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that their daughters and servants might be contaminated by the close vicinity of such dangerous kinds of diversions. It would seem that they were not wrong in their apprehensions, for Sir John Hawkins informs us that the new theatre was soon surrounded by a “halo of brothels.”* The clamour of the citizens for a time closed the theatre in Goodman's Fields, but on the 20th of October, 1732, it was re-opened by one Henry Giffard, an actor. It was here, on the 19th of October, 1741, that the great actor, David Garrick, having been previously slighted by the managers of Drury Lane and Covent Garden, made his first appearance on the stage, in the character of Richard the Third. Such was his success, and with such rapidity did his fame spread, that, notwithstanding the distance of Goodman's Fields from the fashionable part of London, the long space between Temple Bar and Goodman's Fields is said to have been nightly blocked up by the carriages of the “ nobility and gentry.”

Horace Walpole writes to Sir Horace Mann, on the 26th of May, 1742;—“ All the run is now after Garrick, a wine-merchant, who is turned player, at Goodman's Fields. He plays all parts, and is a very good mimic. His acting I have seen, and may say to you, who will not say it again here, I see nothing wonderful in it; but it is heresy to say so: the Duke of Argyll says, he is superior to Betterton.” It is remarkable that Gray should

* Life of Dr. Johnson.

have entertained the same disparaging opinion of Garrick's genius. In a letter to Shute he writes :

“ Did I tell you about Mr. Garrick, that the town are horn-mad after; there are a dozen dukes of a night at Goodman's Fields sometimes; and yet I am stiff in the opposition.” Garrick remained at Goodman's Fields but one season, when he removed to Drury Lane, of which theatre he became joint patentee with Lacy, in 1747. The theatre in Goodman's Fields appears to have been pulled down shortly after Garrick quitted it. Another theatre subsequently rose on its site, which was destroyed by fire in June, 1802.

In Rosemary Lane, close to Goodman's Fields, died Richard Brandon, the public executioner, who is said to have beheaded Charles the First. The following entry appears in the burial register of St. Mary's, Whitechapel :-“ 1649, June 21st. Rich. Brandon, a man out of Rosemary Lane.” To which is added,—“ This R. Brandon is supposed to have cut off the head of Charles the First." * Elsewhere we find—“He (Brandon) likewise confessed that he had thirty pounds for his pains, all paid him in half-crowns within an hour after the blow was given; and that he had an orange stuck full of

* Cunningham's Hand-book for London, Art. Rosemary Lane. The author takes the earliest opportunity of acknowledging his frequent obligations to Mr. Cunningham, whose Hand-book has appeared in the interval between the publication of his two first and these concluding volumes. Could the author have foreseen that so valuable a work on London was forthcoming, his own gossiping Memoirs would never have been commenced.

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cloves, and a hankercher, out of the King's pocket, so soon as he was carried off from the scaffold, for which orange he was proffered twenty shillings by a gentleman in Whitehall, but refused the same, and afterwards sold it for ten shillings in Rosemary Lane.” *

" Crossing Rosemary Lane, we pass into East Smithfield. Here it was that Edmund Spenser, the poet, first saw the light. Towards the east, formerly stood a Cistercian Abbey,—founded by Edward the Third, — called the Abbey of the Graces, subject to the monastery of Beaulieu. To the south stood, till within the last few years, the famous hospital and collegiate church of St. Katherine, founded in 1148 by Matilda of Boulogne, wife of King Stephen, for the repose of the soul of her son Baldwin, and her daughter Matilda. It was afterwards refounded by Eleanor of Castile, widow of Edward the First, with an establishment of a master, three brethren, three sisters, ten poor women, and six poor clerks. Queen Philippa, wife of Edward the Third, was another benefactress of the Hospital of St. Katherine's; and it is remarkable, that, notwithstanding the many revolutions which have taken place in religion and politics, the patronage

“ The Confession of Richard Brandon, the Hangman,” 4to, 1649. See also Ellis's Original Letters, second series, vol. iii. p. 342, and Wraxall's Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 188. The unenviable distinction of having beheaded King Charles has been attributed to more than one individual, but, from what evidence I have been able to collect, I have little doubt but that Brandon was the person.

*

for seven hundred years has continued to be vested in the Queens of England. The Mastership is a sinecure of considerable value, and the late Queen Dowager, by whom the appointment was last conferred, was the thirty-first patroness.

In the old church of St. Katherine were some ancient and interesting monuments.

Under a stately tomb, rested John Holland, Duke of Exeter, so distinguished for his gallantry in the French wars, in the reigns of Henry the Fifth and Sixth. He died on the 5th of August 1447. By his side lay buried his two wives, Anne, daughter of Edmund fifth Earl of Stafford, and Lady Anne Montacute, daughter of John Earl of Salisbury. Here also lay buried Lady Constance, the Duke's sister, who married first Thomas Lord Mowbray-beheaded at York, in 1405, for conspiring against Henry the Fourth,—and secondly, Sir John Grey (eldest son of Lord Grey de Ruthyn), who was a Knight of the Garter, and fought on the field of Agincourt. The old church of St. Katherine, together with no fewer than twelve hundred and fifty houses, was taken down in 1826, in order to make room for the present St. Katherine Docks. The hospital and Master's residence have been rebuilt in the Regent's Park, to the chapel of which has been transferred the stately monument of the Duke of Exeter.

From East Smithfield we pass into the ancient village of Ratcliffe Highway, which Camden describes as “a little town, wherein lived many sailors," and which derives its name from a red

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clifwhich was formerly visible here.

“ From hence,” says Pennant, “ the gallant Sir Hugh Wil

, loughby took his departure, in 1553, on his fatal voyage for discovering the north-east passage to China. He sailed with great pomp by Greenwich, where the Court then lay. Mutual honours were paid on both sides. The council and courtiers appeared at the windows, and the people covered the shores. The young king, Edward the Sixth, alone lost the noble and novel sight, for he then lay on his death-bed, so that the principal object of the parade was disappointed.” Pennant omits to mention that the gallant adventurer was frozen to death in the northern seas.

In Ratcliffe Highway occurred, in 1811, those fearful massacres of the Marr and Williamson families, which, at the time, spread a consternation throughout the metropolis, never surpassed perhaps by any similar atrocities. Terror was written on every face. Every householder provided himself with a blunderbuss; and one shopkeeper alone is said to have sold no fewer than three hundred rattles in ten hours. The first of these tragedies took place on the 7th of December, 1811, at No. 29, Ratcliffe Highway, a house occupied by an opulent laceman of the name of Marr. His family consisted of himself, his wife, their infant child, a shop-boy, and a female servant. About twelve o'clock at night, the latter was sent out to purchase some supper, and on her return, in a quarter of an hour, she repeatedly rang the bell for ad

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