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der the reign of Ferdinand. Opposi- give rise to another struggle, With tion only became more manifest in that this view, it commenced a violent hosof Charles V.; the Cortes of Arragon tility against books of every
kind that and Castile presented remonstrances to did not inculcate its own supremacy, him, on the intolerable abuses of the and still more particularly against all Inquisition. Amongst other grievan- those which were calculated to spread ces, it was stated that numbers of peo- the poison of Luther's doctrines in ple caused themselves to be enrolled Spain. The works of Erasmus were amongst the familiars of the holy regularly tried, although he was the office, in order that they might be ex- antagonist of Luther, which made the empted from paying any imposts. The former say: “ How much am I to be Cortes were,
therefore, fortunate pitied! the Lutherans attack me as a enough to prevail on the monarch, who thorough papist, and the Catholics as a wanted supplies and was going to Ger- partizan of Luther.” The Greek and many, to apply for a bull to reform the Hebrew Bible, as well as those in the Inquisition.
vulgar tongue, were proscribed ; and Even Pope Leo X. complained of this proscription was afterwards exthe infamous conduct of the inquisitors, tended to all works, whether in Heand he wrote to the emperor, stating brew or other languages, in wbich any that complaints were addressed to him, allusions were made to the religious from every quarter, of their avarice and ceremonies of the Jews or Mahometheir iniquities. But Charles had ob- tans; not to mention every book that tained the money he wanted from the contained eren a note, relative to the Cortes, and Cardinal Adrien, his first mysteries and forms of the Christian minister, who was also grand inquisitor, system. The works of several bishops, persuaded his master that the terror of cardioals, and even saints, were seized ihe boly office was a salutary counter- and burnt.—“ They took away," says poise to the spirit of liberty in those Saint Teresa, a great number of books assemblies.
composed in the Spanish language. The result of these intrigues was, This afflicted me extremely; for there that the Inquisition remained unreform- were many which afforded me consolaed; which, together with the hatred tion, and it was impossible for me to against foreigners and the nobles, con- read those printed in Latin." tributed much to the general rising that In latter times the most scrutinizing took place throughout Spain during the precautions were taken on the frontiers, emperor's absence.
particularly those of France, to prevent The Cortes having possessed them- the introduction of heretical books. selves of the government, manisested, which were suspected of being brought on the score of public liberty, ideas no in wine casks, so as to elude all the less enlightened than those promulgated vigilance of the custom-house officers. on a recent occasion ; and which are, The works of the most celebrated writers even at this moment, making their way in Europe, whether English, French, all over the Peninsula.
or Italian, were sedulously excludedThe efforts of the Cortes were unsuc even Locke, Filangieri, and Montescessful; for they were betrayed by the quieu, did not escape ; and each sucarmy, and abandoned by the nobles. ceeding grand inquisitor felt it a kind of Charles V. therefore on his return, pla- imperative duty to add to the list of his ced every thing on its former footing, predecessor. He who held the office while the deputies of the Cortes were about fifty years ago, observes in one of consigned to the scaffold for their ex his prohibitory edicts, which deplored ertions in favour of the natin. the profligacy of the age,
After having escaped the danger, the men had carried their audacity so far Inquisition adopted the meffectual as to demand permission to read the measures for impeding the progress of Bible in the vulgar tongue, without any knowledge, so as that it should not fear of the consequences !" War was 2E
ATHENEUM VOL. 7.
" that some
also declared against pictures, engrav- have experienced the same fate as it did ings, medals, fans, snuff-boxes, and the under Charles V., when we consider that furniture of houses, that bore any my. those who framed that code were only thological designs, or other heretical de- an isolated party, forming hut ao incon'vices. The farther measures taken to siderable portion of the nation in which prescribe the books which might be (thanks to the Inquisition) knowledge read with safety, and the directions had as yet made very little progress ? given about the efficacy of relics, would We ought not, therefore, to be sure occupy a space far beyond our limits, prised if the Inquisition of 1820 should while a recital of them would be scarce renew the hecatombs of the fifteenth ly credible, if not authenticated by in- century, unless the late occurrences“ controvertible testimony.
should arrest its oppressive career. By such means has the power of the Events in every part of Europe show Inquisition existed till the present days. that, at least amongst the uneducated Can it, therefore, be matter of wonder portion of its inhabitants, the human that the Cortes, and their plan of a con- mind is nearly, as
prone to religious stitution promulgated in 1811, should fanaticism as it was 300 years ago.
From the Literary Gazette.
SOUTHEY'S LIFE OF JOHN WESLEY.
terest to a very numerous sect can- ejected from the living of Blandford for not fail to be almost equally acceptable non-conformity ; four times imprisonto serious readers of every class. Of ed for preaching; and when he died in Mr. Southey's talent for the able exe- the village of Preston, denied burial in cution of such a work nothing need be the Church by the vicar. His premasaid....no man ever united genius and ture fate brought the grey hairs of his industry in a greater degree, and genius aged father with sorrow to the grave. and industry are the prime requisites By his wife, a piece of Thomas Fuller for producing what is excellent in every the church bistorian, he left two sons, species of literature. To these he has the younger of whom, Samuel, was added impartiality and candour; and eight or nine years old when he lost his we have no doubt that his publication parent. “ The circumstances of the will prove as little the subject of pole- father's life and sufferings, which have mical controversy as any thing of the given him a place among the confessors kind that was ever written.
of the non-conformists, were likely to “ Benjamin Wesley the great grand- influence the opinions of the son : but father of the founder of the Methodists, happening to fall in with bigotted and studied physic as well as divinity at the ferocious men, he saw the worst part university, a practice not unusual at that of the dissenting character. Their detime: he was ejected by the act of non- fence of the execution of King Charles conformity from the living of Alling- offended him, and he was at once shockton, in Dorsetshire; and the medical ed and disgusted by their calf's bead knowledge which he had acquired from club; so much so, that he separated motives of charity, became then the from them, and, because of their iotolmeans of his support. John, his son, erance, joined the church which had was educated at New Inn Hall, Ox- persecuted his father. This conduct, vrd, in the time of the Commonwealth; which was the result of feeling, was apd was distinguished for his acquaint- proved by his ripe judgment, and Samre with oriental languages, as well as uel Wesley continued through life a his diligence and piety. Had the zealous churchman. The feeling which nwell family retained its power he urged him to this step must have been d bave risen to great distinction ; very powerful, and no common spirit
was required to bear him through the was blest in all its circumstances : it difficulties which he brought upon him- was contracted in the prime of their self; for by withdrawing from the youth : it was fruitful; and death did academy at which he had been placed, not divide them till they were both full be so far offended his friends, that they of days. They had no less than nioelent him no farther support, and in the teen children : but only three sons and latter years of Charles II. there was lit- three daughters seem to have grown up; tle disposition to encourage proselytes 'and it is probably to the loss of the who joined a church which the reigoing others that the father refers in one of bis family were labouring to subvert. But letters, where he says, that he had sufSamuel Wesley was made of good fered things more grievous than death. mould: he knew and could depend up. The manner in which these children on himself: he walked to Oxford, were taught to read is remarkable: the tered himself at 'Exeter College as a mother never began with them till they poor scholar, and began his studies were five years old, and then she made there with no larger a fund than two them learn the alphabet perfectly in one pounds-sixteen shillings, and no prog- day: on the next they were put to spell pect of any future supply. From that and to read one line, and then a verse, time, till he graduated, a single crown never leaving it till they were perfect in was all he received from his friends. the lesson.” He composed exercises for those who From Queen Mary, Mr. Wesley had more money than learning; and he received the living of Epworth, in Line gave instructioos to those who wished coloshire, for his delence of the revoluto profit by his tessons; and thus by great tion; and in the reign of Queen Anne, industry, and great frugality, he not on- was rewarded with the chaplaincy of a ly supported bimself, but had accumu- regiment, for a poem on the battle of lated the sum of ten pounds fifteen Blenheim. He was, however, persecushillings, when he went to London to ted by the dissenters, who could not be ordained. Having served a coracy forgive his abandoning them. there one year, and as chaplain during John, his second son, the subject of another on board a king's ship, be set this memoir, was born at Epworth on tled upon a curacy in the metropolis, the 17th of June, 1703. and married Susannah, daughter of Dr. of age he narrowly escaped being burnt Annesley, one of the ejected ministers. to death when bis father's house was
No man was ever more suitably ma destroyed by the flames, and he “reted than the elder Wesley. The wife membered this providential deliverance
whom he chose was, like himself, the through life with the deepest gratitude. .. child of a man eminent among the non- In reference to it he had a house in
conformists, and, like himself, in early fames engraved as an emblem under youth she had chosen her own path: one of his portraits, with these words she bad examined the controversy be for the motto, 'Is not this a brand tween the Digsenters and the Church plucked out of the burning ?' The third of England with conscientious dili- son, Charles, the zealous and able asgence, and satisfied herself that the sociate of his brother in bis fu!ure laschismatics were in the wrong.
The bours, was at this time scarcely two dispute, it must be remembered, related months old.” wholly to discipline ; but her enquiries
From their mother the Wesleys imhad not stopt there, and she had reas- bibed the principles of Jacobitism, and oned herself into Socinianism, from also a devotional temperament which which she was reclaimed by her bus- seems to have been common to them band. She was an admirable woman, all. John was a favourite at the Charof highly improved mind, and of a ter-house, where he was educated, and strong and masculine understanding, at the age of seventeen, carried habits of an obedient wife, an exemplary moth- quiet and regularity to Christ-church, er, a fervent Christian.
The marriage Oxford, where he pursued his studies
At six years
with all diligence. In his youth he kept a diary, which contains a lively was an expert versifier, but he forbore picture of his eventful life. Io 1727, to cultivate this talent, aod his brother he was appointed Greek lecturer, and Charles became the “sweet singer of moderator of the classes, from wbich his methodism.".
powers of reasoning acquired much While he was an undergraduate, his strength, while his otber studies genemanners were free and cheerful ; and rally enriched his mind. Mondays and that activity of disposition which bore Tuesdays were allotted to the classics ; him afterwards through such uninterrupt- Wednesdays to logic and ethics ; ed labour, displayed itself in wit and Thursdays to Hebrew and Arabic; Frivivacity. But when the time of life days to metaphysics and natural philosarrived at which he might have taken ophy ; Saturdays to oratory and poeorders, he, who was not a man to act try, but chiefly to composition in those lightly upon any occasion, and least of arts; and the Sabbath to Divinity. He all upon so solemn a one, began to re- also gave great attention to mathemat. flect seriously upon the importance of ics. To this course of general attainthe priestly office, and to feel some ment succeeded that religious enthusiscruples concerning the motives by asm which soon engrossed bim entirely, which the person ought to be influenced and caused him to sacrifice all the rest who determines to take upon himself to “spiritual things." He went to so awful a charge. These scruples be Wroote, and officiated as curate to his communicated to his father, who an- father for two years, during which he swered them sensibly; but agreed with obtained priest's orders.
His next him in not liking a “callow clergyman ;' movement was a return to Lincoln and binting that he thought it too soon College, where he became a tutor. His for bim to be ordained, exhorted him brother Charles had by this time, been to work while he could. The letter entered of Christ-church, and formed was written with a trembling pen : an association with some other under“ You see," said the old man, « Time graduates, for the purpose of religious has shaken me by the band, and Death improvement. They lived by rule, and is but a little way behind him. My speedily attracting notice, did not eseyes and heart are now almost all I cape the derision of a lax era. They have left, and I bless God for them,” were called the Sacramentarians, from The mother, however, was of opinion taking the sacrament weekly; Biblethat the sooner he entered into deacon's bigots, Bible-moths, the holy or the orders the better, because it might be godly club; and one person, with less an inducement to greater application in irreverence and more learning, observed the study of practical divinity, “ And in reference to their methodical manner now,” said she, “in good earnest re- of life, that a new sect of Methodists solve to make religion the business of was sprung up, alluding to the ancient your life : for, after all, that is the one school of physicians, known by that thing that, strictly speaking, is necessa- name. This appellative fastened upon ry; all things beside are comparatively them, and became the appropriate delule to the purposes of life.”
signation of the sect of which J. WesHis tbeological studies, including the ley was the founder, though it was to Treatise de imitatione Christi, and Jere- Charles* and his friends that it was my Taylor's Rules of Holy Living and first given. When Jobo returned to Dying, produced a great change in Oxford, the society gladly put themyoung Wesley's frame of mind and selves under the rection of one of such conduct
. He began a new course of character and standing, and master of life, communicated every week, and prayed much : thus prepared he was, in • This Charles refused to accompany a gentleman ihe autumn of 1725, ordained by Dr. to Ireland, with the view of being made his heir ; and Potter, bishop of Oxford. In Mareb,
the consequence was, that he adopted another natre 1726, he was elected a fellow of Lin- other than Wellesley, the first Earl of Morniagtun,
sake, to whom he left his fortune, and this was ng coln College. From this period he the father of the Duke of Wellington,
so much erudition and eloquence. Mr. the missionaries—they abstained from Morgan, one of the members, died supper-they lay on the floor-their young, a victim to the austerities which classic studies were declared to be rethey practised. Hervey, the author of prehensible, and at length they lived on the Meditations, was another of their bread alone. body; and the celebrated Whitfield, “ From four in the morning till five bora in Gloucester in 1714, a third.- they used private prayer; from five till His early talent for elocution had al seven they read the bible together, caremost directed him to the stage, and sev- fully comparing it with the writings of eral years of bis youth were passed as the earliest ages, that they might oot a common drawer in the public-house lean to their own understandings. At kept by his mother. At eighteen, how seven they breakfasted, and they had ever, he was admitted a Servitor at Ox- public prayers at eight. From nine till ford, joined the Methodists, then about twelve John Wesley was employed in fifteen in number, and thence rose to learning German, Delamotte pursued distinction in the pulpit. The new sect bis Greek studies, Charles wrote sernow regularly visited the prisoners and mons, and Ingham instructed the chilsick, fasted on Wednesdays and Fri- dren : and at twelve they met to give days, the days on wbich Christ was be an account to one another of what they trayed-and crucified : and drew up a had done since their last meeting, and scheme of self-examination, which, ex- of what they intended to do before their cept that it speaks of obeying the laws next. They dined about one, and from of the Church of England, might fitly dinner till four the time was spent in be appended to the spiritual exercises of reading to those of whom each had tas Loyola. William Law, about this pe- ken especial charge, or in exhorting riod, helped much to confirm. Wesley them severally, as the case might rein bis enthusiasm and longing after per- quire. There were evening prayers at fectibility. John Wesley and bis asso- four, when the second lesson was exciates running fast towards fanaticism, plained, or the children were catechised the seniors of Christ Church set tbem- and instructed before the congregation. selves to check the evil wbich bad From six to seven each read in his cabsprung up; and discussions rather than in to a few of the passengers. At seven events fill up the time from 1728 to Wesley joined witb the Germans in 1735. In the April of the latter year their public service, and Ingham read old Mr. Wesley died, and John baving between the decks to as many as derefused to accept his church preferment, sired to bear. At eight they met again even if it could be obtained, was indu- to instruct and exbort. By this time ced to undertake a mission to preach they were pretty well wearied with exthe gospel in Georgia. He was ac hortation and instruction; and between companied by his brother Charles, who nine and ten they went to bed, where, weni in the capacity of secretary to Mr. as Wesley says, neither the waving of Oglethorpe, the founder of the colony; the sea, nor the motion of the ship, Charles Delamotte, the son of a London could take away the refreshing sleep mercbant; and Benjamin Ingham, one which God gave them. of the little community at Oxford. In “ It was a rough season, their pasthe saine vessel a party of Moravians sage was tempestuous ; and, during the sailed ; and from the connexion with storm, Wesley felt that he was unfit, these brethren, much of the economy of because he was unwilling to die. Athe Methodists was derived. The sin- shamed of this unwillingness, be regularities which had been in some de- proached himself as if he had no faith, gree restrained while in England, were and he admired the impassable trannow unlimitedly indulged, and the as- quillity to which the Moravians had cetic principles of the sect were put in attained.” full practice. Vegetables and rice and On the 5th of February, 1736, they biscuit became at first the sole food of anchored in the Savannah river, in the