are allowed to vote by proxy. The posare apt to be led by the dominé (as the session of acres to a certain number minister is called in Holland, like the makes a map eligible for a seat on the

board that governs the district. An exec• The following is characteristic of the independent spirit of the average farmer. The speaker was an old- utive committee is named from its memfashioned, illiterate man, owner of a small farm. A bers; and that committee, with the gentleman, a M.P., was complaining of the heavy local so-called dijkgraaf at its head (literally, this: "Mynheer need not complain. Mynheer earns dyke count) carries on the usual business. more money by talking than I do by working!” He an engineer is attached to the larger was referring to the small pecuniary compensation given in Holland to members of the States-General for

" water ships ” (to use the Dutch word). expenses incidental to their office.

The windmills that used to be such a dis

are

1

tinctive feature in the Dutch landscape / west direction. These brittle, cindery are fast disappearing. Steam engines, of bombs readily broke up, giving vent to the which there are four different kinds, are superheated steam they contained, and used for keeping the water out of the upon becoming waterlogged they sank, polders (the low land protected by dykes). and within ten days all traces of them bad In ordinary times these various offices disappeared. Thus the “island” ceased

no sinecure. In times of actual to exist. On the other hand, there would danger it is impossible to overrate their seem to be evidence that genuine volcanic importance. When the rivers are swollen islands have since been formed in the by melted snow from the mountains in same locality and in connection with the Germany, and huge blocks of ice are same line of volcanic fracture in the bed borne down by the strong current with of the ocean- in fact, in alignment with startling rapidity, an army of watchers the vents which established themselves in guards the dykes night and day. Mem- 1831 with Etna and other volcanic centres, bers of the governing board are stationed indicating a very lengthy fissure in this in the houses built at intervals on the part of the earth's crust. The celebrated dykes. If a crisis occurs — if a gap is island on this same line, known as Gradiscovered in the dyke - they are invested ham's Isle, exists to tell us of an underwith almost unlimited powers. Farmers, lying volcanic energy which is quite with their carts and horses and laborers, capable of repeating itself. Graham's are pressed into service, and yield prompt Island rose up out of the sea in 1831 as and willing obedience to the most arbi. a result of the accumulation of ejected trary order. It has happened that houses, materials, and reached a height above the sheds, and trees have been used to stop waves of two hundred feet, with a circumthe gap. The common danger met, the ference of not less than three miles. It is common deliverance granted must have quite true that islands built of such loose strengthened the bands of citizenship and ill-compacted materials as volcanic between the men of all classes, who have scoriæ are not of a very permanent charbeen united in the honest, manly duty of acter or likely long to resist the action of guarding their hearths and homes. the waves. Indeed, Graham's Island has S. I. DE ZUYLEN DE NYEVELT. long ceased to be visible; the action of

the waves upon the loose materials —
“stones and rubbish ” — soon destroying
the crater-walls, and the island becoming

a mere shoal, though a dangerous one, and From The Leisure Hour. in this form it exists to-day, lying midway THE SUBMARINE ERUPTION AT

between Pantellaria and Sciacca on the PANTELLARIA.

south-west coast of Sicily. THE eruption from the sea-bed near the The line of volcanic vents which the island of Pantellaria on the coast of Sicily geologist is now able to plot down on his still continues at intervals, and the surface map of this part of the Mediterranean is of the sea continues to be marked by the not without interest to the astronomer, appearance and disappearance of islands. especially to those who are interested in To understand these phenomena it will be the volcanic areography of our satellite well to note the observations of a traveller the moon. The alignments and semi(Mr. G. W. Butler) who has recently visited circles of volcanic vents with which we the scene and has made some observations are familiar on the earth are still more and collections of erupted rocks which strikingly seen on the moon, whose prespromise to be of considerable value when ent surface of continuous dry land we may the annals of the outbreak come to be take as prophetic of the ultimate condition fully recorded. With regard to the island of the earth. As the marine areas of our which was first observed on October 15, globe gradually decrease in extent, and Mr. Builer has found that there appears old sea-beds become permanent dry land, to be no foundation for the idea conveyed the crateriform aspect of the earih may by the words “erupted island," as applied prove to be far more like that of the moon to a product of the previous eruption in than has hitherto been supposed. As 1831. The formation in question proved seen from another planet the huge depresto be a narrow band of floating volcanic sions, marias, and peaks of the effete bombs, extending for about two-thirds of earth would still more resemble those of a mile in length in a north-east and south- the moon.

Fifth Series, Volamo LXXIX.

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No. 2510. – August 6, 1892.

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From Beginning,

Vol. CXOIV.

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CONTENTS. 1. EUROPE AND AFRICA, .

Blackwood's Magasine, II. AUNT ANNE. Part V.,

Temple Bar,
III. AN AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF THE EVENTS

LEADING UP TO THE FRANCO-GERMAN
WAR OF 1870,

New Review,
IV. A GLIMPSE OF GALWAY,

Belgravia, V. A FOURTEENTH-CENTURY PARSON,

Nineteenth Century, VI. CURIOSITIES IN OUR CATHEDRALS,

Cor ill Magazine, VII. SISTER,

Blackwood's Magazine, VIII. AN INDIAN FUNERAL SACRIFICE,

Nineteenth Century, IX. THE ALPINE Root-GRUBBER,

Cornhill Magazine, X. OLD Roses, .

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be panctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and moncy-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTBLL & Co.

Single copies of the Living Age, 18 cents.

now,

CHARLIE'S MEN.

But now the stillness is stirred again, The sky was grey, and the grass was green,

By a trenulous breath as in gladness drawn, When the Bonnie Prince in our glen was And as new life springs from the old life's seen;

pain, The grass was green, and the sky was grey,

From the old year's death is a new year When on his horse he rode away;

born. When he rode away with a score and ten

New birth! Who were blithe to go with Charlie's Men.

Joy and mirth!

Fresh hopes waken for all on earth O loath was I from my love to part

Spectator.

OLIVE MOLESWORTH. Hamish the tail with the steadfast heart; But the prince kissed lightly my cheek and

brow, And " Lend me," he said, “your sweetheart

SONNET ON JUNE. And when we return victorious, then You shall wed the bravest of Charlie's Men.” Month of the sunny skies, and woodlands

bright; I watched them springing down the brae, Of roses glowing with a thousand hues For they took the short and the dangerous When earth once more her summer joy reway;

news; I saw their spears gleam far and bright When birds are singing, and when hearts are Till the fir-trees hid them from my sight,

light; Till faint and small as the chirp of a wren

When the sun lingers longest, and the night Were the pipes that played for Charlie's Is but a star-gemmed veil, dawn sighs to lose, Men.

Fragrant with rose-breath, wet with moonlit

dews, The sky was blue, green was the grass, Wooing the thought to yon empyreal height, When joyful word came up the pass; To that fair world where the June days enThe grass was green, the sky was blue,

dure, And dark-browed Malcolm's dream was true! Where chill winds never come, nor autumn Although the soe for one were ten

steals The fight was won by Charlie's Men!

Green from the leaf or crimson from the rose.

Oh, month of roses ! promise sweet and sure But other tales we had to mark

Of that which waits us, thy rich bloom reveals As grass grew grey, and skies were dark,

The perfect beauty heaven shall yet disclose. And the strath was filled with tear and sigh

Chambers' Journal. MARY GORGES. For sires and sons who had inarched to die; And Hamish, my own, the pride of the glen, Lay dead on the field with Charlie's Men. I might be blind, for I never see But spear-heads glintin' bonnillie; I might be deaf, for I only hear

Thou burden of all songs the earth hath The pibroch ringing shrill and clear;

sung, And by moor and meadow, on brae and ben

Thou retrospect in Time's reverted eyes, My thoughts are thoughts of Charlie's Men. Thou metaphor of everything that dies, Longman's Magazine, MIMMO CHRISTIE.

That dies ill-starred, or dies beloved and

young

And therefore blest and wise, -
O, be less beautiful, or be less brief,

Thou tragic splendor, strange, and full of “THE OLD AND THE NEW."

fear! The wind is wailing through leafless trees,

In vain her pageant shall the summer rear?

At thy mute signal, leaf by golden leaf, And sweeps bare boughs with his fingers

Crumbles the gorgeous year. cold, Till they yield with sighs, sad melodies, Mourning the year whose days are told. Ah, ghostly as remembered mirth, the tale Sobs - sighs.

Of Summer's bloom, the legend of the So Time flies,

Spring! Ache to the heart, and tears to the eyes.

And thou, too, flutterest an impatient wing,

Thou presence yet more fugitive and frail, The old year yields up its dying breath,

Thou most unbodied thing, And the wailing wind sobs a last good-bye, Whose very being is thy going hence, And the hush of peace which follows death And passage and departure all thy theme; Reigns for a space in earth and sky.

Whose life doth still a splendid dying seem,
Rest - peace,

And thou at height of thy magnificence
Troubles cease.

A figment and a dream.
Ended at last with the old life's lease.

Athenæum.

WILLIAM WATSON.

From Blackwood's Magazine. there is, and the international lines exist. EUROPE AND AFRICA.

The chartographer will be duly followed ACCORDING to an estimate recently by the surveyor and engineer, and the made, it is calculated that the vast area of minor details of France, Portugal, Italy, the continent of Africa, consisting of Germany, Great Britain, and Belgium in eleven million nine hundred thousand Africa be worked out accor ing to scale. square miles, is now almost entirely under At present the paths of explorers are sim. the proclaimed authority and sway of the ply thin lines along which a little general European powers. Only two and a half knowledge only of the countries and of million square miles are still to be ac. the natives has been gained, and are mere counted for. This partition of Africa has Aying survey routes, prefatory in every not been preceded by the clash of rival sense to the history-making epochs of the arms, nor illuminated by the éclat of a continent before us. great war. Yet, as far as we ourselves are But although Europe has thus definitely concerned, when the history of the pres declared her dominium over Africa, he ent times has to be written and the true would be a bold theorist and speculator perspective is seen, no single phase of who would forecast the influences which England's foreign or colonial policy dur. African provinces and territories may have ing this century will bulk so large as the upon her. Perhaps as North Africa was "partition of Africa " under the Salisbury in former days the granary of Rome, so administration. Current events, notably now she may be destined throughout her those which concern Irish Home Rule, entire length and breadth to be the gran. tend to dwarf its significance; but it must ary of Europe. And not simply a grapary, emerge and stand forth in the future as one but a limitless tropical and sub-tropical of the most pregnant diplomatic transac- garden, – unknown to and uovisited by tions known in the history of modern Eu- the ancients, the real true garden of the rope. Africa, it must be noted, is now Hesperides, — from which the fruits and taken definitely, for weal or woe, within produce of every climate may be flung into the European system; and forms, to all in the lap of busy Europe. Before such an tents and purposes, an extension of the opening as this even the glitter of the various European States over broad spaces Orient would pale, and a dislocation of reaching from the Cape to Cairo. Since trade and of trade-routes again eosue to 1876, France has increased her African puzzle the commercial world. lands eightfold, Great Britain sevenfold, At first sight, it must be confessed, the the Congo Free State of one million commercial aspect is uppermost. From all square miles is a perfectly new creation, quarters we hear of commercial ventures, and both Germany and Italy have for the trade companies, gold-mines, Eldorados, first time in their history taken up serious railways, roads, and every conceivable African responsibilities. Such a colloca- phase of nineteenth-century activity. tion of interests could hardly have been France having achieved the Suez Canal, foreseen even a few years ago, and is may even be ambitious of a still more scarcely yet realized in its full signifie wonderful engineering feat, and bring the cance. True it may be that up to this waters of the Atlantic upon the wide point there are in most of the regions thus desert of the Sahara, alter climatic condicovered by proclamations only a few scat- tions, and rule unquestioned in an inland tered outposts of European occupation, sea of her own making, as she has been and the Hinterland remains in many ways debarred from her old ambition of making a terra incognita, simply divided by the the Mediterranean Sea a French lake, an chartographer according to degrees of ambition well known to our forefathers. longitude and latitude ; still, for better or England speaks lightly of a railway and worse, these African regions, littoral, steamboat connection from the Cape to riverine, and all, belong to Europe. Be- Cairo vid the equatorial lakes and the fore the partition there existed in wide Nile ; whilst the Aippant tourist already regions of Africa no law of trespass, now I speculates upon a Cook's or Gaze's ticket

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