He is represented in the act of striking the insolent rebel with a real dagger, which is affirmed to be the identical weapon used by him on the memorable occasion. On the pedestal is the following inscription :

Brave Walworth, knight, Lord Mayor, yt slew

Rebellious Tyler in his alarmes ;
The King, therefor, did give in lieu

The dagger to the city's armes ;
In the 4th year of Richard II., Anno Domini, 1381.

Unfortunately for the veracity of this inscription, the dagger formed the first quarter of the city arms long before the days of Sir William Walworth : it was, indeed, intended to represent the sword of St. Peter, the patron saint of the Corporation.

Adjoining Billingsgate, on the east side, stood Smart's Quay, or wharf, which we find noticed, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, as containing an ingenious seminary for the instruction of young thieves. The following extract of a letter, addressed

. to Lord Burghley, in July 1585, by Fleetwood, the Recorder of London, evinces that the “art and mystery” of picking pockets was brought to considerable perfection in the sixteenth century :

“ Amongst our travels this one matter tumbled out by the way. One Wotton, a gentleman born, and sometime a merchant of good credit, having fallen by time into decay, kept an alehouse at Smart's Key, near Billingsgate; and after, for some misdemeanour, being put down, he reared up a new trade of life, and in the same house he procured all the cut-purses about this city to repair to his said house. There was a school-house set up to learn young boys to cut purses; there were hung up two devices: the one was a pocket, the other was a purse. The pocket had in it certain counters, and was hung about with hawk's bells, and over the top did hang a little scaring-bell; and he that could take out a counter without any noise, was allowed to be a public hoyster; and he that could take a piece of silver out of the purse without the noise of any of the bells, he was adjudged a judicial nipper. N. B. That a hoyster is a pickpocket, and a nipper is termed a pick-purse, or a cut-purse.”

Opposite to Billingsgate, on the north side of Thames Street, is St. Mary Hill Street, on the west side of which is the church of St. Mary-at-Hill, dedicated to the Virgin Mary: the date of its foundation is lost in antiquity, nothing certain being known respecting it till Rose de Wyrtell founded a chauntry on the spot, about the year 1336. It suffered severely from the Fire of London, in consequence of which the interior and the east end were re-built by Sir Christopher Wren, between the years 1672 and 1677. Since his time considerable portions of the building have been taken down and re-built; the old portions, namely, the tower and the west end, having been restored with brick. Little, indeed, of Wren's work now remains, nor does that little add much to his reputation as an architect. In this church, on the 27th of May, 1731, Dr. Young, the author of the Night Thoughts," was married to Lady Elizabeth Lee, widow of Colonel Lee, and daughter of Edward first Earl of Litchfield. The chancel contains the remains of the Rev. John Brand, the antiquary, who was for many years rector of the parish : he died at his apartments in Somerset House, in 1806.

Running parallel with St. Mary Hill Street, are Botolph Lane and Pudding Lane, the former containing the parochial church, dedicated to St. George, the patron saint of England. This is another of Wren's churches, erected after the Fire of London, and boasts neither historical interest nor architectural merit. In Botolph Lane stood the residence of that ancient and illustrious race, the Fitzalans, Earls of Arundel. Henry, the eighteenth and last Earl in the male line, who is known to have aspired to the hand of Queen Elizabeth, was residing here at the time of his death, in 1579.

Pudding Lane is famous as the spot where the great fire first broke out, on the 2d of September, 1666. In the middle of the last century the following inscription was to be seen on the site of the house where it commenced; but in consequence of the inconvenience caused by the number of passersby, who stopped to read it, it was removed.

Here, by the permission of Heaven, Hell broke loose upon this Protestant city, from the malicious hearts of barbarous Papists, by the hand of their agent, Hubert, who confessed, and on the ruins of this place declared the fact, for which he was


hanged, viz. — That here began that dreadful fire which is described, and perpetuated on, by the neighbouring pillar, erected anno 1680, in the mayoralty of Sir Patience Ward, Knight.'

Hubert, the person here referred to, was hanged on his own confession, that his hand had lighted the flame which laid London in ashes. His state

. ment was, that he had placed a fire-ball at the end of a pole, and, after lighting it, had thrust it into the window of the house in which the fire subsequently broke out. There can be little doubt,

. however, that Hubert was a monomaniac, on whose mind the awful conflagration, which he had recently witnessed, had raised the delusion that he was the author of the calamity. Nevertheless, he circumstantially detailed the names of the foreign conspirators, who, he affirmed, had induced him to become the incendiary, and also the amount of the reward which he was to have received for his wickedness. In regard to Hubert's confession, Lord Clarendon informs us that it was so senseless, that the Chief Justice refused to believe a word he said. “However,” adds Lord Clarendon, “they durst not slight the evidence, but put him to a particular, in which he so fully confirmed all that he had said before, that they were surprised with wonder, and knew not afterwards what to say or think. They asked him if he knew the place where he first put fire? He answered that he knew it very well, and would show it to anybody. Upon this, the Chief-Justice, and many aldermen who sat with bim, sent a guard

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of substantial citizens with the prisoner, that he might show them the house ; and they first led him to a place at some distance from it, and asked him if that were it, to which he answered, presently, · No; it was lower, nearer to the Thames.' The house, and all which were near it, were so covered and buried in ruins, that the owners themselves, without some infallible mark could very hardly have said where their own houses had stood; but this man led them directly to the place, described how it stood, the shape of the little yard, the fashion of the door and windows, and where he first put the fire; and all this with such exactness that they who had dwelt long near it could not so perfectly have described all particulars.” Still there can be little doubt that Hubert was a mere maniac; indeed, the captain of the vessel which brought him to England—a perfectly disinterested person-swore positively that he did not land till two days after the fire. All, indeed, that is known of the origin of the conflagration may be summed up in the concise words of Lord Clarendon. “There was never any probable evidence (that poor creature's only excepted) that there was any other cause of that woeful fire than the displeasure of God Almighty.”* No. 25, Pudding Lane is said to be the site of the house in which the fire broke out. It was then occupied by one Farryner, baker to Charles the Second.

Still proceeding westward, along Thames Street, * Continuation of the “Life of Lord Clarendon, by Himself.”

VOL. 1.


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