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known to the queen his mother, who as the order of nature shall require." had seen him frequently, and knew his At a burial oone saluted each other, worth in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, and when they retired, then began the her husband. From the time that the standings and sittings, as they were callcorpse was shrouded, and taken to an ed, by wbich the company comforted upper chamber, it lay upon a bed till the the relations. The number of persons time of burial, and was either in greater which composed the minimum io this or less state, according to circumstan- duty was ten ; but it might be as many ces. If poor, it lay upon a plain bed, more as pleased. The common numin an open coflin or bier ; but if rich,on ber consisted of all the company, and a magnificent bed, and in a magnificent the custom was, at each sitting and coffin, open to the inspection of all who standing, for the relations to sit, and the chose to visit it.”

company to stand round them,and weep. At the funeral

aloud. Between the grave and the house “ When come to the sepulchre, they were seven of these sittings and standsaid, “ Blessed be God, who formed ings, and they might not be nearer each thee, fed thee, preserved thee, and bas other than what could contain four cabs taken away thy life. O dead! He of seed, which was fixed to be thirtyknows the number of thy members, and three cubits and two hand breadths shall one day restore thy life. Blessed broad, by fifty cubits long, or, as others be he who takes away life and restores explain it, the distance between them it.” They then placed the coffin on the was regulated by circumstances, but the ground, walked round it seven times, space allowed them to stand on was of repeated a prayer,and sometimes an ora- that extent, that they might not be intertion, recounting his virtues : the rela- rupted by the persons who passed. tions threw a handful of earth upon the The entertainment of the company bier, and in places where burial was invited to the funeral did not precede, used after the present manner of inhu- but follow the solemnity. Among the mation, they filled up the grave, con- heathen it was over or around the grave, siguing the dust of their relation to the but the Jews had it at home. This endust of death, Coffins were not in gen- tertainment was commonly liberal :... eral use in Judea, nor are they general they drank two cups of wine before it, even at present in the East. They were five while eating, and three after ; at very ancient, indeed, in Egypt among least they had the offer of so many. the great, and were made of sycamore But as this implied greater abundance wood, or of a kind of pasteboard, form- than was in the power of many to give, ed by folding and gluing cloth together the want was supplied by the liberality a number of times, which were curiously of their neighbours, both as a mark of plastered, and then painted with hiero- sympathy, and in the expectation that glyphics. But in Judea they seem to they would return the compliment have been contented with wrapping the when themselves should be visited with body closely in spices, and carrying it a similar affliction.” to the grave, like the widow of Nain's The passage to which we have above son, in a bier, from whence it was taken alluded relates to the eclipse at the cruto be laid in a sepulchre; or, if poor, it cifixion of Jesus Christ. was tumbled into the grave, and the bier “ This darkness was not confined to brought back for further use. Hence a Judea, for we read of a heathen philoscoffin to Joseph was looked upon as opher, in a distant land, who on seeing an honour.-Before leaving the church- it, and knowing that it could not be ocyard, the modern Jews each pluck up casioned by an eclipse, exclaimed, three bandfuls of grass, and throwing in “Either the God of nature suffers, or behind them

say, They shall flourish the frame of the world is dissolving." I like the grass of the earth.” They also, shall conclude the article with an exin some places, throw dust on their tract from the Tracts of Mr.James Ferheads, and say, “We shall follow thee gusson, well known for his popular wri

tings on various branches of Natural mentioned here, which could be no Philosophy. "I find by calculation,” other than this; for an ordinary one says he, “ that the only passover full never totally hides the sun from any moon, which fell on a Friday from the one part of the earth above four minutes. twentieth

year

after our Saviour's birth Besides it must have been miraculous, to the fortierb, was in the 4764th year because no eclipse ever happens at full of the Julian period, which was the moon, it being at that time in the opthirty-third year of his age, reckoning posite side of the heavens.” Que is from the beginning of the year next after pleased to hear the sentiments of a perthat of his birth, according to the vulgar son so well qualified to judge.” æra; and the said passover full noon We finish as we began, with recomwas on the third day of April. Pblegon mending this book as a sensible, useful, informs us, tha in the 2020 Olympiad, and sound compilation, well calculated or 4764th year of the Julian period, to please the grave and inform the genethere was an eclipse the same as this ral reader.

From the London Time's Telescope.
OUTLINES OF ENTOMOLOGY.

If we talk of a stone, of a gnat, or of a bee, our discourse is a sort of demonstration of the power of him who formed them: for the wisdom of the workman generally manifests itself in what is most minute.He who hath stretched out the heavens, and who hath hollowed the bed of the ocean, is the same who hath pierced the sting of the bee to foron a passage for its poison.

ST. BASIL,
In the vast and the minute we see
The unambiguous footsteps of the God
Who gives its lustre to an insect's wing;
And wheels his throne upon the rolling worlds.

COWPER.

ENTOMOLOGY is a science that main

, there entirely : the earth swarms

conducts us into the most exten- and the air teems with multitudes too sive and most populous province of the small for the human eye to observe, and whole empire of Nature. For while too numerous for the imagination to quadrupeds are, for the most part, con- conceive ! fined to land, and fishes to water; Entomology, like every other branch while birds though equally capable of of natural history, claims it as its preassuming earth and air as their natural rogative to demonstrate the existence range, know little more of water than and perfections of that Almighty Powits mere surface; insects, in inoumera- er which produced and governs the unible multitudes, are traced through each verse. It is one chapter in the history of these elements, as their allotted resi. of creation, and naturally leads every dence, and are provided with an aston- intelligent mind to the Creator; for ishing diversity of powers to fit them there are no proofs of his existence for such opposite babitations. There more level to the apprehension of all, is,perpaps, hardly a plant that does not than those which this chapter offers to furnish nourishment and a habitation to the understanding. several insects; while many, as the oak

In an insect, or a flower. for.example, afford a retreat for some Such mierdscopic proofs of skill and power, bundreds of different species. Plants,

As hid from ages past, God now displays, however, are far from being the only

To combat atheists with in modern days. abode of insects; vast numbers reside The manner in which entomology has upon the larger animals, whose juices too frequently been studied, and the exthey continually suck; wbile many live tremes into which men, according to upon and devour others of their own their úifferent capacities and tastes, order. Infinite numbers spend a part have fallen, have excited a derision of their lives in the water ; others re- against the science, which a proper de

3B ATHENEUM VOL. 7.

gree of discernment would have direct- has decked with what looks like liquid ed against the foibles alone of those drops, or plates of gold and silver; or who have thus studied it. While the with scales or piles, which mimic the systems of some naturalists contain on- colour and emit the ray of the same ly a dry repetition of shades, colours, precious metals.' Some exhibit a rude and shapes of different insects, without exterior like stones in their pative state, entering into the more interesting and while others represent their smooth and animated description of their manners, shining face after they have been subthose of others, as injudiciously, ascribe mitted to the tool of the polisher; othto them functions, and a degree of intel- ers, again, like so many pigmy Atlasligence of which they are incapable. es, bearing on their backs a microcosm, By the former the imagination is faiigu- by the rugged and various elevations ed and disgusted with a constant repeti- and depressions on their tuberculated tion of the same images. By the ro- crust, present to the eye of the beholder mantic air of the latter, the mind is led no inapt imitation of the unequal surinto distrust with regard to the truth of face of the earth, now horrid with misthe whole narrative, and to doubt of shapen rocks, ridges, and precipicesthose facts which are well established now swelling into hills and mountains, and certain. Hence the study of En- and now sinking into valleys, glens, and tomology has been deemed by many caves; while not a few are covered an occupation the most useless and with branching spines, which fancy frivolous in which the buman mind can may form into a forest of trees.* be engaged. Hence too, from a fear •What numbers vie with the charmof prostituting their talents, many have ing offspring of Flora in various beaubeen deterred from contemplating the ties! some in the delicacy and variety wonders displayed by Nature, in a of their colours, colours not like those kingdom of animals the most numerous, of flowers, evanescent and sugitive, but diversified, and splendidly adorned, of fixed and durable, surviving their subany on the face of the globe; and thus ject, and adorning it as much after have deprived themselves of views of death as they did when it was alive; the power and manificence of the Au- others, again, in the veining and texture THOR OF NATURE, in some respects of their wings; and others in the rich the most striking and interesting that cottony down that clothes them. To can be presented to the mind of man.* such perfection, indeed, has Nature ia

• Insects indeed' (observe two elegant them carried ber mimetic art, that you modern writers,) .appear to have been would declare, npon beholding some Nature's favourite productions, in insects, that they had robbed the trees wbich to manifest her power and skill, of their leaves to form for themselves she has combined and concentrated al- artificial wings, so exactly do they remost all that is either beautiful and semble them in their form, sobstance, graceful, interesting and alluring, or cu- and vascular structure ; some representrious and singular, in every other class ing green leaves, and others those that and order of her children. To these,

• Myriads of creatures (each too nicely small her valued miniatures, she has given the Bare sense to reach) for our inspection call. most delicate touch and highest finish In animalcules, germs, seeds, and flowers of her pencil. Numbers she has armed Live, in their perfect shapes, the little powers.

Vast trees lie pictured in their slend'restgrains; with glittering mail, which reflects a

Armies one wat'ry globule contains
lustre like that of burnished metals; The artificial convex will reveal
in others she lights up the dazzling ra The forms diminutive that each conceal;
diance of polished gems. Some she

Some, so minute, that, to their fine extreme,
The mite a vast leviathan will seem :

That yet of organs, functions, sense partake, * It does not become a reasonable man, says Aristo Equal with animals of largest make, tle, capricionsly to blame the study of insects nor to In curious limbs and clothing they surpass take a distaste at it, from the trouble it occasions. Nothing in nature is mean ; every thing is sublime,

By far the come liest of the bulky mass. every thing worthy of admiration.

A world of beauties! that thro' all their frame
Creation's grandest miracles proclaim.

are dry and withered. Nay, sometimes times in the covering of their bodies. this mimicry is so exquisite, that you -We admire with reason the coats of would mistake the whole insect for a quadrupeds, whether their skios be covportion of the branching spray of a tree.* ered with pile, or wool, or fur, yet are No mean beauty in some plants arises not perhaps aware that a vast variety of from the fluting and punctuation of their insects are clothed with all these kinds stems and leaves and a similar ornament of hair, but infinitely finer and more conspicuously distinguishes numerous silky in texture, more brilliant and delijosects, which also imitate with multiform cate jo colour, and more variously shavariety, as may particularly be seen in ded, than what any other animals can the caterpillars of many species of the pretend to. Nor has nature been lavish butterfly tribe (papilionida ), the spines only in the apparel and ornament of and prickles which are given as a noli these privileged tribes; in other respects me taugere armour to several vegetable she has been equally unsparing of her productions.

favours. To some she has given fins In fishes, the lucid scales of varied like those of a fish, or a beak resemhue that cover and defend them are uni- bling that of birds; to others horns, versally admired, and esteemed their nearly the counterparts of those of vapeculiar orņament; but place a butter- rious quadrupeds. The bull, the stag, Hy's wing under a microscope +, that the rhinoceros, and even the hitherto avenue to unseen glories in new worlds, Vainly sought for unicorn, have in this and you will discover that nature has respect many representatives amongst endowed the most numerous of the in- insects. One is armed with tusks not sect tribes with the same privilege, mul- unlike those of the elephant; another is tiplying in them the forms, and diversi- bristled with spines, as the porcupine fying the colouring of this kind of cloth- and hedge-bog with quills; a third is ing beyond all parallel. The rich and an armadillo in miniature; the disprovelvet tints of the plumage of birds are portioned hind legs of the kangaroo not superior to what the curious observe give a most grotesque appearance to a er may discover in a variety of lepidop- fourth; and the threatening bead of the tera; and those many-coloured eyes snake is found in a fifth.'* which deck so gloriously the peacock's To those even who derive but- little tail are imitated with success by one of pleasure from the pursuits and studies our most common butterflies. I of a liberal mind, and who feel but little

* Feathers are thought to be peculiar satisfaction in any employment unattento birds; but insects often imitate them ded with immediate profit, the researchin their antena, wings, and even some es of the Entomologist are not without

their use. Had the operations of the • Hence the common names of some of the genus silk-worm never been examined, how Mantis, the walking-leaf and walking-stick.

could men have availed themselves of + The polished glass, whose small convex The labours of an insect that administers Enlarges to ten millions of degrees The mite, invisible else, of Nature's band

* Kirby and Spence's Entomology, vol. i, p. 7. et Least animal; and shows what laws of life

seq., the most pleasing and instructive book on in"The cheese-inhabitants observe, and how

sects that has appeared for a long time.

The third Fabric their mansions in the hardened milk,

volume may be shortly expected. Wonderful artists!

J. Phillips.

Nor power alone confessed in grandeur lies, Their wings (all glorious to behold)

The glittering planet, or the painted skies ;
Bedropt with azure, jet, and gold,

Equal the elephant's or emmet's dress
Wide they display: the spangled dew

The wisdom of Omnipotence confess;
Reflects their eyes and various hue.

Equal the cumbrous whale's enormous mass,

With the small insect in the crowded grass ;
In down of ev'ry variegated dye

The mite, that gambols in its acid sea,
Shines, flutt'ring soft, the gaudy butterfly:
That powder, which thy spoiling hand disdains,

In shape a porpoise, tho'a speck to thee!
The beauteous forms of scales contains;

A living world, thy failing sight confounds! Not courts can more magnificence express

To thee a peopled habitation shows, In all their blaze of gems and pomp of dress. Where millions taste the bounty God bestows.

Boyse.

Gay.

Browne.

50 profusely to our splendour and lux- better effect than at present. The valuries? It was not to the unobserving uable purposes to wbich the Spanish fly that it first occurred, that the toil of the has been made subservient, will alone silk-worm might be converted into a vindicate the utility of those researches considerable article of commerce, and wbich have been made concerning this might give rise to many arts, and afford part of the animal kingdom. There subsistence to thousands, of manufac- are, however, other uses to which other turers. To the same manner, wax and insects have been applied, and that honey enter into the articles of com- from the most remote antiquity, which merce and add to our enjoyments. It appear of a still more singular nature, capoot therefore be denied, that those Before the times of Theopbrastos and naturalists were profitably employed Pliny, certain kinds of them were emwho first observed the industry of the ployed in ripeniog the figs throughout the bee; who brought the insect from its Íslands of the Archipelago ; and it apnative woods, introduced it into our pears that the same practice still subsists gardens, and by domesticating it, bave among the present inhabitants of these rendered it subservient to our pleasures. islands. There are two kinds of figs

The Chinese, whose progress in cultivated around the Mediterranean; many of the arts is superior to that of the wild and the domestic. The forany other nation, avail themselves of mer produces fruit several times in the the labours of certain iosects in procur- year; and in it are deposited the eggs ing a rich dye, and an elegant varnish, of insects which are soon converted into which is provided by a certain species larves. It is by an artificial process of of winged ant. The celebrated purple the same kind that the domestic fig is dye of the ancients was the produce of brought to maturity, which would otha small species of shell-fish; and we erwise drop from tbe tree in an unripe are told by Pliny, that the discovery state. During the months of June and of its virtue was occasioned by a dog, July, the peasants of these delightful who, in eating the fish, bad dyed his climes are busily employed in collecting ears with that beautiful colour. It such of the wild figs as abound most seems probable that the antients were with these insects, and in placing tben capable, from the shells of insects, of near the cultivated fig, that they may communicating to their stuffs many deposit their eggs, and co-operate with beautiful shades of scarlet with which the climate in bringing it to maturity. we are unacquainted ; and it is not Similar purposes might probably be unlikely that we have also some rich served by a judicious application of iotints of that colour wbich they wanted. sects to fruit in more portherly climates, It is certain that our finest reds are fur- were we acquainted with the proper nished by insects of which they were species. Those prunes, pears, and apignorant. Cochineal, the extensive ples which are first ripe, are commonly and profitable uses of which have been found penetrated by worms. long estimated, is now koown univer It is highly probable tbat the whole sally to be an insect which is propagated advantage resulting from this process of

and in vast numbers, in the caprification, as it is called, consists in kingdom of Mexico. The kermes or the putrescent disposition which is here: grain of scarlet, which was formerly im- by produced, and which is always acagined to be one of the galls or excres- companied with an evolution or secresepses that are seen on shrubs, is now tion of saccharine matter. understood to be an insect which at But there are other inducements to taches itself in that form to a species of the study of insects, of a nature totally the oak.

different, yet not less personal; induceThe medical uses of certain insects are ments, founded not on any bope of adfar from being inconsiderable; and to vantage to be derived from these anithese purposes they have been long ap- mals, but of alleviating or preventing plied, perhaps more frequently and with the numerous mischiefs they occasion

with care,

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