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Mayor in 1360; William Venour, in 1389; William More, in 1395; Robert Chicbley, in 1421; and Sir James Spencer, in 1527. Among other persons who were interred in the old church, and whose monuments were destroyed by the fire of London, was Richard Lions, a wine-merchant and lapidary, who was beheaded by Wat Tyler and the rebels, in Cheapside, in the reign of Richard the Second. Here too were monuments to more than one of the great family of the Stanleys, who died in their neighbouring residence, Derby House, now used as the Herald's College.
In the Spectator, (No. 147,) there is an interesting notice of St. James's Garlick Hythe. Addison, speaking of the beautiful service of the Church of England, and how greatly its effect is enhanced by a fine delivery, remarks,—“Until Sunday was se'nnight, I never discovered, to so great a degree, the excellency of the Common Prayer. Being at St. James's Garlick Hithe, I heard the service read so distinctly, so emphatically, and so fervently, that it was next to an impossibility to be inattentive. My eyes and my thoughts could not wander as usual, but were confined to my prayers.
I then considered I addressed myself to the Almighty, and not to a beautiful face. And when I reflected on my former performances of that duty, I found I had run it over as a matter of form, in comparison to the manner in which I then discharged it. My mind was really affected, and fervent wishes accompanied my words. The Confession was read
with such resigned humility; the Absolution with such a comfortable authority; the Thanksgiving with such a religious joy, as made me feel those affections of the mind, in a manner I never did before.” The rector of the parish at this period was the Reverend Philip Stubbs, afterwards Archdeacon of St. Albans, whose fine voice and impressive delivery are said to have been long remembered by his old parisbioners.
QUEENHITHE, BAYNARD CASTLE, HOUSES OF THE NOBILITY, BLACKFRIARS, &c.
DERIVATION OF NAME OF QUEENHITHE.—CELEBRATED RESIDENTS IN
BAYNARD CASTLE.—MANSIONS NEAR PAUL'S WHARF.—— MONASTERY OF THE BLACK FRIARS.-REPUDIATION OF QUEEN CATHERINE. — QUEEN ELIZABETH AT COBUAM HOUSE. THE FATAL VESPERS. BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE.FLEET DITCH.-STRONGHOLDS OF THIEVES. -PALACE OF BRIDEWELL. ALSATIA EXECUTION OF LORD SANQUHAR.
CONTINUING our route along Thames Street, we shall point out, as we pass along, the particular sites on the banks of the river, which are associated either with the history, the manners, or the romance of past times. We have hitherto strolled from Billingsgate as far as Queenhithe; we will now continue it from Queenhithe to the Temple Garden.
Queenhithe, Queenhive, or Queen's Harbour,—on the west side of Southwark Bridge,—was anciently called Edred's-hithe; and, as far back as the days of the Saxons, was one of the principal harbours or quays, where foreign vessels discharged their cargoes. According to Stow, it derived its more ancient name of Edred's-hithe from one Edred, who had been a proprietor of the wharf. We have evidence that it was royal property in the reign of King Stephen ; that monarch having bestowed it upon William de Ypres, who, in his turn, conferred it on the Convent of the Holy Trinity within Aldgate. In the reign of Henry the Third it again came into the possession of the Crown. In consequence of the harbour-dues being the perquisite of the Queen of England, it obtained particular favour; foreign ships, and especially vessels which brought corn from the Cinque Ports, being compelled to land their cargoes here. From its connection also with the Queen of England it obtained its name of Ripa Reginæ, or Queen’s-hithe. For centuries it maintained a successful rivalry with Billingsgate.* From Fabian, however, who wrote at the end of the fifteenth century, we learn that in his time the harbour-dues of Queenbithe had so fallen off as to be worth only £15 a year; and, a century afterwards, Stow speaks of it as being almost forsaken.
Opposite to Queenbithe, on the north side of Thames Street, is situated the parish church of St. Michael, Queenbithe; another uninteresting edifice, erected by Sir Christopher Wren on the site of a very ancient church destroyed by the fire of London. In 1181, we find it denominated St. Michael de Cornbithe; the neighbouring barbour of Queenhithe being probably thus occasionally styled from the quantity of corn which was landed there from the Cinque Ports. The church contains no monuments of any interest; nor,— with the exception of its small but elegant spire, and some fine carved fruit and flowers on the doorway next to the pulpit,- has it much artistical merit.
* See ante, p. 26.
A little beyond Queenhithe is Paul's Wharf, which derives its name from its vicinity to the great cathedral of St. Paul's.
Close to this spot stood the mansion occupied by Cicely, youngest daughter of the haughty and powerful Baron, Ralph de Neville, first Earl of Westmorland, and widow of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York; in whose ambition originated the devastating wars between the White and Red Roses. She was the mother of a numerous family, of whom seven survived to figure in a prominent manner in the stirring times in which they lived.
When this lady, the granddaughter of John of Gaunt, and the gentle mother of an ambitious race,-sat in her domestic circle, and watched complacently the childish sports, and listened to the joyous laughter of her young progeny, how little could she have anticipated the strange fate which awaited them! Her husband perished on the bloody field of Wakefield; her firstborn, afterwards Edward the Fourth, followed in the ambitious footsteps of his father, and waded through bloodshed to a throne; her second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, at the age of twelve, was barbarously murdered by Lord Clifford, after the battle of Wakefield; her third son, “false, fleeting, perjured Clarence,” perished in the dungeons of the Tower; and her youngest son, Riehard, succeeded to a throne and a bloody death. The career of her daughters was also remarkable; Anne, her eldest daughter, married Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter, whose splendid fortunes