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The man was a native of Lisbon, and de- / viously were then hanging. A negro scribed as a great thief. • We hear from hanged at Newport in 1769 was gibbeted Worcester," says the Boston Chronicle, on the same hill. November 20, 1769, “ that on the 8th in-. A few lighter passages than those we stant one Lindsay stood in the pillory have studied brighten up the records of there one hour, after which he received American punishments, which were very thirty stripes at the public whipping-post, severe, but not more severe than those of and was then branded on the hand; his England of the same period. A prisoner crime was forgery.” It appears that it in February, 1789, escaped through the was the custom to brand by means of hot jail chimney at Portsmouth, New Hampiron the letter F on the palm of the right shire, and wrote on the wall as follows:hand. We find at this period persons found have no fire to comfort myself with, and
“The reason of my going is because I guilty of passing counterfeit dollars were sentenced to have their ears cropped.
very little provision. So I am sure if I draws from Felt's “ Annals of Salem "not think it fit for any person to lie on? To illustrate his subject Mr. Brooks was to stay any longer I should perish to
death. Look at that bed there ! Do you a few quaint items. It is stated that "in 1637, Dorothy Talby, for beating her hus. If you are well, I am well; band, is ordered to be bound to and chained Mend the chimney, and all's well! to a post.” We see it is stated that "in 1649 women were prosecuted in Salem for To the gentlemen and officers of Portsscolding,” and probably in many cases
mouth, from your humble servant, whipped or ducked. The ducking-stool
“ N.B. appears to have been frequently employed.
I am very sorry that I did not Under date of May 15, 1672, we find it think of this before, for if I had, your peostated: “The General Court of Massachu: ple should not have had the pleasure of setts orders that scolds and railers shall seeing me take the lashes.” be gagged or set in a ducking-stool, and “ Curiosities of the Lottery" is the title dipped over head and ears three times." of another volume of Mr. Brooks's “Olden
We find particulars of one Philip Ratclif Time Series.” Selling lottery tickets was for making hard speeches against Salem regarded as a respectable calling: “The Church, as well as the government," sen better the man,” says Mr. Brooks, "the tenced to pay forty pounds, to be whipped, better the agent. Indeed, it was generally to have his ears cropped, and to be ban thought to be just as respectable to sell ished.” The date of this case is 1631. In lottery tickets as to sell Bibles; and we the “Annals of Salem,” under date for have them classed together in the same May 3, 1669, it is recorded that “ Thomas advertisement.” In England, we must not Maule is ordered to be whipped for saying forget the fact that the business was conthat Mr. Higgeason preached lies, and ducted on the same lines in bygone times. that his instruction was the doctrine of The first lottery in this country was drawn devils.''
day and night at the west door of St. The Quakers were very severely dealt Paui's Cathedral, London, from the uth with. At Salem, for making disturbances of January to May 6, 1569. The profit, in the meeting-house, etc., Josiah South-which was considerable, was devoted to wick, Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Buffum, and other the repair of harbors. The prizes conQuakers, were whipped at the cart's tail sisted of pieces of plate, through the town. After being banished, In the United States, lotteries were in. Southwick returned to Salem, and for this stituted for a variety of objects, including offence was whipped through the towns of building bridges, clearing rivers, rebuildBoston, Roxbury, and Dedham.
ing Faneuil Hall, raising money to suc. In bygone times, hanging the remains cessfully carry on the work of Dartmouth of persons executed was general in En. College, Harvard College, and other seats gland; but in America it was an uncom- of learning. The advertisements were mon practice. Mr. Brooks, however, gives extremely quaint, and illustrated with particulars of a few instances. At New- crudely drawn but effective pictures, support, Rhode Island, on March 12, 1715, a plying " a speedy cure for a broken for. man named Mecum was executed for tune." Poetry as well as pictures was murder; and his body hung in chains on largely employed in advertisements for Miantonomy Hill, where the bodies of lotteries. Much has been spoken and some Indians executed three years pre. written against lotteries ; but, nevertheless,
in some of the States of the Union they
From The Spectator. are still lawful.
THE PLAGUE OF VOLES IN SCOTLAND. With a dip into a volume called “Days The inquiries of the committee ap. of the Spinning-wheel,” we will bring our pointed by the Chamber of Agriculture to old-time gleanings 10 a close, leaving sev. report on the plague of field-mice which eral of Mr. Brooks's books unopened. has for the past two years been devastating The items we will cull relate to a trade the hill-farms in the south of Scotlaod, once very general in the United States, will probably be an interesting contribubut happily now a thing of the past. Ad. tion io our knowledge of a question which vertisements similar to the following ap. has often puzzled the world. The “gene. peared in all the American newspapers, sis” of a pest is one of the most curious and not a few of the publishers took an problems in nature, connected as it nearly active part in the trade of buying and sell always is with a sudden and overwhelming ing human beings. “ To be sold," said increase of some particular form of animal the Boston Evening Gasette, 1741, “ by life, which at once becomes by its mere the printer of this paper the very best omnipresence and appetite a plague and a negro woman in this town, who has had calamity. Fortunately, an almost insepthe small-pox and measles; is as hearty arable condition of the pest proper is that as a horse, as brisk as a bird, and will its disappearance is usually as sudden as work like a beaver." The same publisher its impact. Generally speaking, the mice stated that he also had on sale *a negro and locusts, flies and frogs, palmer-worm man about thirty years old, who can do and canker.worm, as the case may be, disboth town and country business very weil, appear as if by the waving of some magibut will suit the country best, where they cian's rod. No doubt the explanation, have not so many dram-shops as we have when found, will be simple, for nature in Boston. He has worked at the printing works by plain and simple means; but business fifteen or sixteen years; can even when found, the cause may well be handle axe, saw, spade, hoe, or other one which it is impossible either to foresee instrument of husbandry as well as most or to remedy. There can be no doubt as men, and values himself and is valued by to the reality of the plague under which others for his skill in cookery."
the farmers of the Border counties are In the Gazette of May 12, 1760, is of suffering. The swarming hosts of mice fered for sale "a negro woman about have overrun the northern boundary of twenty-eight years of age ; she is remark. Dumfriesshire, the north-west of Roxably healthy and strong, and has several burgh, the south of Selkirk, Peebles, and other good qualities; and is offered to Lanark, and portions of Kirkcudbrightsale for no other reason than her being of shire. In Roxburgh and Dumfries alone, a furious temper, somewhat lazy. Smart the plague is estimated to extend over an discipline would make her a very good area of from eighty to ninety thousand servant. Any person minded to purchase acres. In Teviotdale, nearly forty thoumay be further informed by inquiring of sand acres are overrun, and a farmer de. the printer.” It will be gathered from the scribes them as “swarming in millions." foregoing that the faults of the slaves were They march on like a destroying army, clearly stated.
leaving nothing but bare ground behind. Children were often given away; and The bog and rough pasture which covers many announcements like the following, nearly half of most of the Border sheepdrawn from the Postboy, February 28, farms, is first attacked, that part of the 1763, appeared : “To be given away, a grass being eaten which liea between the male negro child of good breed, and in roots and the surface of the ground; for good health. Inquire of Green and Rus- the mice are somewhat particular, and presell."
fer their grass, as epicures do asparagus, Runaway slaves gave considerable to be bleached, and not green. As the trouble to their owners, and the papers grass becomes exhausted, they spread into include numerous advertisements, details the bare “lea” lands, and even to the respecting appearance, speech, dress, etc., heather, of which they bark the stems and of the missing persons. After describing bite off the shoots. The rough pastures his runaway slave, the owner concluded so destroyed, form the winter food of the his announcement thus: “All masters of flocks on their Lowland farms. The vessels and others are cautioned against rough tufts and tussocks are always acharboring, concealing, or carrying off the cessible for the sheep to nibble, even when said negro, if they would avoid the rigor the ground is covered with snow; and the of the law."
hardy creatures, like the deer further north, only require artificial food in the teenth and eighteenth centuries, similar severest weather. But in the past winter plagues were recorded in the eastern thousands of sheep had to be sent else counties. In 1814, in the New Forest where. "I saw droves of them going and the Forest of Dean, immense destrucaway," writes one visitor, “and tons of tion was caused not only to grass, but Dutch hay being driven up to feed those trees and young plantations, by mice, that remain. The mice have eaten up probably the long-tailed field-mice as well every green thing." "It is impossible for as the voles ; and in 1836, the Forest of any one to believe the ground is so sore Dean was again attacked. But the part destroyed, unless they see it," writes of Scotland now infested by the voles has another. “They have missed nothing. had such recent and disastrous experience Everything is cropped to the earth. The of the plague, that there seems ground for future is a terrible looking to." "Think supposing that the conditions there may of the extent of the country ravaged, and perhaps be such as to invite the vole to see the millions of holes in which the voles take up a permanent residence in the disshelter, and one cannot imagine how hu-trict; though even there the suddenness man power, at any rate, can now do any of their appearance and disappearance has good," writes yet another sufferer. "I still the character of a true “pest,” rather see in the papers that one man killed than of an abiding source of mischief. thirty-two thousand on one farm." In the winter of 1875, they appeared in
The little creature which is the cause of Eskdale and Ettrick, and disappeared as the devastation, though generally called suddenly as they came.
But in this case, the “ short-tailed field-mouse," is, properly a heavy fall of sleet and snow, followed by speaking, neither a mouse nor a shrew, a frost which sealed up the surface for but a vole, like the water-rat. Like the weeks, was probably the natural means of water-rat also, it has a blunt, rounded their destruction. The present plague muzzle, short ears almost hidden in the appeared in the winter of 1890-91. The fur of its head, and little, beady eyes; in preceding summer had produced an unall points, except in color, it resembles usually abundant and high crop of grass, the lemmings, whose wonderful migrations which completely covered the voles when form the subject of so much legend in nesting from their natural enemies, the northern Europe. Unlike the mice, which owls, hawks, and crows; and owing to the seem omnivorous, or the shrews, which complete immunity which the bounteous live on insects, these field-voles are strictly cover then conferred on this small prolific vegetable feeders; and so long as other species, it has since maintained its inconditions favor their existence, there is creased numbers in spite of natural checks. no reason why the plague should not The farmers unanimously demand that spread in an ever-widening circle over the the winged “vermin " shall no longer be great expanse of moorlands on the Border. killed on the hills; and owls and sparrowThe Scotch farmers may, however, derive hawks are now increasing. But as there some comfort from the reflection that for are no woods or plantations near for them the last four centuries similar plagues of to roost in, they do not assemble in such voles have been recorded as taking place numbers as might be expected from the in different parts of the country, while in accumulation of food-supply afforded by no case have they, like the rabbits in Aus. the voles. tralia, remained "to mar the land " for- The causes and incidents associated
That excellent field-naturalist, Mr. with a similar plague on a far greater J. E. Harting, the librarian of the Linnean scale are well shown in an interesting Society, who has been named secretary to chapter in Mr. Hudson's recent work, the committee of inquiry appointed by the “ The Naturalist in La Plata." As in Board of Agriculture, quotes in his essays Scotland, a fine summer produced an unon “Sport and Natural History" a notice usual crop of grass which concealed the written in 1600 by Childrey, in his “ Bri- mice at the breeding-season; and the crea. tannia Baconica,” of an extraordinary tures became so numerous, and were so swarm of field-mice which appeared in easily caught, that many animals, both 1580 in the Hundred of Denge, in Essex, wild and domestic, lived wholly on mice, and ate up all the roots of the grass. “A and almost changed their natural way of great number of owles,” he says, “ of life. The dogs caught and ate them all strange and various colors assembled, and day. The fowls, from constantly pursu. devoured them all; and after they had ing and killing them, “became quite rapamade an end of their prey, they took fight cious in their manner;” whilst the sulphur again whence they came.” In the seven. tyrant-birds and Guira cuckoos preyed on
nothing else. The domestic cats left the end the plague, before the committee have houses, and assumed the air of wild ani- risen from their deliberations. mals, «
slinking from the sight of man, with a shy secrecy in their motions, an apparent affectation of fear quite ludicrous to see.” The armadillos learned to catch mice. A tame one would hunt for their
From The Speaker. nests like a pointer, until he discovered
THE LAST DUKE OF YORK. the exact spot where the mice lurked, The resurrection of the historic title of when he would stop, and creep cautiously Duke of York in the person of Prince to it, and then spring suddenly forwards, George of Wales is an interesting instance throwing his body like a trap over the nest of the persistence of national traditions. of mice concealed in the grass. One story Ever since the union of the Houses of of Mr. Hudson's gives a good example of Lancaster and York by the marriage of the difference in brain-power between ani. Henry VII. it has been regarded as the mals of ihe same species. His children most appropriate title for the second son had made the discovery that some excite of the reigning sovereign; it was borne ment and fun was to be had by placing a by Henry VIII. and Charles I. until the long, hollow stalk of the giant thistle with untimely deaths of their elder brothers, a mouse in it before a cat, and watching the Princes Arthur and Henry, made them her movements. The cat would dash heirs to the throne and Princes of Wales ; alternately at either end of the stalk, the and by James II. until the death of his mouse, of course, rushing to the other. elder brother, Charles II. George II. All the cats acted thus except one. This, broke through the tradition by creating his instead of becoming excited like the rest, second son Duke of Cumberland, but he deliberately bit a long piece out of the revived the ancient title a few months bestalk with its teeth, then another strip, fore his death, and conferred it on his and so on progressively until the entire grandson, Edward Augustus, the second stick had been opened up to within a few son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and inches of the end, when the mouse came next brother to George III. This young out and was caught. But perhaps the prince died at Monaco in 1768, and strangest change induced by the plague of George Ill., observing the usual custom, mice was in the habits of the owls. Enor. conferred the title on his second son, mous numbers of these birds assembled, Frederick Augustus. During the present both short-eared owls and the small prairie- reign, however, the precedent was ignored, owl; and forty or fifty of the former might and the newfangled title of Duke of Edin. be seen wheeling round the house at one burgh was selected for the queen's second time. The extremely prosperous times son. It was rumored at the time that this on which the owls had fallen made them departure from customary usage was due forget all patural precautions; and they to the fact that its last possessor had atactually nested and brought up their tached an unsavory, reputation to the young in the middle of winter!
grand old title, which would have made The cause of the disappearance of the its resurrection unpopular. plague in La Plata was a very dry winter, There can be no doubt that the last which destroyed the grass and reduced Duke of York was much detested at the the surface of the pampas to dust. Cover close of his life, owing to the attitude he and food thus disappeared, and the mice took up in the House of Lords of strong were destroyed, — but by a process which opposition to Catholic Emancipation, and also caused the deaths of millions of sheep that the dislike felt for his political views and cattle. Had the winter been less obscured his real services to the State, severe, so as to reduce the quantity of and made him anything but a persona grass without destroying it, the trained grata to the majority of the people of army of persecutors which had assembled, England. Yet he was one of the most and increased as the mice increased, striking figures of the epoch in which would probably have brought their num- Great Britain dauntlessly faced Napoleon, bers to the normal level, without the inter the conqueror of Europe ; and now that a ference of a natural calamity. There is sufficient period has elapsed to forget the evidence that the same process has begun political animosities of the agitation for in Scotland; and the drought of the pres. Catholic Emancipation and Parliamentary ent spring, aided by the hawks and owls Reform, it is possible to judge the whole which are now encouraged instead of being career of the last Duke of York more shot, may, if followed by a severe winter, leniently and more justly.
Most Englishmen are aware that the time, and more than time, that such scanlast Duke of York was commander-in-dals as the Clarke Inquiry were forgotten, chief of the army from the existence of and honor given to those to whom honor his column and of the school for soldiers' is mainly due for the victories of Wellingsons which bear his name. Some, who ton, of which modern Englishmen are are versed in the chronique scandaleuse of justly proud, to those who created the Enthe present century, know that he was glish army in the shape in which it deaccused in Parli hent of allowing his feated the French, and in which it remained mistress, Mrs. Clarke, to traffic in military until the era of the Cardwell reforms. commissions. Few know that he was the Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, man who reorganized the British army, was, as has been said, the second son of and that to him is chiefly due the creation George Ill. He was also that king's of the splendid fighting force which illus- favorite son, and it is no small testimony trated the military prowess of this coun- to the amiability of his character, that he try in the Peninsula, and which its was also the favorite brother of the Prince commander, the Duke of Wellington, de- of Wales, afterwards George IV. He clared could go anywhere and do anything was from childhood intended for the army, It is true that in this work he was aided and spent much time in Prussia studying by men of great and varied ability : Sir the organization of the famous Prussian David Dundas drew up new codes of tac. army. At Potsdam he fell in love with tics based on modern principles of war; the princess_royal of Prussia, the eldest Sir Ralph Abercromby in the field and in daughter of Frederick William II., whom home commands endeavored to restore he married in 1791. His handsome face the morale of the army; Sir John Moore and gracious manners made him at this trained and disciplined the troops, which time the idol of the people as well as of were to be the élite of the Peninsular army, his father, and his popularity was increased in Shorncliffe camp; and the heads of the by the reputation he had obtained for departments at the Horse Guards, Sir personal courage in waiving his rank and Harry Calvert, father of the present Sir going to fight a duel with Colonel Lennox, Harry Verney, as adjutant-general, Sir afterwards Duke of Richmond, in 1789. Robert Brownrigg, and Sir Willoughby In 1793, at the age of thirty, the young Gordon, as quartermasters.general suc. Duke of York was placed in command of cessively, and Sir Henry Torrens, as the English army, despatched to the military secretary, all labored unceas. Netherlands to assist the Austrians in ingly in their different lines. Such work driving the French Republicans back to is not showy, like winning victories or France. The campaign commenced with storming cities, and for that very reason it the defeat of Dumouriez, and the capture needs to be insisted on with the more of Valenciennes by the allies; then the pertinacity. Generals in the field are but commanders quarrelled; the Duke of too apt to complain of the support they York drew off to besiege Dunkirk, and receive from the home authorities, and was defeated at Hindschoten; the Austheir complaints are handed down for the trians were defeated at Wattignies ; event. information of posterity. Yet it would be ually in 1794 the allied armies were driven most unfair to credit all the strictures through Belgium. The victorious Re. passed by Wellington, for instance, in his publicans, ignoring the courtesies of war, despatches on the management of the carried on the campaign in the winter; Horse Guards administration, without they burst into Holland, across the frozen seeing what the other side has to say. streams; and in 1795 the remains of the The difficulties in the way of transforming British army returned home, disorganized the English army of the eighteenth cen. and defeated. tury, fettered by antiquated notions and The campaign of 1793-95 thus briefly customs, into the admirable force, which summarized must be carefully studied by exhibited its valor on many other fields any one who would have an idea of the than those of the Peninsula during the ulter impossibility of an adequate resistlast years of the great war with Napoleon, ance being offered by the English army, were enormous; and due credit has never in its then antiquated condition, to the yet been given to the services of the ad. French Republican army with its mobility mirable officials who were at the head of and rapidity of movement, its new stratthe different military departments in egy, and its new tactics. Unfortunately, Whiteball during the change, or to the the only modern book which gives any. chief, to whom they were all fondly at- thing like a useful account of it, Sir tached, Frederick, Duke of York. It is Frederick Hamilton's “ History of the