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birds, so strangely tame there, hopped defiance, to the full-blown negotiator or from one gnarled root to another; the child plenipotentiary, is a process of a compara. dren played their games on the grass and tively simple characier. In all intertribal round the great trees; the dog Rufus or international affairs the recurrence of came and walked by Gertrude's side, bark. questions involving bargain or negotiation ing as though anxious to be noticed. would certainly develop with the develop
The old, white-haired man passed by ment of civilization, and the consequent her.
" Ah!” he said, in his cheery way, increase of complexity in human affairs. “and where is your companion to-day? Nevertheless, diplomacy, as a regular proIt does not seem natural for you to be fession or service, did not certainly exist alone here." Then she looked up. until comparatively recent times.
Al" He is dead,” she said quietly; "there- though ancient records show that special fore I walk alone.”
embassies or missions have been resorted “And what of you?” he asked kindly. to, on occasions of necessity, even in the
" I have passed my examination,” she very remote past, the idea of a resident said half dreamily.
diplomatic body is the result of a more “You are glad of that,” he said. “Your modern civilization, and a requirement of companion was so aoxious for you to suc- latter-day invention. At the present moceed."
ment every civilized State considers it a “But he does not know," she said, and bounden duty to be represented at all the her lips quivered for the first time. “What principal capitals by a diplomatic officer, is my success worth to me now? ” corresponding either to its own importance
in the scale of nations, or to that of the Then she passed on her way, her head State to which the envoy is accredited. bowed, and her arms folded tightly to- The traditions of the diplomatic service gether, BEATRICE HARRADEN. are no doubt brilliant, but it may be ques.
tioned whether the comet which has thus been called upon to run its sparkling course is destined still for many centuries
to illuminate the modern world, of which From The Quarterly Review. THE QUEEN'S MESSENGER.
the practical sobriety and dulness is ever
increasing. The growth of the very conThe existence of the Corps of Queen's ditions, which have tended to produce a Foreign Service Messengers is coincident diplomatic service, may further tend to with and depeodent upon the maintenance bring about its eventual decay. Proximity and development of her Majesty's diplo: of geographical position; common intermatic service. Save for the rare and ests of an offensive, defensive, or combrief occasions when the sovereign is mercial character; the recurrence of ques. absent from British soil, and when the tions requiring tact and conciliation in necessity for constant transaction of the their settlement; all these conditions nataffairs of State demand a regular and urally tended, in the days of defective trustworthy channel of communication and dilatory means of communication to with the home government, the duties of produce a permanent or residential diplothe queen's messenger are now practically matic body. As, however, the means of confined to the conveyance of despatches interstate communication advance towards to and from H.M.'s embassies and lega. perfection, so the necessity for a resident tions in certain capitals and the Foreign diplomatic body tends to decrease. True Office. Not only is the connection be it is that the personal influence and tact tween the two services thus established, of the many able men of the world, who but they may be said to have in reality have adorned and still adorn the diplosprung from the same stock by divergeot matic profession, often may be invaluable processes of evolution.
in removing causes of international quarThe prototype or ameba of the diplo- rel, and in promoting general kindliness matist is the savage bearing a wand of and good feeling between two different truce or other symbol of peace and amity ; States; but in the present day the in. in later times the herald performing a sim.crease of democratic principles and of ilar function in more civilized communi. Parliamentary government, throughout ties. The transition from the mere bearer the world, tends to render the force of a token, message, letter, ultimatum, or of personal characteristics in relation to
international affairs of less and less im. • The Queen's Messenger, or Travels on the Highways and Byeways of Europe. By Major Herbert portance. History shows but too well how Byog Hall London, 1865.
international quarrels may be fomented or
allayed as may best suit the political exi- | act of Parliament, 7 Anne, cap. xii., engencies of the moment; and in such titled, “ An Act for preserving the Privi. events the most brilliant diplomatic per- leges of Ambassadors and other Public sonality must ever count as a mere cypher Ministers of Foreign Princes and States." in the game. In the days when personal | The preamble runs as follows :government by the sovereign of a State was more the rule than the exception, the Persons having in a most outrageous manner
Whereas several turbulent and disorderly individual influence of a well-skilled diplo- insulted the Person of His Excellency Andrew matic envoy was a maiter of the utmost | Artemonowitz Mattueoff, Ambassador Eximportance, and a persona grata might do traordinary of His Czarish Majesty, Emperor much to cement international friendship; of Great Russia, Her Majesty's good Friend but in very few States can such influence and Ally, by arresting him, and taking him now operate to so great an extent in the by Violence out of his Coach in the publick present fin de siècle. Beyond this lies the street, and detaining him in Custody for sev. consideration that diplomats may some eral hours, in contempt of the Protection times be made the object of incidents of granted by Her Majesty, contrary to the Law a pature to occasion 'international diffi- and Privileges which Ambassadors and other
of Nations, and in prejudice of the Rights culties. It is not every one who has the Publick Ministers, authorized and received as ready wit and sang-froid displayed some such, have at all times been thereby possessed years ago in Paris by the German ambas- of, and ought to be kept sacred and inviolable; sador, Count Münster, formerly the very be it therefore declared by the Queen's most popular representative of his sovereign at Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice the court of St. James's, and a well-known and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Tem. figure in London society. The incident poral, and Commons, in Parliament assemreferred to is thus recorded in a well bled, and by the Authority of the same, That
all Actions and Suits, Writs and Processes known journal:
commenced, sued, or prosecuted against the An amusing incident happened a day or two said Ambassador by any person or Persons ago in Paris which, however, might have been whatsoever, and all' Bail Bonds given by the fraught with grave consequences. The Ger- said Ambassador, or any Person or Persons man ambassador, Count Münster, was driv- in his behalf, and all recognizances of Bail, ing with his daughter in the Avenue du Bois given or acknowledged in any such Action or de Boulogne, where bread was being served Suit, and all Proceedings upon, or by pretext out to a number of soldiers of the reserve. or color of any such Action or Suit, Writ or A cry was raised, “That is the German am- Process, and all Judgments thereupon, are bassador!” whereupon one of the soldiers utterly null and void, to all Intents, Construcflung a loaf at the passing carriage. It fortu- tions, and Purposes whatever. nately missed his Excellency, but struck the footman's hat, and dropped into the carriage. view “to prevent the like insolences for
The statute goes on to enact, with the Count Münster stopped to enable the footman to pick up his hat, and was on the point of the future," that a similar immunity is to driving off, when the man who had thrown extend not only to any ambassador or the loaf added insult to injury by demanding public minister of any foreign power, but back his “rightful property.” The count, also to the domestics or domestic servants however, was equal to the occasion, and re- of any such foreign representative ; and torted calmly: "No, I must have satisfaction, penalties are prescribed in regard to any and you shall give it to my horses, which persons who shall venture to take proare particularly fond of black bread.”
This ceedings of any kind against them. So turned the laugh against the offender, who far as we know, this is the only English stood dumb while the ambassador drove off amidst the cheers of the soldiers.
act of Parliament which expressly guar.
antees the immunities and privileges atHere, no doubt, the tact of an able and taching to the foreign diplomatic body; experienced diplomatist prevented all whose status is, however, further safechance of unpleasantness; but in many guarded by the somewhat misty principles similar cases which either are or are not of international law and comity of nations, recorded in history, according as they which form part of the common law of this have or have not led to more or less seri- country. ous quarrels between States, it is impos- Amongst the privileges and immunities sible to avoid the reflection that incidents attaching to the ambassadorial character, of such a character affectiog diplomatists may certainly be reckoned the right to the cannot always be disposed of with the inviolability and safe conduct of any de. same ease and quietness.
spatches which he may send to, or receive From this point of view it is interesting from, his own government or sovereign. to note the terms of an existing English The State or royal messenger who is
birds, so strangely tame there, hopped defiance, to
het a sharp discussion from one gnarled root to another; the chil: plenipotenti
Sist and United States dren played their games on the grass and tively sims
Eine course of which round the great trees; the dog Rufusor intern:
de joviolability of the came and walked by Gertrude's side, bark. question
es was minutely ar. ing as though anxious to be noticed.
wbich at one time The old, white-haired man passed by mento
30 a rupture, was terher. “ Ah!” he said, in his cheery way, increa
render of the envoys “and where is your companion to-day? | Neve
cae British flag. Dur. It does not seem natural for you to be fessi
se dispute the govern. alone here.” Then she looked up. unti
tain received the most “He is dead," she said quietly; " there the
mony from various Euro. fore I walk alone."
one justice of the position " And what of you ?” he asked kindly.
Sup. “ I have passed my examination," she
eat serves to show the intersaid half dreamily.
sanctity of diplomatic repre“ You are glad of that,” he said. “Your
saod of their despatches, and companion was so aoxious for you to suc
e view expressed above of the ceed."
section between the two services “But he does not know," she said, a" nicy and royal messengers. her lips quivered for the first time. "W"
modern times the vast bulk of the is my success worth to me now ? "
i national questions which require per
communication, are those of adThen she passed on her way, her : strative or technical character ; combowed, and her arms folded tig!
cal, postal, telegraph, extradition, gether. BEATRICE HARRA ..salar, and other conventions of the
** character; and the matters growing at of them are usually discussed to the
Greatest advantage by experts in the par. From The Quarte
cular subjects. The services of the proTHE QUEEN'S MESSEN
fessional diplomatist are frequently not
required in the treatment of such ques. THE existence of the Corp Foreign Service Messengers
utions, which, however, continue in an ever.
increasing ratio to represent the greater with and dependent upon tha and development of her ).
lurre portion of international relations in the matic service. Save for
Scarcely' half a century ago Lord Strat. brief occasions when : wwwvior, ford de Redcliffe might find himself called absent from British sc necessity for constant
upon to settle off-hand questions which
involved the most vital interests of bis affairs of State dem.. trustworthy channel
Svits of the country. No possibility of receiving inwith the home gover
at would the structions for a prolonged period; no in
i butunctions dication of the views and policy of his the queen's messenge confined to the coni
government, but immediate and pressing to and from H.M.
he historical necessity for personal decision on matters tions in certain c.
Witain and the of the gravest international import. This Office. Not only
trent affair was real diplomacy, requiring nerve, abil. tween the two
question whether ity, judgment, and implicit trust on the they may h
ond watomy on a neutral part of the sovereign and the nation repwe were contraband resented. Everyone knows that there are
* pleure. Messrs. men now in H.M.'s diplomatic service, who je delegated by the are fully equal to such an emergency; but proceed as their
with telegraphic and steam communicapurta of Paris and tion, it is clearly less likely of occurrence. satrusted with de: Given a difficult position or an awkward city. They were
crisis, upon which previous instructions Federal cruiser have not been furnished - it is the duty vi a British mail of the latter-day diplomatist to sit down din continement and telegraph for the decision of the sec
retary of state for foreign affairs, which Law" Now edition may be taken either with or without con. London, 1878. sultation with the Cabinet, according to
ravity of the matter in hand. Short growing complexity, arising between vari.
want of such a precaution be settled by expert delegates; whilst the
volving the If it is thus possible that the profession y questions of diplomacy may, some centuries hence, esponsibility be destined to disappear under the proc. great extent a esses of evolution, so à fortiori must that eitis necessary of queen's messenger no diplomats, no ind responsibility despatches. Long may it be before that ne moment, in any day arrives, but no great stretch of im. rave issues - as for agioation is required to conceive an in...ebrated Congress of ternational convention or union which britain would frequently should guarantee the inviolability of gov-, as on that historic occa- ernment correspondence in some mapper minen in a position to decide beyond the reach of suspicion; or to picres, and to answer to the coun- ture certain developments of pneumatic, we nature and results of their telegraphic, or telephonic means of com
munication which should render the jurse under present conditions the personal carriage of despatches an an
es are numerous where questions achronism. Under existing circumstances it to the initiative of a powerful diplo- and conditions, however, the queen's mes. moist, who may often indeed decide the senger service is indispensable, and is a sicy of the home government, especially necessary complement of the diplomatic 'n regard to matters which can only be profession. It is certainly destined to mastered by those who have made them fourish for a good many generations, and an especial — perhaps a life-long - study; we observe with pleasure that the Royal such as that which is vaguely termed the Commission on Civil Establishments recEastern question. The necessity which ommend, in their report on the Foreign thus arises for the advice of a specially Office, that an adequate staff of queen's qualified diplomatist is, however, some messengers should be maintained. what of an artificial requirement, and one We propose to devote the following which, not having been felt centuries ago pages to a description of the service, toin the past, may perhaps be superseded by gether with a few of those tales which different methods in centuries to come. have been handed down by oral tradition It is a significant fact that a telephonic in connection with it, and which, if not convention has recently been concluded perhaps entirely founded on fact, are at between Great Britain and France, and it least ben trovati, and familiar in every may certainly be expected that in the near British chancery abroad. future similar international arrangements There are, of course, two branches of will multiply and develop with extraordi- the queen's messenger service, viz., the nary rapidity. Even from the existing home service and the foreign service. The state of affairs, it is a comparatively simple duties of the former being merely to convey transition to the foreign secretary of the despatch boxes and letters to and from the future. Selected probably by open com- palace, and from house to house of various Detition amongst the members of his officials, they are naturally on an entirely party; seated at a large desk surrounded different footing from the foreign service by tubes of the telephone, and speaking an messengers, of whom we are now exclu. international volapük fixed by convention sively speaking. The number of queen's as the universal means of communication foreign service messengers has varied amongst civilized States; the secretary from time to time; from sixteen towards of state for foreign affairs of the twenty. the close of last century, to eighteen dur. first century will as readily enter upon a ing the period marked by the international personal conversation with the correspood- difficulties which culminated in the Cri. ing functionary in Peking as in Paris, and mean War. Since then the number has written or telegraphic communications been gradually reduced to ten, which is will pass between them direct with equal the present strength of the corps, but ease, without need of any diplomatic in which, however, might at any time! tervention. The technical questions, of inforced to meet extraordinary
charged with the duty of conveying such at Baltimore. After a sharp discussion despatches becomes thus, as the servant between the British and United States for the time being of the ambassador, un governments, during the course of which doubtedly clothed with diplomatic immu- the question of the inviolability of the nity for the time being, and whilst engaged bearers of despatches was minutely arin such service. The fact is noted by gued, the incident, which at one time most of the leading publicists on inter- threatened to lead to a rupture, was ternational law.
minated by the surrender of the envoys The practice of nations [says Wheaton) has to the protection of the British flag. Dur. also extended the inviolability of public min. ing the course of the dispute the govern. isters to the messengers and couriers sent with ment of Great Britain received the most despatches to or from the legations established gratifying testimony from various Euro. in different countries. . . . They are exempt pean States to the justice of the position from every species of visitation and search, they had taken up. in passing through the territories of those This incident serves to show the interpowers with whom their own government is dependent sanctity of diplomatic reprein amity. For the purpose of giving effect to sentatives and of their despatches, and this exemption, they must be provided with confirms the view expressed above of the passports from their own government, attesting their official character; and in case of de. close connection between the two services spatches sent by sea, the vessel or aviso must of;diplomacy and royal messengers. also be provided with a commission or pass.
In modern times the vast bulk of the . . . In time of war, a special agreement by international questions which require permeans of a cartel or flag of truce, with pass- sonal communication, are those of adports, not only from their own government, ministrative or technical character; combut from its enemy, is necessary for the pur-mercial, postal, telegraph, extradition, pose of securing these despatch vessels from consular, and other conventions of the interruption, as between the belligerent pow- like character; and the matters growing
But an ambassador, or other public out of them are usually discussed to the minister resident in a neutral country, for the purpose of preserving the relations of peace greatest advantage by experts in the parand amity between the neutral State and his ticular subjects. The services of the proown government, has a right freely to send fessional diplomatist are frequently not his despatches in a neutral vessel, which can required in the treatment of such quesnot lawfully be intercepted by the cruisers of tions, which, however, continue in an evera power at war with his own country. increasing ratio to represent the greater
On this subject Vattel very justly re- portion of international relations in the marks:
present day. Couriers sent or received by an ambassador, ford de Redcliffe might find himself called
Scarcely half a century ago Lord Strathis papers, letters, and despatches, all essentially belong to the Embassy, and are conse- upon to settle off-hand questions which quently to be held sacred; since, if they were involved the most vital interests of bis not respected, the legitimate objects of the country. No possibility of receiving inEmbassy could not be attained, nor would the structions for a prolonged period; no inambassador be able to discharge his functions dication of the views and policy of his with the necessary degree of security. * government, but immediate and pressing
It is well known that the historical necessity for personal decision on matters difficulty between Great Britain and the of the gravest international import. This United States called the “ Trent affair"
was real diplomacy, requiring nerve, abil. turned greatly on the question whether ity, judgment, and implicit trust on the despatches sent by an enemy on a neutral part of the sovereign and the nation repvessel to a neutral power were contraband resented. Everyone knows that there are of war, and so liable to seizure. Messrs. men now in H.M.'s diplomatic service, who Slidell and Mason were delegated by the are fully equal to such an emergency; but Confederate States to proceed as their with telegraphic and steam communicarepresentatives to the courts of Paris and tion, it is clearly less likely of occurrence. St. James, and were entrusted with de. Given a difficult position – or an awkward spatches in this capacity. They were crisis, upon which previous instructions forcibly removed by a Federal cruiser have not been furnished – it is the duty from the Trent, which was a British mail of the latter-day diplomatist to sit down steamer, and were placed in confinement and telegraph for the decision of the sec
retary of state for foreign affairs, which • Halleck's “ International Law." New edition. may be taken either with or without con. By Sir Sherston Baker, Bart. London, 1878. sultation with the Cabinet, according to