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and each Kreishauptmann may aspire to wasser nur, Nützwasser” (This water is be a minister, it is clear that the chances for general purposes, not for drinking). of a factious opposition arising in any To sum up, you may sit on this bench Kreishauptmannschaft are exceedingly but not on that; you may stand on this small. If any one shows a turbulent spirit and dot on the other; you may draw this he knows that the minister and the king water but you may not drink it; you may are making a note of it, and that his be take your children here but not there, and havior will count against him if he should you may take your dogs nowhere except ever desire anything from the administra- in a short leash. Might not all this paint tion. Be it said at once that in this par- have been saved, even to the notice about ticular case it happens that the king is a the dogs, seeing that besides being led in man of great ability in many directions, a leash they have to be muzzled and regisa man who would have made his mark tered in the police station ? in any rank, and also a man of inexhaust- One notice you do not see in a German ible courtesy, kindheartedness, and tact; public park, and that is, Keep off the grass. an able and sagacious ruler in every re- The reason for this is the same as led the spect.
fathers to provide no punishment for parBe it also said that the foodness of the ricide ; it does not enter into the heads of German citizen for being looked after is the administration that any one would be such that what makes an Englishman most guilty of such an enormity. The parallel merry, seems to the German not only nat- outrage in England would be if a man ural but agreeable. It is not, in fact, that were to take an axe into Hyde Park and the Germans put up with their administra- begin cutting down the trees. The one tion; they enjoy it.
event which can move a German citizen It may be worth while then to note, in to interfere, even by speech, with a prov. no unfriendly spirit, how much interfer-ince of the administration is to see an ence with the subject this powerful admin- Englishman walking on the grass. istration thinks necessary in one or two In a piece of forest land laid out in walks directions. Everybody's railway experi- near a health resort I saw a number of ence is the same; but a step further on boards suggesting various transgressions and most travellers note nothing more be to my virgin mind, and among them the folcause it is not forced on their attention. lowing very fierce notice : "WARNUNG Take a public garden. On the back of [in very large capitals). Das Rauchen one seat may be read, “Nicht drauftreten aus offenen Tabakspfeifen oder von Cigar(Do not stand on the seat). On the back Iren sowie der Gebrauch hell brennender of the next, “Nur für Erwachsene" (Only Anzündemittel am oder im Walde aus. for grown-up people). The use of the serhalb der öffentlichen Fahrwege ist bei latter notice is twofold: it gives a self. Zwei Mark-Pf. Strafe, verboten."
It was important citizen a chance of turning out very hot day, and this was the last notice half-a-dozen children and taking the seat that I came to. So I read it through twice, for himself, which is gratifying; and sec. and, as the sense did not come quickly, I ondly it opens a fine field for administrative copied it down and retired to the shade to functionaries to consider whether a given take off my hat and think it over. I think occupant is grown-up or oot. A little fur. it means that you may smoke a pipe with ther on we find, "Hunde sind an kurzer a cover to it anywhere in the woods, but Leine zu führen" (Dogs to be led in a that you may only smoke open pipes and short leash); kurser being in spaced cap. cigars, or strike matches, on the public itals. The enormity of having a dog in a paths. The reason is obvious and laudalong leash is not so clear as the discomfort ble; it is to prevent the forest from being to oneself in leading him. This last no. burnt down; but I was reminded of the tice is a very good example of a class of notice that I saw in one of the comic panotices forbidding things that one would pers some time since, alleged to have not think of doing if they were not sug- been discovered at the top of the Mattergested.
horn : “ Notice! This hill is dangerous A little further on comes "Kein Einlass to cyclists.” für Kinderwagen" (No perambulators Outside the wood was a moderate slope allowed here), which is good; and yet a down which the road wound to the river ; little further, "Spielplatz" (Playground), the slope was perhaps as steep as St. which is thoughtful of the administration, James's Street. At the top was a notice, and here you will see not much except “Radfahrer: Bergab absteigen" (Cyclists ! perambulators, nurses, and children. On get off going downhill). How do Ger a pump you will often see, “Kein Trink- man cyclists manage to stomach that?
But the most carefully administered of The business controlled by the admin. all German subjects is the traveller by istration may be generally described as tramway. The following are some only, everything in the country except the army. perhaps one half, of the
notices affecting The army and the administration practi. the traffic in one single tram-car. (i) cally divide the attention of the country ; “Keep your ticket till the end of the and the genuine importance of the adminjourney to prevent its re-issue, and show istration arising from the duties they have it to the iospector when he requires it." to perform is enhanced by the relative (2) “Get out io the right." (3) " All chat- absence of other careers for talent. The tering with passengers is strictly forbid. navy and the Colonial Office are (if one den to the officials. (4) “Any one who may venture to say so) as yet comparagets out or in while the car is in motion tively in their infancy, while the bar and does so at his own risk.” (5) “Out of the Church do not take the same position consideration for your fellow-passengers, in Germany as they do in England. On please do not spit in the carriages.” Even the other hand medicine takes a position the administration dare not put that in any slightly better; but on the whole there other form than a request.
remain only two really fine careers, the Let no man suppose that these minute army and the administration. regulations are to be disregarded ; let him The effect of all this on the German be equally slow to conclude that they are nature - quite sufficiently prepared, in as ridiculous as they appear. They suit any case, to take itself seriously — may be the people, and are in some respects an imagined. No doubt the administration improvement on English ways. To men is good, but the notion of his own importion one: the really admirable plan of tance which is entertained by every one making every cabman driving to the opera connected with it is exaggerated. You exact his fare before he starts. But they feel this very strongly if you have had are undeniably inquisitorial; and a nation anything to do with English offices. An ought to be able to manage some of the Englishman, with rare exceptions, is a simplest actions of life without so much gentleman first and an official afterwards. help from its appointed officers. To take He construes the rules which govern your one or two miscellaneous examples : you application as favorably to you as possicaonot hire a cab at a railway-station with ble, and gladly stretches a point if he can. out taking a ticket from the cab-inspector, If he is obliged to refuse you he shows and then you must hire the cab whose you how his hands are tied, and perhaps number corresponds with your ticket. suggests some other way by which you You may not take tickets at the opera ex. may attain part, at any rate, of your object. cept on the second day before, or else on He does not carry himself as if he were the morning of the performance. You may administering you, and as if you ought to not water plants on the windowsill lest be grateful to him for the attention. Far they should fall over. You may not put different is your reception if your busimilk in a beer-bottle lest you should poison ness lies a little off the lines of ordinary yourself. This last regulation is very routine in Germany. Hardly have you stringent indeed. I wanted some milk in framed your request when the answer a hurry the other day for a picnic, and the comes back like the crack of a whip, milkman said that unfortunately he had * Nein ! das geht nicht” (No! that cannot no botiles. Of the many dozen empty be done). You mumble excuses, which opes in the shop he flatly declined to fill a are acknowledged with a grand bow and a, single one, alleging that they were not "Bitte sehr! Adieu ! ” °(Don't mention meant for milk. He pointed to the ad-it; good-morning) - courteous but unenministration's stamp on the stopper, which couraging. In fact the grand difference consecrated the bottle to beer forever, and resides herein; the English administraassured me that it could not be made tion, knowing itself to be human, does not worth his while to offend that silept wit- pretend to perfection, and thinks it quite
I marvelled, and went empty away. natural that a point might be raised now I have a profound admiration for Ger- and again which it has not foreseen. On many and all her works ; but I hope it is the other hand, the German administrano offence to the great empire to say that tion rather resents a suggestion that everyin some of her dealings with her citizens thing is not being done for you that you she often reminds me of the immortal can reasonably want; and I think that is sketch in Punch, whereof the legend runs, a sigo that a country is over-administered. " Go and see what baby is doing, and tell The proper province of the administrahim not to.”
tion is a subject one might dispute on for.
ever. But it certainly does not include form of government. It is just a hundred some injunctions that we have noticed. It years since Paoli, the liberator of his is oot necessary to put at a bridge-head, countrymen from their Genoese oppress“ Notice ! keep to the right, and do not ors, was welcomed in Paris as the Washloiter on the pathways,” because bodies of iogton of Europe, and was invited by the men always find it more comfortable to go National Assembly to take supreme comone way and come back the other. As for mand of the new department of France. loitering, it is impossible if there are many A people who have for four centuries people crossing, and if there are not it spent their whole energies in desultory does not matter. It is not necessary that rebellion against the tyranny of alien masthe State should put you into a railway ters are as little fitted for the privileges carriage; the State is sufficiently pro. of self-government as were the liberated tected if it makes sure that you have slaves of the Southero States, or the nataken your ticket. The carriage you travel tive population of India. Restlessness, in is a detail which concerns your comfort, love of intrigue, and unhealthy excitement and that you must necessarily understand have entered into their blood. The taint better than the State. It is not neces- is as hereditary as insanity, and it requires sary that the State should forbid a man to a more powerful remedy than mere time. cycle downhill ; it might as well forbid if the natural outlet is denied to it, it will him to go out in the rain without an vent itself in social disorder, in political umbrella. Such regulations do nothing intrigue, or in private enmity. In Corsica except swell the importance of the admin. there is a stronger element of disorder istration.
than the mere restlessness born of centuIf an Englishman comments unfavor-ries of rebellion and bloodshed. For the ably on the administration he generally political corruption, and for the crimes of says, “Something ought to be done,” and the vendetta, which combine to make the then does nothing. That is a sign, I state of Corsica a disgrace to France, the think, that, on the whole, our administra spirit of clanship is really responsible. tion is weak; although when we have The clan disappeared from the Highmade up our minds that a particular offi- lands of Scotland before the civilization cial must be strong, there is no limit to of the seventeenth century, with which it the extent we trust him. The policemen was incompatible. In Corsica it four. at Regent Circus, for example, are in- ished side by side with the advanced and vested with, and daily exercise to the elaborate institutions of republican gov. admiration of the world, a despotic and ernment, with all of which it is in the bituncontrolled authority over the liberty of terest antagonism. The spirit of the clan the subject which is not approached by infects every department of the State. any Continental official.
The elections are corrupted by it; the íf a German comments unfavorably on hands of the executive are tied by it; prithe administration he says with an irri- vate quarrels are spread and embittered tated shrug, “Of course if you want any- by it. It invades the law courts, and thing you must do what you are told, but utterly destroys the confidence of the peo. a sensible man cannot even understand ple in the impartiality of their magishalf their nonsense.” That, I think, is a trates. The unit in Corsica is not the sigo that a country is being over-adminis- individual. It is the clan. The leader or tered. Of the two states it is difficult to patron of the clan is generally a person of say which in the abstract is better ; but an considerable wealth and influence, both of Englishman in Germany is by no means which must be at the service of the meanprepared to admit that his native coun-est of his supporters in whatsoever cause try's state is the less gracious. G. C. he may require it. In return, the vote,
the services, and even the life, of the clansman are at the disposition of his chief. The spirit which in a former age
responded to the call to arms is now perFrom The National Review.
verted to secret political intrigue, to the SOCIETY IN CORSICA.
support of the family representative at the The history of Corsica, and its steady elections, even to the darker services of social retrogression since it has become a the family vendetta. The aggregation of department of France, is an ioteresting families into organized claps may be obstudy for the upholder of a republican served among most mountainous countries,
. For many of the statistics in this paper, the writer where the difficulties of communication is indebted to M. Paul Bourde,
have prevented any central organization
powerful enough to impose laws. Men The first three months of each year in driven to their own resources for security Corsica are periodically taken up with the unite themselves into families or collec- elections of the mayors and juges de paix, tions of families for mutual defence. both of which offices are held by Corsi. Under good government the clan becomes cans. The roll of electors is made up by no longer necessary; but the abominable a commission presided over by the mayor; occupation of Corsica by the Genoese, and the appeals against their decision are which lasted four centuries, was no gov- heard by the juge de paix, who in reality ernment at all. The country was plun- makes out the lists. Now, in most of the dered, and justice was sold to the highest communes the electors are divided be. bidder. Men without the support of a tween two clans, who live in the same powerful family, and without any legal street, and pass each other a dozen times protection, felt themselves lost if they re. a day without greeting. The victory of mained isolated. They formed alliances the one or of the other is often decided with more influential families, and were by two or three votes, and it is therefore willing enough to perform whatsoever of immense importance to be able to enroll services were required of them in return half-a-dozen friends, or strike out the same for the gaaranteed safety of their families. number of enemies. Upon this power A Corsican will boast of the number of depends the possession of the mairie. It his relations as an Englishman might is easy enough for the juge de paix to add boast of the strength of his arm. The to the number of his supporters. Certain duties of the patron of the clan are not electors belong to two communes, either confined to the exercise of political influ- by the ties of marriage or by being land. ence in behalf of his constituents. A lords in both. According to the necessicertain patron of an important clan in the ties of party, they vote for the one or for north of Corsica, whose lands are scat. the other. If they belong to the clan tered among a dozen distant communes, opposite to that of the juge de paix, he has turned large tracts of arable land into finds that they belong exclusively to anpasture for the free use of his tenants, other commune, and have no right to vote who, moreover, have the privilege of cut. in his. If they are his friends, they are ting whatsoever wood they require from sent for; and if they cannot come, their his plantations. His generosity is not vote is recorded without them. He can thrown away. It has gained him perhaps further add to the roll of his friends by an additional three hundred votes. The inscribing the names of electors who have supporters who in another age would have left the commune ten, twenty, or even followed him to war now follow him to the thirty years ago, and have long been enpoll. A client may be in want of thirty rolled in the commune to which they have francs, but may be unable to sell the wine removed. At St. Florent, a commune he made last vintage. He instantly turns with two hundred electors, the majority is to his patron. The wine is loaded on a generally determined by four or five votes. mule, and a journey of thirty miles has to In 1884 the juge de paix inscribed the be made to sell the wine to the patron who names of six road-overseers belonging to does not want it. A Corsican not be go neighboring communes, on the pretext ing to a clan — if there existed such an that, as their chief, the inspector of roads anomaly — and unable to rely upon the and bridges, lived at St. Florent, that comsupport of his patron in the critical mo- mune was their legal place of abode. ments in his life would, in the present The Cour de Cassation reversed this political condition of Corsica, be in a more decision by an order dated May 24. In pitiable state than he would have been, the mean time the six overseers had voted excommunicated seven hundred years ago. at the elections of May 4. Next year the
One must have lived in Corsica to real-juge de paix, totally disregarding the order ize the importance of success at the elec- of the court, again inscribed their names; tions. At first sight the chiefs of clans a fresh injunction was issued; and the would seem to have little compensation party, judging that this source of electors for their various services to their clients; was exhausted, were driven to seek others. but in reality they enjoy to the fullest ex- There are, besides, a dozen methods of tent that passion which ruled the lives of preventing adversaries from voting. The such men as Richelieu and Napoleon. To simplest is to refuse them on the ground lead men, to uphold their interests against of insufficient description. There is not their enemies, to triumph over fallen op- much variety in the surnames in Corsica, ponents - these are the functions of the and children are usually given two Chris. chief of a powerful clan.
tian names. By inadvertence one of the
Christian names is often omitted from the enemies. The former were assessed at roll of electors. “ You call yourself Bar- 87.55f., at the latter at 1,002.8of. The retoli Pietri," the mayor says politely, sult of all this is that the communes which “ There are three Bartoli Pietri in this once held enormous domains are now commune. The list does not say whether without resource. There are forests large you are Bartoli-François, or Bartoli-Pierre, enough to require the services of forest or Bartoli-Ours. You are not enrolled, my guards; but the communes cannot even friend, and I cannot let you vote.” The afford the modest salaries of those agents. mayor is perfectly aware who the rejected We laugh at the officials of the Sublime voter is, and that he is an enemy of the Porte who have to wait eighteen months clan.*
for their salaries. In Corsica - a departThe juge de paix is not unusually him. ment of France - there are forest guards self the chief of a powerful clan. He whose salaries are six years in arrears. does not find the two positions incompat. This poverty of the communes has para. ible; but his duties to the clan come first. lyzed the efforts of the State. Magnificent He carries on his official work after the roads cover Corsica from end to end, and Corsican principle: "For friends, every railways are being constructed at enor. thing; for enemies, nothing." He is mous expense. What is the use of all placed in so false and embarrassing a posi- this? Apart from the main road between tion that it would be a miracle if he admin. Ajaccio and Bastia, you will not meet ten istered the laws with impartiality. His wagoos in a day's journey. The people, position as clan chief must, sooner or able to afford mules only, continue to use later, clash with the duties of his office. mule transport on these splendid roads as Suppose he were to sentence a client and their forefathers did upon their old irreg. an enemy to the same punishment. The ular mule-tracks. client would regard it as a cruel injustice, The spirit of clanship so permeates the and it would be so regarded by every Cor. whole of society that Corsica is really sican who felt the conscience of the clan. divided by it into friends and enemies. “ Very well, sir," the client would say, From the moment that a mayor assumes " you do not recognize me. It is not much his scarf he is occupied only in serving his good being of your party. I will consult friends or in frustrating his enemies. He my comrades about the election of a juster regards the government of France in much patron."
the same light in which his ancestors reIt would be difficult to exaggerate the garded that of Genoa. To deceive it by importance to a Corsican of belonging to false documents, either to avail himself of the clan that carries the elections. The its favors or to escape the requirements mayor has no sooner been established in of its service, is reckoned a fair transacthe mairie than he throws open the com- tion. If you are his enemy, ask no certifi. munal lands to his supporters, who are cate from the mayor. Were you a hundred free to enclose it, or to cultivate it, or to times in want of help, he will regard you have the exclusive right of grazing on it. as a rich man. If you are his friend, he At Olmetto the communal lands, once will commit almost any irregularity to considerable, have now almost disap- serve you. A friend is in temporary want peared. When the commune has some of help. He has a daughter thirty-five sale to make, such as of timber, the mayor years old. The mayor grants a certificate arranges that the tender of some friend establishing the woman a new-born iofant, should be accepted, and when the day and the public.assistance fund grants an arrives for settlement the purchaser files allowance.* A friend wishes to escape an application for insolvency. The cer- completely from military service. The tificate is sent to Ajaccio signed by the mayor furnishes him with a certificate mayor, countersigned by the municipal establishing that he is the eldest son of a receiver - in fact, it is perfectly in order; widow. The gendarmerie who paid a but the commune touches none of the visit to this eldest son of a widow found money. The commune exacts a small him living with his father, who was in poll tax on the heads of cattle grazed on rude health, and discovered a brother a their domains. Accordingly, the mayor's good deal older than this "eldest son." friends have ten cattle reckoned as one, In fact, it is the general rule that the rich and bis enemies count ten for every one of people draw the State poor rates, for it is theirs. In 1866 at Casamaccioli the mayor the rich people who have influence and bad thirty-four partisans and thirty-seven belong to the powerful clan.
• Commune of Ajaccio.
Protest of Electors of Palneca, 1884. LIVING AGE. VOL. LXXIX. 4060