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country belonging to the Creek Indians, ble to communicate with bim ; and and possessing a population of about Whitfield was not a little surprised at 25,000 souls. We cannot minutely receiving a letter which contained these follow the thread of the mission in words : “ When I saw God by the Georgia : suffice it to say that it was wind which was carrying you out hardly successful, and removed but few brought me in, I asked couusel of God. of the prejudices which caused the His answer you have inclosed." The Chief Tomochichi to exclaim, “ Chris- ioclosure was a slip of paper, with this lian much drunk ! Christian beat men! sentence, “ Let him return to London." Christian tell lies ! Devil Christian ! Wesley doubuing, from his own expeMe no Christian.""
rience, whether bis friend could be so But Wesley's insisting on intolerant usefully employed in America as in discipline, on immersion in baptism, and England, had referred the question to on other severities, hindered the good chance, in which at that time be trusted work. The preacher also began to de. implicitly; and this was the loc* which part more and more from the practices he bad drawo.". of the church. At Frederica, too,
Whitfield had, during the absence of whither Charles Wesley had gone, Wesley, made many proselytes in Eng great confusiou arose out of his attempts land. He began his preachings at at reform, and injudicious zeal. In Gloucester, and preached afterwards to 1737 Charles returned to England. enthusiastic multitudes in Londoo, BrisJohn refrained from marrying Sophia tol, and other places ; but he left all for Causton, the niece of the chief magis- America. trate, in deference, it is said, to the de “ It is therefore apparent, that tbo' cision of the Moravian brethren, to the Wesleys should never have existed, whom he proposed the question, wheth- Whitfield would bave given birth to er he should or should not unite himself Methodism :-and now when Whitto that young lady. Other accounts field, having excited this powerful senstate that the match was broken off by sation in London, had 'departed for Miss C. in consequence of bis eccentri- Georgia, to the joy of those wbo dread. cities; and she soon after became the ed the excesses of his zeal, po sooner wife of a Mr. Williamson. Wesley had he left the metropolis, than Wesseems at this period of his life to have ley arrived there, to deepen and widen been both intolerant and untractable. the impression which Whitfield had For some cause or other he repelled made. Had their measures been cobMrs. Williamson from the communion certed, they could not more entirely table. For this and for scandal he was have accorded. The first sermon indicted. The prosecution, however, which Wesley preached was upon these was not promptly followed up, and af strong words : If any man be in ter waiting several months for trial, he Christ, he is a new creature ;' and quitted the scene of his distress. His though he himself had not yet reached passage homeward from Charleston was the same stage in his progress as his tempestuous, and spent in strict self-ex. more ardent coadjutor, the discourse amination : he landed at Deal, after an was so bigh strained, that be was inabsence of two years and four months. formed he was not io preach again ia It is curious, that Whitfield sailed from that pulpit. the Downs for Georgia only a few “ This was on the second day after hours before the vessel in which Wes. his arrival in London. On the next ley was, cast anchor; the ships passed Sunday he preached at St. Andrew's, in sight, but neither knew that bis Holborn, and there also was informed friend was on the deck of that at which he gazed.
This remarkable instance of Wesley'i predio " But when Wesley landed he learn- lection for the practice of sortilege, is not noticed od that his coadjutor was on board the lates it, in a letter published at the time of their
by either of his biographers. Whitfeld bimelf re vessel in the offing : it was still possi- separation.
that he was to preach no more. In the wards all whom he should converse course of the week he went to Oxford, with ; that he would labour after conwhither Peter Boehler accompanied tinual seriousness, not willingly indulghim, and where he found only one of ing in any the least levity of behaviour, the little Society which he had formed nor in laughter, no, not for a moment ; there ; the rest having been called to and that he would speak no word, and their several stations in the world. take no pleasure, which did not tend to During these days he conversed much the glory of God. In this spirit he bewith the Moravian, but says that he un- gan to exhort the hostess or the servants derstood him not; and least of all at an inn, the chance company with when he said, Mi frater, mi frater, er- whom he was sat at meat, and the tracoquenda est ista tua Philosophia. Ere veller with whom he fell in on the road; long, being with his mother at Salisbu- if a passing salutation were exchanged, ry, and preparing for a journey to his a word of religious exhortation was brother Samuel, at Tiverton, he was added." recalled to Oxford by a message that Wesley's first important alteration Charles was dying there of a pleurisy: after this period was to resort to extemsetting off immediately upon this poraneous prayer. Between 40 or 50, mournful summons, he found him recov- now (1738) congregated in London, ering, and Peter Boehler with him. agreeing to meet weekly and draw up Boebler possessed one kind of philoso- the fundamental rules of their society, phy in a higher degree than his friend : “in obedience to the command of God ihe singularity of their appearance and by St. James, and by the advice manner excited some mockery from the of Peter Boehler.” undergraduates, and the German, who “ They were to be divided into sevperceived that Wesley was annoyed by eral bands or little companies, none it chiefly on his account, said, with a consisting of fewer than five, or more smile, Mi frater non adhæret vestic than ten persons ; in these bands every bus,' — it does not even stick to our one in order engaged to speak as freely, clothes. This man, a person of no plainly, and concisely as he could, the ordinary powers of mind, became real state of his heart, with his several Wesley's teacher : it is no slight proof temptations and deliverances since the of his commanding intellect, that he last meeting. On Wednesday evenwas listened to as such ; and by him, ings, at eight o'clock, all the bands in the bands of the great God,' says were to have a conference, beginning Wesley, 'I was clearly convinced of and ending with hymns and prayer. unbelief,-of the want of that faith Any person who desired admission into whereby alone we are saved.' A scru- this society was to be asked, what were ple immediately occurred to bim,wheth. his motives, whether he would be ener be ought not leave off preaching, — tirely open, using no kind of reserve, for how could he preach to others who and whether he objected to any of the had not faith himself ? Boehler was rules. When he should be proposed, consulted whether he should leave it off, every one present who felt any objecand answered, · By no means.' • But tion to his admission, should state it what can I preach?' said Wesley. The fairly and fully; they who were reMoravian replied, ' Preach faith till you ceived on trial were to be formed into have it; and then, because you have it, distinct bands, and some experienced you will preach faith.' Accordingly person chosen to assist them; and if he began to preach this doctrine, tho', no objection appeared to them after two he
says, his soul started back from the months, they might then be admitted work
into the society. Every fourth Sature “ He had a little before resolved,and day was to be observed as a day of written down the resolution as a cove- general intercession ; and on the Sunnant with himself, that he would use day seven night following, a general loveabsolute openness and unreserve to- feast should be held, from seven till led
in the evening. The last article provin own words: ‘About a quarter before ded that no member should be allowed nine, while he was describing the change to act in any thing contrary to any or- which God works in the heart through der of the society, and that any person faith in Christ, I felt my heart strangely who did not conform to those orders warmed; I felt I did trust in Christ, after being thrice admonished, should Christ alone, for salvation : and an asno longer be esteemed a member. suragce was given me, that He had taThese rules were in the spirit of the ken away my sins, even mine, and sar. Moravian institutions, for Wesley was ed me from the law of sin and death. now united with the Brethren in doc- I began to pray with all my might for trine, as far as he understood their doc- those who had in a more especial mantrine, and well disposed to many parts ner despitefully used me and persecuted of their discipline. Charles also now me. I then testified openly to all there yielded to Peter Boehler's commanding what I now first felt in my heart. But it abilities, and was by him persuaded was not long before the enemy suggesof the necessity of a faith differing from ted, “This cannot be faith, for where is any thing which he had yet felt or im- thy joy ?'—How many a thought arisagined. The day after he had won ing from that instinctive logic which is this victory, Boehler left London to grounded on common sense, bas been embark for Georgia."
fathered upon the personified pri Thus gradually approaching what of evil! Here was a plain contradiction the methodists denominate efficient fuilh, in terms,--an assurance which had not Wesley continued till Wednesday assured him. He returned home, and May 24th, a remarkable day in the was buffeted with temptations ; be history of Methodism, for upon that cried out and they fled away; they reday he dates his conversion,-a point, turned again and again. I as often say his official biographers, of the ut. lifted up my eyes,' he says, and He most magnitude, not only with respect sent me help from his holy place. And to himself but to others.
herein I found the difference between “ On the evening of that day he this and my former state chiefly consiswent very unwillingly to a Society in ted. I was striving, yea fighting with Aldersgate Street, where one of the all my might under the law, as well as assembly was reading Luther's pre- under grace: but then I was some face to the Epistle to the Romans.— times, if not often conquered ; now I What followed is considered by his was always conqueror.' disciples as being of deep importance ; [We are sorry we cannot conclude this paper may therefore best be given in his
in our present Number.]
From the Monthly Magazine, March, 1820.
I SCARCELY need inform you names of the different articles which
that the merchants first set the ex. they represent. That which contains ample of providing elegant furniture papers is called the secretaire, and that for their apartments ; but hitherto which holds the linen, the commode ; there have been few imitators. The so that they are no strangers to the use priocipal families of the island tena- of French furniture. ciously adhere to their antique manners In a country wherein the state and and pristine simplicity : you scarcely conditiog of society are but in their ever see in their saloons any other infancy, spectacles, such as the play, the movables than trunks, thrown here and ball, &c. are a sort of needful' distracthere on chairs ; these trunks take the tions. Let me say a word or two
about the spectacles. They act here
• See Ath. Vol. VII. p. 302.
very frequently those sacred mysteries in Europe. An additional amusewhich so delighted our good foresath- ment is, to survey, in the groups, ers. I have witnessed the triumph of a marchioness or a countess seated bethe Ave-Maria, a tragi-comedy, which tween a Spanish monk and a Dutch seacloses with the sudden appearance, in man, that waft to her, from the right the midst of the theatre, of a chivalrous and left, the fragrant fumes of their worthy, mounted on a real horse, shak- cigarres. ing at ibe end of a lance the bloody Here the vicious tendency of gamhead of an infidel.
bling is not soured by public opinion ; This horrid exbibition excited a tit- there is the priest, the noble, the magister of enjoyment in all the spectators. trate, the merchant, all sitting in pub
The ladies in particular seemed to be lic, about a board of green cloth, with bighly entertained—no fainting fits, no as much indifference as we can appronervous attacks. How could a mere 'priate to the most trivial actions. The fiction agonize the blunt feelings of father of a family goes to place his wise women hardened by the spectacles of and daughters in the dancing roonis, bull-fights, and almost every day meet- and then returns to the gaming-room ; ing with the dead body of some hu- all this is in the order of their manners, man being who has been assassinated ? and no sense of public morals or de
The ball and gamiog-rooms are corum seems to be hurt by it. Nor about a quarter of a league from the ci- does the slightest disgrace attach to the ty; and you proceed to them through bankers that hold the gaming-money, an avenue, at the end of which appears for some of these bankers are members a little pedestrian statue of Charles III. of the most illustrious families in the with proportions but meagre, and a con- colony. It is true that the laws and the formity of costume which throws over ordonnances of the governors hold ont the monarch an appearance rather gro- threatening penalties against gaming, tesque.
but those who are to put the laws in exI had almost forgotten to mention, ecution find it to their advantage to that, close to the statue, and on the screen the offenders with their protechigh road, you see a block of marble tion. They gire the governor and the rudely sculptured, surmounted with intendant to understand that gaming is the bust of Christopher Columbus. It a necessary evil; and it should seem is a sort of shapeless mass of that great that they back their assertions with man, the desigo abandoned almost as weighty reasons,
as the doors are soon as projected, the posture, lying always kept open, and they play, in the dust at the feet of a king, is a one might almost say, in the open air. pretty significant emblem of the un But now for the dancing apartment. grateful treatment he experienced from It is decorated with taste and elegant the husband of Isabella.
simplicity : a hundred wax.candles reFive or six hundred volantes convey flect their sparkling lustre on the wothe ladies and gentlemen to the ball- men seated at one end of the roon. rooms. These carriages can only be Your eo trance is the most favourable compared, in point of elegance, to the moment to catch the illusion ; large most ordinary post-chaises ; they are black eyes, a physiognomy full of exdrawn by a couple of horses, with a pression, and the handsomest little feet black postillion mounted on one of in the world, would in any country exthem.
On entering the ball-rooms, cite an emotion in the breast even of a you perceive that dancing is but a se- stoic ; but he would be quite astonishcondary object of the assembly; the ed to find also a soul and senses. first apartments that you cross are sup At the other end of the room are the plied with tables covered with gold men, alike seated, but throughout the and silver; and immense sums are ball, the two confronting parties do not lost and gained here with a rapidity mingle ; there are certain chevaliers of and a degree of phlegm unknown honour who accommodate the dancers
2F ATHENEUM VOL. 7.
with invitations. lo short, there is cing to their ladies with a three-cornersuch an air of strictness and decorum ed hat in hand, and with a dignity pervading the assembly, that one might which begins to grow scarce in Europe ? fancy it was copied from the rigid ce- The negresses are oot eclipsed by their remonials practised by the Jesuits of cavaliers ; all their movements are reParaguay, in the balls they gave the plete with grace and nobleness ; por natives.
do they torture their feet to conceal All the balls open with a minuet, their true dimensions. A right taste and it is often repeated, not so much presides at their toilettes ; their rich by preference as from necessity. It is dresses, do not jostle with elegance ; rather walking however than dancing, and they wear their robes with an being just suited to a country, where ease that would create admiration in the least motion puts you out of the most assiduous of our opera lounbreath, and is a drain upon your gers. strength.
I had entered the negroes' ball, to When the ladies rise up from their make merry for a few minutes at their seats, they lose in a moment half of expense; but that was impossible. the graces which fancy had imputed to What I beheld was far superior to what them. They bound as if they were I bad quitted ; and had any one thea lame; and indeed, the narrow shoes addressed me on the subject of comthat compress their feet, pinch them parison, maintaining the superiority of severely at every step they take. Their the whites over the blacks, I should countenances pretty plainly give a dif- have given a short answer: 'Only open ferent expression to the seatures. They your eyes, and speak plainly what you have no corset to keep up their shapes, think. and they do not know how to put on The decent gaiety of these blacks
, the robe which they wear, the use of men and women; the mildness of their robes being of recent introduction. physiognomy, and the affability of their Ten years ago, the ladies used to ap- manners, render it impossible to refuse pear in public much in the simple cos- them the sentiments of our benevolence. tume of a woman getting out of bed. Nature has gifted them with the endom.
The men display superior graces in ments of improvisatori and musicians ; motion, from being more at ease in and I do not hesitate to predict, that if their feet ; but they appear destitute of ever the island shall possess a colonial that dignity and noble air which so well literature, it is the blacks that will become the minuet. They are besides engross the merit of the obligation. totally unacquainted with the real cha My letter so far is pretty long, and racter of this dance; these semi-barba- I feel the call for repose. If I recruit rians can step up to the ladies very fre- my strength in another month, I intend quently in a riding coat, and always to report the condition of the blacks in either without a bat or else with a round slavery ; the state of the arts and scione.
ences ; to notice the government and It is only the whites that are admit- the tribunals, the clergy and noblesse, ted to such a ball as I am describing, the political bias of the population, the and it already appears that they cannot plantations, culture ; and, lastly, the boast of having an accurate tradition of deplorable lot of such Europeaos as rethe minuet. This honour may be sort hither with the hopes of realiziog claimed exclusively by the free ne- an establisbment. I mean also to furgroes. How much
was I sur- nish you with some statistical potices prised to see these negroes of a noble that 'may prove interesting to the amaand supple shape, respectfully advan- teurs.