Grenadier Guards," is so expensive as to with lessened as years showed the wisdom

i be generally inaccessible, and as the study of his reforms, and by the time of the of defeats, however instructive, is not so battle of Waterloo the British army was palatable as the study of victories, it is an efficient fighting machine, very different hardly to be expected that the true history from what it had been in 1793. For this of the war in the Netherlands in 1793-95 alteration the Duke of York deserves the will ever be knowo so well to English chief credit, as has been said, but he also readers as that of the Peninsular War. won a bigher fame in the later years of his On his return to England, the Duke of life as “the soldiers' friend." He was York was in 1795 made constant in promoting the interests of the chief of the army by George III. He private soldiers; and the school at Chelproved the right man in the right place. sea Hospital which bears his name is but Old Lord Amherst, his predecessor though one of many signs of his care for their a brilliant general in his day, had become welfare. In this latter respect it may well senile and maladministrative, and hopeless be expected that the new Duke of York conservatism reigned in every department will rival his great-great-uncle, but it may at the Horse Guards. The Duke of York be hoped that neither he nor any other perceived - and this is his great merit - English prioce will have again to perform ihe need of a thorough change. His high the work of reorganizing the British army, rank, his influence at court, and his youth which was so efficiently carried out at the ful vigor, seconded all reforms. Not only commencement of this century by the last clothing, equipments, and arms were mod. Duke of York. ernized, but the whole British military system was reorganized; young men were pushed forward to take the place of aged staff officers in the field; generals were

From The Spectator. selected for command by merit, instead

THE ANIMAL VIEW OF MAN. of seniority; colonels of regiments were obliged to show on parade as many men

One of the most curious and uncon. as they received pay for; and the soldier sciously paradoxical claims ever advanced was treated as a human being, not as for man in his

relation to animals, is that a convicted ruffian. The demoralization by which M. Georges Leroy, philosopher, caused by the American War of Indepen- encyclopædist, and lieutenant des chasses dence, and the first contact with the of the Park of Versailles, the vindicator French Republicans, was ended, and men of Buffon and Montesquieu against the like Abercromby and Moore were able to criticisms of Voltaire, explains in his impart a spirit of discipline to the new Lettres sur les Animaux "ihe intellectual levies, and to form armies from them im- debt which the carnivorous animals owe bued with confidence and constancy, with to human persecution. He pictures with courage and obedience.

wonderful cleverness the development of In 1799, for the second and last time, their powers of forethought, memory, and the Duke of York commanded an army in reasoning which the interference of man, the field. This was in the expedition to the enemy and "rival,” forces upon them, the Helder, in which he acted in conjunc. and the consequent intellectual advance tion with a Russian force. The opera- which distinguishes the loup jeune et tions are well described in the popular ignorant from the loup adulte et instruit. distich :

The philosophic lieutenant des chasses

bad before long ample opportunities for The Duke of York, with twice ten thousand comparing the affinities' which he had

discovered between civilized man and Marched up a hill, and then marched down again.

"instructed wolves, in the experiences

of the French Revolution; but without But during the marches to and from following his fortunes in those troublous Bergen he fought four hotly contested times for game-preservers, we may per. battles, which led to no result, mainly haps return to the question of the natural owing to dissensions with the Russians. relation of animals to man, which, as pic. In 1809 occurred the Clarke scandal, which tured by Rousseau to prove his a priori caused the duke to resigo his office as notions of a state of nature, so justly incommander-in-chief. But bis services curred the criticism of the practical ob. were too valuable to be dispensed with, server and practised writer, M. Georges and in 1811 he returned to his former Leroy. post. The difficulties he had to contend That man is, generally speaking, from



the animal's point of view, an object of regarded the newly discovered creature, fear, hostility, or rapine, is to-day most man, with interest and without fear. Sir unfortunately true. But whether this is Samuel Baker, in his “Wild Beasts and their natural relation, and not one induced, their Ways,” remarks on the “ curious and and capable perhaps of change, is by no inexplicable fact that certain animals and means certain. Savage man, who has birds exhibit a peculiar shyness of human generally been first in contact with ani- beings, although they are only exposed to mals, is usually a hunter, and therefore an the same conditions as others which are object of dislike to the other hunting ani- more bold.” He instances the wildness mals, and of dread to the hunted. But of the curlew and the golden plover, and civilized man, with his supply of bread contrasts it with the tameness of swallows and beef, is not necessarily a hunter; and and wagtails. The reason does not seem it is just conceivable that he might be far to seek. The first are constantly content to leave the animals in a newly sought for food, the latter are left undisdiscovered country unmolested, and con- turbed. Perhaps the best instance of such descend, when not better employed, to a contrast is that of the hawfinch and the watch their attitude towards himself. The crossbill, birds of closely allied form and impossible island in “ The Swiss Family appearance. The hawfinch, which is prob. Robinson,” in which half the animals of ably the shyest of English small birds, two hemispheres were collected, would be seems to have acquired a deep mistrust an ideal place for such an experiment. of man. But the crossbills on the rare But, unfortunately, uninhabited islands occasions when they descend from the seldom contain more than a few species, uninhabited forests of the north into our and those generally birds, or sea-beasts ; Scotch or English woods, are absolutely and in newly discovered game regions, without fear or mistrust of human beings, savage man has generally been before us whom they see very probably for the first with his arrows, spears, and pitfalls. time. When animals do show fear on first Some instances of the first contaci of ani- acquaintance, it is probably due, not to mals with man have, however, been pre- any spontaneous dread of man as man, served in the accounts of the early voyages but because they mistake him for somecollected by Hakluyt and others, though thing else. “Nearly all animals,” says the hungry navigators were generally Sir Samuel Baker, have some patural more intent on victualling their ships with enemy which keeps them on the alert, and the unsuspecting beasts and birds, or on makes them suspicious of all strange ob. noting those which would be useful com. jects and sounds that might denote the modities for “ trafficke,” than in cultivating approach of danger;" and it is to this that friendly relations with the animal inhab. he attributes the timidity of many kinds of itants of the newly discovered islands. game in districts where they“ have never Thus, we read that near Newfoundland been attacked by firearms."' A most curithere are “islands of birds, of a sandy-red, ous instance of this mistaken identity but with the multitudes of birds upon them occurred lately when Kerguelen Island they look white. The birds sit there as was visited by H.M.S. Volage and a thick as stones lie in a paved street. The party of naturalists and astronomers, to greatest of the islands is about a mile in observe the transit of Venus. There were compass. The second is a little less. large colonies of penguins nesting on the The third is a very little one, like a small island, which, though the place is so little rock. At the second of these islaods there frequented by man, used at first to run lay on the shore in the sunshine about away up the slopes inland when the sail. thirty or forty sea-oxen or morses, which, ors appeared. They apparently took the when our boat came near them, presently men for seals, and thus took what apmade into the sea, and swam after the peared the natural way of escaping from boat.”. Curiosity, not fear or hospitality, iheir marine enemies. They soon found was, then, the emotion roused in the sea out their mistake, for it is said that“ when oxen by the first sight of man. The birds, they became accustomed to being chased whales, and walruses in the Wargale Sea by men” an experience for which the and near Jan Mayen's Land were no less sailors seem to have given them every tame, and the sea-lions in the southern opportunity “the penguins acquired Pacific, the birds that Barents first dis- the habit of taking to the water at the first turbed in Novaya Zembla, and even the alarm.” In another colony, the nesting antelopes which the early explorers en- females would setile down peacefully on countered in the least inhabited parts of their eggs if the visitors stood still. “The central South Africa, seem all to have whole of this community of penguins (they


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numbered about two thousand) were sub-blade." But the "fellow.creature" is not sequently boiled down into hare-soup' nearly so impracticable as he is supposed for the officers and men of H.M.S. Vo- !o be. More human beings are probably lage,” writes the Rev. A. E. Eaton, “and killed by tigers than by any other wild very nice they fouod it.” We may com- beast, except by starving wolves. Yet this pare with this destruction of the penguins, is what Sir Samuel Baker has to say on the letter of Hakluyt on the voyage to the subject: “There is a great difference Ne foundland by Antony Parkhurst, de in the habits of tigers. Some exist upon scribing with high approval the business the game of the jungles. Others prey facilities for the fishing trade offered by especially upon the flocks belonging to the tameness of the great auks, - called the villagers. A few are designated. man“penguins” in the passage: "There are eaters.' These are sometimes naturally sea-gulls, musses, ducks, and many other ferocious, and having attacked a human kind of birdes store too long to write being, may have devoured the body, and about, especially at one island named thus acquired a taste for human fesh; or • Penguin,' where we may drive them on they may have been wounded on more a planke into our ship as many as shall than one occasion, and have learnt to re. lade her. These birds are also called gard man as a natural enemy. But more penguins, and cannot fie; there is more frequently the .man-eater' is a very old meat in one of them than in a goose. The tiger, or more probably tigress, that, havFrenchmen that fish neere the Granding hunted in the neighborhood of villages Bank doe bring small store of flesh with and carried off some unfortunate woman, them, but do victuall themselves alwayes has discovered that it is far easier to kill with these birdes."

a native than to hunt jungle game.” As a The point of view from which the lion rule, the tiger is only anxious to avoid or tiger looks on man, is perhaps not so men; and it is noticed that in high grass far removed from that of the non-carnivor- tigers are more dangerous than in forests, ous creatures as might be supposed. Man because in the former they cannot be seen, is certainly not the natural food of any neither can they see, until the stranger is animal – except of sharks and alligators, close upon them. An ancient instance of if he is so rash as to go out of his native the opposite behavior is that recorded of element into theirs — and if the item the new colonists of Samaria, whom the “man” were subtracted from the bill of lions attacked, “and slew some of them." fare of all the carnivora, they would never A curious inversion of this experience want a meal. The notion of the natural occurred when the islands in the Brahma. attitude of a lion to a young lady, - putra, which were swarming with tigers, When as that tender virgin he did spye,

were first cultivated. The natives, mainly

by the aid of traps set with a bow and Upon her he did run full greedily, To have at once devoured her tender corse,

arrow, killed off the tigers so fast that the

skins were sold by auction at from eight is still popular, but hardly correct. More anpas to one rupee apiece. In this case, probably the lion would get out of the way the tigers were the first aggressors by politely - if we may judge by the pacific carrying off cattle. But it seems evident behavior of those in our last-explored lion that there exists no a priori reason, haunt, Mashonaland. M. Georges Leroy's founded in natural antipathy, why man contention for the natural affinity, or semi- and animals, if we could reconstruct a sympathy, which should exist between "state of nature" in which we could put man and the intelligent hunting animals, civilized, not savage man, should not dwell is no doubt partly reasonable. Leigh together in profound peace, or at least in Hunt was uppleasantly struck by the in- such peace as obtains between accidental congruity of the notion of being eaten by neighbors. The only ground for quarrel a wild beast " the hideous, impracticable that seems inevitable is the everlasting fellow.creature, looking one in the face, one between the shepherd and the wolf; struggling with us, mingling his breath and that, after all, is a question, pot of with ours, tearing away scalp or shoulder. I prejudice, but of property.

Fifth Series, Volume LXXIX.


No. 2509. - July 30, 1892.


From Beginning,


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CONTENTS. I. EGYPT, 1882–1892,

Fortnightly Review, II. AUNT ANNE. Part IV.,

Temple Bar, III. LACEDÆMON. By Walter Pater, .

Contemporary Review, IV. STATESMEN OF EUROPE. Spain,

Leisure Hour,

Temple Bar,
CIETY. By Lady Eastlake,

Longman's Magazine, .

National Review,

Leisure Hour,


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| Since first those deep-set windows gleamed

O'er this green square of velvet sward,

And ladies from the terrace beamed SHE has a knot of russet hair:

To watch the bowlers, and reward It seems a simple thing to wear

With ripple.of applauding din 'Through years, despite of fashion's check,

Some winning stroke; and all the place The same deep coil about the neck;

Was crisp frou.frou of crinoline,
But there it twined

And farthingale, and rustling lace.
When first I knew her,
And learned with passion to pursue her,
And, if she changed it, to my mind

And I — who watched the gloaming's dyes She were a creature of new kind.

Fade to a blush; and by and by,
Low in the east, a pale moon rise

Through filmy bands of dove-grey skyOn others she may flash the wise,

Can picture yet those shapes of yore, Strong light of apprehending eyes,

And dream my vagrant fancy hears And make who fronts her beauty great

The softly clicking bowls, once more
With hopes that awe and stimulate.

Rolled by gay, gallant cavaliers.
The happy lot
Be mine to follow

These threads through lovely curve and hollow, Dear record of a peaceful past,
And muse a lifetime how they got

I cannot think thee senseless stone! Into that wild, mysterious knot.

A very living heart thou hast,

Kept warm by memories of thine own.
Good Words.

O first of women who hast laid
Magnetic glory on a braid !
In others' tresses we may mark
If they be silken, blond, or dark;

But thine we praise,
And dare not feel them;

Not Hermes, god of theft, dare steal them; BRIGHT amber bars o'er all the west,
It is enough for aye to gaze

With glow as deep as ruddy ore;
Upon their vivifying maze.

The weary coming home for rest,

And children's laughter from the shore.
The mellow chimes of evening bells,

The ships receding o'er the main;
The tear-dimmed eyes and sad farewells

Which have been and will be again.
HADDON HALL, DERBYSHIRE. A seven years' child upon the sands
SURELY this leaf-screened terrace path,

Amidst the gold-lipped mystic shells
This moss-fecked stair of time-worn stone,

Which murmur of fair, sunny lands

Where wondrous music ebbs and swells. Some strange inherent magic hath

With growing joy his eager ear Some witching glamour of its own!

Hears songs from isles in emerald seas, So lingeringly my feet have strayed As loath to break the spell which seems

And strains of heavenly music clear

Of his life's far-back mysteries.
To breathe o'er this long balustrade
A very atmosphere of dreams.

An aged man with silvered hair
No miracle of art is here,

Gazing into the glowing west No feat of engineering skill,

With wistful eyes and yearning prayer Forever bidding us revere

For peace and home and perfect rest; The triumph of a master-will.

Slow searching through the years gone by Yet, surely, was he blest, whose thought

For some sweet, tender long-lost strain; Conceived yon sombre screen of yew,

And vainly calling with a sigh Then reared his pillar'd wall, and wrought

On friends who answer not again. This living idyl from the two.

Two children on the shining shore To this the changing seasons bring

Amidst their palaceş of sand; No phase to make that beauty less,

Two worn ones by the cottage door Which lives in every perfect thing

The open Book of God at hand. By its own right of loveliness.

Two lovers happy, loyal, brave, So tenderly the touch of Time

And knit together for the strife, Has worked its will with Haddon Hall Two resting in one peaceful grave So deftly guided in their climb

So thus goes on the round of life! The draping ivy on its wall,



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