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ing his wife with death if she prevented years had passed, a public duty comor betrayed his search into the travel- pelled him to visit the country in which ler's portmanteau which had been left Ewald had perished, he travelled hastibelow; for probably, in the heedless- ly, and loathed the necessity which forness of anguish, Ewald bad not thought ced his equipage to rest at Altheim for a of atteoding to it. He also heard Jo- few hours. During this short stay, the sephine's timid expostulations, and the master of the new inn fouod means to sbriek of ber child in its father's savage introduce himself, and beg bis guests grasp, held perhaps as a hostage for her attention to a rare curiosity which he silence. He went to warn his master, possessed. Finding, from his valet's and, by calling through the casement of account, that this exhibition was a tax the lost where he lay awake, drew him imposed on every traveller, the Count from bis bed. The stroke of an axe assented, and listened patiently to his felled him to the ground, and be re- host's history of a bronze statue found membered nothing more. The fate of in a peat-bog at a short distance, and Ewald might be easily surmised. De- from thence brought to his house. He tachments of the peasants traversed the went into the room where it was deposcountry round to gain intelligence of ited, prepared to see some antique relic him without success, and, without or cunning counterfeit; but he saw knowing bis claims on them as their with feelings that need not be told, the countryman, were all eager in their zeal body of his beloved Ewald in the trarto trace a man of raok and honour, elling habit he had seen him wear, vitriCouriers met them from Berlin des- fied by the power of the morass to the patched to hasten his return; but after semblance of a bronze statue. He six months spent in the most earnest stood a few moments agbast with astonsearch, even his paternal friend Count ishment and horror, not unmingled with Lieuwen despaired of seeing him more, gladness at this testimony of the truth and believed him the victim of a fero- preserved by a special operation of nacious robber. Wolfenbach had been ture :-for on the forehead and in the seized with the horses of Ewald and his neck of the seeming statue two deep servant, wbich he had taken to sell at seams rendered the fact of Ewald's viothe nearest fair, and could not attempt lent death unquestionable. But be had even a plausible account of them. His presence of mind enough to suppress his miserable wife was in a state of delirium agitation, and affecting to believe the which unfitted her to give coherent evi- innkeeper exhibited, as he supposed dence; but the subject of ber ravings, himself, a strange piece of ancient sculp
purge of goid found in her infant's eure, gave him a much larger sum than cradle
, and a ring dropped near the had been expected even from a nobletraveller's bed, were powerful presump- man of his known munificence, and cartive proofs against her husband. The ried off the prize. But he caused it to rifled portmanteau was also discovered be conveyed to Berlin without noise
, in a well, and the axe stained with and made it no subject of conversation blood. Wolfenbach maintained an among his attendants. obstinate and contumelous silence, dur Count Lieuwen's return to the me. ing a long trial which ended in a sen- tropolis was always followed by bantence of death, received with acclama- quets given to his friends, and on tbis tions by the populace.
He was carri- occasion he celebrated his arrival among ed to the scaffold attended by no friend, them by inviting the chief nobility and and died without confession.
all the military officers who had shared Count Lieuwen 'resumed the gove and survived his campaigns. After ernment of the fortress he had resign- supper, before any had departed, he ed, but not till he had urged repeated spoke of a most rare specimen of sculpinquiries, and proffered large rewards fure which he had reserved for their last for any trace of his lost favourite, with regale. “ You all know,” said be, out effect.
And when, after some “ my tender affection for Evald de
Lichtenstein, my regret for his untimely "" In his grave," replied Count Lieuloss, and my wish to preserve his mem- wen, fixing his eyes on a guest who had ory. I think you will agree with me never spoken—That guest was Dorffen, in that wish to erect a monument, if we the senior officer superseded by Ewald. could decorate it with a representation He suddenly lifted up his head, and of him suitable to his merits and his answered—“. It is not !”—The terrible fate. But though we all know bis mer- sound of his voice, the decision of his its, where shall we find an artist able to words, made the assembly fall back from give a symbol of bis death, since we him, leaving him alone standing oppokoow neither the time nor circumstance?" site the corpse. His features wrought
The Count cast his eyes round the a few instants in convulsions, and his table as he spoke, and met approving lips moved in unconscious mutterings. and earnest looks from all his compan- “ Then" (said a voice from among the ions, except one, whose head was avert- groupe) “ the murderer robbed bim of ed. “ But,” he added, rising after a the cross ?” short pause, “ I think I have found a “ No, no—I robbed bim of nothing statue sufficient itself for his monument.” –he robbed me of my place and hon
A curtain suddenly drawn aside dis- our, and of that cross which I might covered the bronze statue of Ewald ly- have earned at Altheim—We met alone ing on a bier composed of black turf. - we were man to man - It was night, A silence of surprise and awe was fol- but I won the cross fairly—and dow lowed by exclamations of wonder at let him take it back." the exquisite symmetry of the figure, The self-accused murderer made a and at the expression of the counte- desperate effort to throw it from his nance, so pearly resembling its usual breast, and fell with his whole weight character, except in the balf-closed eyes and a laugh of madness at the foot of and lips parted as io the pangs of death. the bier. The croud raised him, but Some gathered round to observe the be spoke no more. His last words were accurate folds of the drapery, and re. truth, as subsequent inquiry proved. cognized every part of bis usual travel- Accident or a bope of vengeance had ling apparel. " There is even the led him to the neighbourhood of Ewshape of the seal-ring he wore upon ald's village ; they had met on the road, his finger," said one of the spectators, and fatal opportunity completed Dorf“ and here is the ribbon he received fen's guilt. He was buried under the the day before his departure from the scaffold, and the Bronze Statne remainKing--but wbere is the cross of the ed a monument of Ewald's fate and of Black Eagle ?"
BROWNE'S ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS.*
From the Literary Gazette. VIIE first volume being chiefly oc- from the second volume, in which he
cupied with a minute description of treats of the idolatry, learning, laws, the tabernacle, the temple, and its ser- customs, commerce, agriculture, and vice ; the three great festivals of the sciences of the Jews.
After a very copassover, pentecost and tabernacles, pious discussion respecting the marriaand the inferior feasts and fasts ; the ges of this extraordinary, people, the folsynagogue, and other topics familiar to lowing is the account of one of their the readers of scripture; we shall copy peculiar tenets. the few passages which we think neces “ The only other circumstance consary to exemplify the author's manner, nected with the Jewish forms of mar
Antiquities of the Jews, carefully compiled from authentic sources, and their customs illustrated from Modern Travels. By W. Browne, D.D. London,1820.
riage, is that which regards the broth- year? On all which being satisfied, he er's widow, and is known by the name proceeded to ask wbether the levir was of Jus Leviratus, the law concerning willing to marry her, or wished to be which is given in Deut. xxv. 5—10, separated ? Whether be acted willing. and enjoins the brotber of the deceased ly or by constraint? And being also to take his widow, and rear up seed un- satisfied as to these, especially as to the to his brother, to perpetuate bis name brother's refusal to comply with the and heir his effects; an instance of law--he commanded the widow 10 which we have in Matth. xxii. 25. It keep the spittle in her mouth till farther is evident, however, from the case of orders. À shoe was then brought; it Ruth iii. 12, 13, iv. 5, 10, that the law was put upon the right foot of the leextended farther than the husband's vir ; the woman stepped forward and brother, namely, to such kinsman as repeated the following words : " My had the right of redemption. And it levir refuses to raise up the name of bis is also plain, from Genesis xxxviii. 8, brother in Israel. He does not choose that the custom of marrying the deceas- to wed me according to the law of the ed brother's wife was far more ancient levir;" and the levir assented to ber than the Mosaic law. It was under accusation, which being done, she loosthat law, however, that it became dou- ed with her own right hand the thong bly binding, for it connected the love of of the shoe ; pulled it from his foot, preserving a brother's name with the and cast it to the ground, at the same preservation of property in the several time (not spitting in his face,)but spitfamilies and several tribes. The name ting on the ground before his face, she given to it by the Jews was Ibum, or distinctly repeated three times the fol“ the husband's brother;" and it re- lowing words : “ So shall it be done to quired no betrothing, for be acquired the man who does not wish to build his sister-in-law by a divine right; nei- up the house of his brother, and his ther were there any ceremonies as at name shall be called in Israel—the ordinary marriages, only all the effects house of him that hath his sboe loosof the deceased were delivered up woed ;" after wbich the judges and specbim, and all his claims, for the behoof tators all repeated, “ The shoe is loosof the child who should be accounted ed.” The judge then asked the shoe his heir ; yet she was allowed to marry to be kept as an evidence of the transvone till three months after her hus- action; the widow received a writing band's death, that it might appear to from the judge to the same effect
, a copy all that there was no child. Such was of which is given by Maimonides
, and the practice in ancient times, but it is the parties were dismissed. It is some not now insisted on ; that is to say, they what remarkable that the Athenians go through the form, but they do not appear to have adopted the spirit of this oblige the surviving brother to marry law of the leyir; for “no heiress could the widow. The practice of the Jews, marry out of her kindred, but resigned in Buxtorff's time, was as follows: On up herself and her fortune to her nearthe preceding evening, after evening est relation, who was obliged to marry prayers at the synagogue, one of the her ;” and among the modern eastera Rabbins was chosen to preside, and nations we still meet with the law or two others to assist bim as judges. custom of marrying the brother's wid. Next morning, after prayers, these with Thus Olearius informs us, conthe levir, the widow, and two witness- cerning the Circassians, that, "when a es, met at a certain place, and the pre man dies without issue, his brother is siding Rabbi asked whether the hus- obliged to marry the widow, to raise band bad been dead three months ? up seed to bim,'
The Hon. Mr. ElWhether she was the wife of the levir's phinstone says, that " among the ALbrother ? Whether the deceased and he ghauns, as among the Jews, it is thought were of the same father? And whether The widow had reached ber twelfth
incumbent on the brother of the deceased to marry his widow ; and it is a
mortal affront to the brother for
any or teacher of the Sooffees, dies, other person to marry her without his he bequeaths his patched garment, which consent. The widow, however, is not is all his worldly wealth, to the disciple compelled to take a husband against whom he esteems the most worthy to her will.” M. Volney, in his travels become his successor; and the moment into Syria, tom. ii. p. 74, observes, that the latter puts on the holy manile, he is “ the Druzes retain, to a certain degree, vested with the power of bis predecesthe custom of the Hebrews, which di- sor.” rected a man to marry his brother's “ Thevenot informs us that superiors, widow; but this is not peculiar to in order to court popularity, sometimes them, for they have this, as well as use the salutation which is given to many other customs of that ancient peo- equals, instancing, as an example, the ple, in common with the inhabitants of Grand Signor, when riding along the Syria, and with the Arabians in genere streets of Constantioople; and every al." But Neibubr says, “ It does, in- one knows the arts which Absalom deed, happen among the Mahometans, used to win the hearts of the people that a man marries his brother's widow, from his father : he put forth his hand, but she has no right to compel him so and took them, and kissed them ; a to do.” So far, then, respecting the mark of kindness wbich David shewed levirate."
to Barzillai for a better end. I shall From the chapter entitled “ Marks next add, that a horn in ancient times of honour and disgrace,” we extract was an emblem of power, which the the following
following extract will set forth in a new “ The princes of the East, even at light. One thing observable in the the present day, have many changes of cavalcade which Mr. Bruce witnessed raiment ready, both as an article of in Abyssinia was the head-dress of the wealth, wbich large wardrobes have al governors of provinces. A large broad ways been in that country, and to suit fillet was bound upon their forehead, the occasion ; and in Persia they are and tied behind, in the middle of which of different degrees of fineness and rich- was a born, or conical piece of silver, Dess, according to the rank or merit of gilt, about four inches long, much in the persons to whom they are given ; the shape of our common candle extinbut in Turkey they are all nearly of an guishers. This is called kirn, and is equal fineness, and the honour lies in only worn at reviews, or parades after the number given. Party-coloured a victory.” In the quarto edition of garments are also, in these countries, Bruce, a plate is given of this ensign of counted a mark of honour, and were office, and I may
add, that the Abyssiworn even by kings' daughters. Per- nian word kirn, is the same as keren, baps Joseph's coat of many colours re- wbich is the Hebrew word for horn, sembled the stuffs in Barbary, which and is often alluded to in Scripture. are formed of pieces of cloth, of differ- Thus in Ps. Ixxv. 4, 5, “ I said unto ent colours, sewed together ; or it may the fools, Deal not foolishly; and to bave been richly embroidered like that the wicked, Lift not up the horn : lift which Telemachus, when leaving the not up your born on high ; speak not court of Sparta in quest of his father, with a stiff neck.” Ps. xcii. 10, “ But received from Helen, whom Menelaus my horn shalt thou exalt, like the hors had received again into favour after the of the unicorn.” And in Ps. cxii. 9, destruction of Troy. For a superior “ His horn shall be exalted with honto give his own garment to ao inferior our.” Perhaps a remnant of this anwas reckoned a great mark of regard. cient practice is to be found still in the Hence Jonathan gave his to David; neighbourhood of Lebanon ; for Capand the following extract from Sir Joho taia Light, in 1814, saw the females Malcolm may serve to throw some light of the Maronites and Drozes, “wearon Elisha's request to have the maotle ing on their heads, a tin or silver coniof Elijah. “When the Khalifa,” says cal tube, about twelve inches long, and
twice the size of a common post horo, had seen. I was surrounded by them, over which was thrown a white piece and a present, a present,' echoed from of linen that completely enveloped the. all quarters, before they would allow body. The horn of the emir's wise me to look at their temple. One more was of gold, enriched with precious violent than the rest threw dust in the stones.
air, the signal both of rage and defiance, · But after having spoken of their ran for his sbield, and came towards marks of honour, we may also notice me dancing, howling, and striking the their marks of disgrace. These were shield with the head of his javelin, to many, but the chief of them were the intimidate me. A promise of a present, following: sometimes they condemned however, pacified him.” mea to the employments of women, “ But, perhaps, the greatest insult like the Jewish youth to grind corn in that could be given, apart of bodily isBabylon ; cutting off the beard was ac- jury, was the contempt that was cast oa counted a great insult, and plucking off their mother. Hence the cutting rethe hair was adding cruelty to insult. proach of Saul to his son Jonathan, for To spit in the face of a person was the friendship be had showo to David, also accounted disgraceful, and it is ' “ Thou son of the perverse, rebellious still practised in the East; for Hanway woman, do not I know that thou hast tells us, ibat in the year 1744, when a chosen the son of Jesse to thy own conrebel prisoner was brought before Na- fusion, and unto the confusion of thy dir, Shah's general,“ the soldiers were mother's nakedness? David, likewise, ordered to spit in his face, an indigai- when reproving Joab, bis Dephew, ty,” adds the historian, “ of great anti- uses similar language.-" These men, quity in the East." Clapping the the sons of Zeruiab, be too hard for me." hands, making a wide mouth, pushing And when Abishai, the brotber of Joout the tongue, and hissing, were like- ab, wished to kill Shimei for cursing wise the marks of malignant joy and David, the king replied, " What have I contempt. Accordingly Job says, to do with you, ye sons of Zerujah ?" “ Men sball clap their hands at him, which Zeruiab was David's lull sister ; and shall biss him out of his place.” but it is not difficult to explain the oriAnd Jeremiah mentions clapping their gin of tbis tenderness for a mother's hands, hissing, wagging their heads, character, and desire to resent any afand gnashing their teeth, as the tokens front that is cast upon her. It is owiog whereby the inhabitants of Jerusalem to polygamy, where the children of the showed their hatred. Whilst Isaiah same family became naturally more at: says of Israel, “ Against whom make tached to her, and to each other; and ye a wide mouth and draw out the it is to the same source that we have tongue ?"--We formerly noticed the the names of the mothers of the kings conduct of Shimei to David, in throw- of Israel so frequently mentioned. It ing dust in the air, and may now add, distinguished them from the other chilthat the Jews insulted Paul, many cen- dren of the kings by their other wives, turies aster, in a similar manner : “ for and served to ascertain their descent it is said of them, that "they gave him and propinquity.-But marks of disaudience unto this word, and then lift- grace were not confined to the living ; ed up their voices and said, Away with they often extended even to the dead, by such a fellow from the earth—and they refusing them the rights of sepulture, cried out, and cast off their clothes, and or raisiog them after they bad been inthrew dust into the air.” On which terred; or forbidding them to be pubconduct of theirs, the following extract licly lamented; or allowing them to from Captain Light's Travels forms an become the prey of ravenous animals; excellent commentary : “ They (viz. or casting them, like Urijab's, into the the inhabitants of Galabshee, a village graves of the common people ; or burn; on the Nile,) seemed more jealous of ing their bones into lime, as Moab did my appearance among them than any I the king of Edom's.