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health and life, in this bis close imprison- , trust that themselves might step into them.” ment and exile." These petitions having Sir Philip Carteret returned victorious to been taken into consideration by the House Jersey, and in the civil war that ensued, and of Commons, the sentence of the Star- which spread to the Channel Islands, he disChamber on the three Puritans was solemnly tinguished himself greatly for his services reversed ; and, as regards Prynne, he was to ihe royal cause. restored to his degrees in the university, and The subsequent fale and fortunes of William to the exercise of his profession of an utter Prynne may be told in a few words. His taste barrister-at-law.
for controversy seems to have been sharpened Released from captivity, the Puritan mar- by imprisonment and suffering; and he was tyrs returned home in triumph. Burton and persecuted by every dominant party and govPryone landed at Southampton together, ernment during the civil troubles. The Long where, according to Clarendon, they were Parliament imprisoned him for denying, in received with loud acclamation, and liberal general terms, the supremacy of Parliament : presents were made to them. In every town and when military sway became the order of through which they passed on their way to the day, he was arrested by the army, and the metropolis there were the same demon- ejected from the House of Commons. True strations of sympathy and respect. Several to the principle of opposition wbich actuated miles from London they were met by persons him through life, he attacked Cromwell with of all ranks, some on foot, some on horseback; bitter animosity, and by the Protector he was many of whom had come more than a day's once more deprived of liberty, and imprisoned journey. These people formed themselves first in Dunster Castle, Somersetshire, and into a triumphal procession, which had swell. afterwards in Pendennis Castle, Cornwall. ed into a dense multitude when they reached In 1660 he was returned to Parliament for Charing Cross. Flowers and fragrant herbs Bath, and after the Restoration his learning were strewn along the road as they passed, and abilities procured for him the office of shouts rent the air; and amidst the din and Keeper of the Records in the Tower. That confusion, the most virulent abuse of the he should be again found fisbing in troubled bishops was distinctly heard.
waters, is somewhat astonishing, but it is Soon after Prynne's return an opportunity nevertheless true, that " bis pragmatical temoccurred to him of rendering a valuable ser- per” once more got him into difficulties before vice to Sir P. Carteret. Sir Philip had in the the close of his life. On the last occasion island certain unscrupulous enemies, who he was luckier than preceding ones, for he took advantage of the political circumstances escaped with a reprimand from the House of of the period, and his temporary absence Commons. Perhaps large allowances were from the island, to commence an attack upon made for his vehement and contentious dishim. They forwarded in an underband way, position, which had occasioned him so many to the principal members of the English years of imprisonment, and so much personal Parliament, a series of accusations against suffering. He died at his chambers in Linhim, and an inquiry into his conduct was coln's Inn, in 1669. demanded. The machinations of Sir Philip's Prynne's character is thus drawn by the enemies were, however, defeated by Prynne, unfavoring hand of Lord Clarendon." He who boldly and openly championed his was not unlearned," says the historian, “in quondam jailer, regardless altogether of po- the profession of the law, as far as learning litical considerations. His conduct upon ihis is acquired by the mere reading of books; but occasion was violently assailed by the Jersey being a person of great industry, had spent malcontents in a pamphlet called Pseudo- more time in reading divinity, and, which Mastyc. If Prynne, however, displayed a marred that divinity, in the conversation of slight amount of political inconsistency, who factious and hot-headed divines; and so, by will not admire his manliness and generosity a mixture of all three, with the rudeness and of spirit? “I should have manifested my arrogance of his own nature, had contracted self a monster of ingratitude,” he says, “had a proud and venomous dislike to the discipI not contributed my best assistance to sup- line of the Church of England ; and so by port Sir Philip's innocency, honor, and repu. degrees, as the progress is very natural, an tation, against the malicious and injurious equal irreverence to the government of the accusations and aspersions of his inveterate, State too; both which he vented in several backbiting enemies, who endeavored only to absurd, petulant, and supercilious discourses defame him, and to oust him of his offices of in print.”
From Tait's Magazine.
HUNGARY'S PRESENT STATE.
DESCRIBED BY A HUNGARIAN.
The stormy years 1848-49 buried a free | 1712—according to which the crown was nation, and brought forth a new absolute i made hereditary in the dynasty of Hapsempire. That free nation was the Magyars burg. Five times before the final attack of -the new absolute empire is Austria, con- 1848 was the destruction of the constitution joined to Hungary by Russian bayonets. attempted ; but all in vain. Even in the
Hungary had been free for the period of & Turks did the Hungarians find supporters of thousand years. Its constitutional freedom the national cause ; and in 1848 they showed was established by the dynasty of Arpád, in the same disposition, but were prevented by the year 1222. The document called “Aurea the English Government. Bulla” confirms, in thirty articles, all the cus- Ferdinand the Fifth, at his coronation in toms, rights and privileges of the population 1835, took the prescribed oaths. He was of the whole country, without any restriction deposed by a court intrigue in 1848, and he of religion or nationality, defines the obliga- was the last legitimate King of Hungary. tions of the people to their rulers, and sets a The same Ferdinand sanctioned the demands limit to the power of the ruler over against of the Diet of 1847-namely, that Hungary the rights of the people.
be governed in the spirit of her ancient For the security of that national compact, laws, by a national ministry, and not by we find in the last article, paragraph ii., the Germans from Vienna. Hungary's rejoicing following -
was great ; a new future was hoped for,“Quod si vero nos, vel aliquis succes- for science and industry; a golden age was sorum nostrorum, aliquo unquam tempore, expected. But the stormy months that fol. huic dispositioni nostro contrarie voluerit, li- lowed were favorable for the old views of beram habeant, harum authoritate sine nota Austria. She took párt with the non-Magalicujus infidelitatis, tam Episcopi, quam alii yar population ; and agitated them against Jabagiones, ac nobiles Regni universi, et the new Government. They took up arms, singuli
, presentes et futuri, posterique, re- and madly fought against their own freedom sistendi, et contradicendi, nobis, et nostris and privileges. Francis-Joseph took then successoribus, in perpetuum facultatem.” the absolute rule of Hungary; no more as
According to this document was Hungary its lawful king, but as the autocrat of all the ruled from the time of its settlement in the Austrian dominions. The foreign conquest year 884 till the year 1301, when the dy of that country, with all the atrocious cruelnasty of the founders of the country became ties and crimes which followed, was sancextinct. The kings were elected from va- tioned by the corrupted diplomatists of rious houses till 1527, at which time Prince Europe. May God remunerate them for it! Ferdinand of Hapsburg succeeded in gaining We will endeavor now to exhibit the presthe election by a small party at Presburg. ent state of our unfortunate country, in He made oaths to the whole extent of the parallel, as it were, with its previous circumconstitutional charter. But from the mo- stances; which we have thus related, bement of his election the intentions of his cause we know that in England are very few house were directed to the destruction of who see in Hungary's present fate the full Hungarian free institutions, which they re. contrast to her former high condition. garded as obstructive and injurious to the absolute system by which the non-Hungarian provinces of Austria were governed.
Joseph the Second omitted from his oaths The extent of the whole country is calof fidelity to the constitution, in 1887, the culated to be 125,028 English square miles; above mentioned paragraph ii.; and Charles the most fertile country in Europe, rich in the Third virtually abolished the whole by all the treasures of nature. The inhabitants the so-called Pragmatic sanction, in the year I are as follows :
ACCORDING TO RELIGION.
ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY.
must be put into the hands of the German Magyars,
censor, before it may be offered for public Slavonic Races
sale. If the work contains any liberal ideaSlovaks,
any breathing of patriotism-any expression
of dissatisfaction—even though only in a Illyrians-Croats
single word-or if the censor happens to be Dacians,
2,600,000 in a bad humor-he will prohibit the circulaGermans, .
1,403,000 tion of that already printed work ; and if the Jews,
author himself preserve copies for his own Various,
use, and they be detected, be is liable to Total,
eight, ten, or twelve years' imprisonment. Of course, therefore, the papers are stopped.
Hundreds of manuscripts, containing valuCatholics,
able works, cannot be now published, beGreeks,
cause of their liberal or patriotic spirit—the Oriental Greeks,
muse, as the people, watching in mourning Protestants—Lutherans,
1,338,200 and in hope, the coming day of recompense. Calvinists,
Before 1848, the grounds, houses, and Total,
every other property of a Magyar, were sacred property. No police, nor even the
king, had the right to take a footstep therein THE MAGYAR NATIONALITY,
without the consent of the proprietor. For The character, like the language, of the every man's house and garden was protected Magyars, is a most peculiar one. Not only by the constitution,--and he was himself a is the Hungarian good-hearted, humane and king, bowing his head before the laws which hospitable-proud to put forth his strength had been constituted with his consent and in support of his weaker fellow-man, and sanction, but his person in the highest deambitious of a good name among the nations gree free, untouched. Now, the police have --but an extraordinary love of freedom is full liberty to go into any body's house, his most eminent feature. In this case there to ask for the keys of every closet and are no such similar-minded people as the drawer,-and to take away whatever they English and the Magyars ; and therefore, think proper. They have special instrucduring their struggle, the sympathy of the tions to watch the better known patriots,English was predominant above all other all their doings, family and friends, and to peoples. But the nature of the Magyar was take possession of all national pictures and never inclined to a republic; we do not find prints, or even articles of dress that may a passage in his bistory of a republican ten- display the national colors. The house that dency-much less a communistic idea. He
once was so sacred from intrusion must not is a free-spirited patriot. At home or in ex
now resound with a national, much less a ile, he is amalgamated with the soil of his patriotic, song, or strain of music. For the fatherland. Therefore, under present cir- possession of any emblem, or for the slightcumstances, Austria endeavors to extirpate est expression of national feeling, the persethat characteristic. The language is the first cuted patriot may find himself in the hands obstacle--for the language of every nation of the gendarme-the faithful servant of the represents and perpetuates all its peculiari- new absolutism-and be immured in a prison ties. In consequence, in all the schools is for two or three months, even before he is now introduced the German language. In put under inquest. In Hungary, therefore, the churches it must be preached; on the so long the land of liberty, there is now, inExchange it must be spoken. All the deed, equality, but no liberty-no privileges, Courts' proceedings are written in German; personality, dignity or preponderance — but and by this means, too, all these documents all are equally under the conqueror's iron are brought under taxation, which before
sceptre. were free.
Press laws do not exist; therefore it would seem there could be no interference with the Before 1848, all the wants of the state publication of Hungarian works. Neverthe. were laid before the Diet by the legitimate less, if a work has been printed, the sheets I ruler, and their supply provided for. No
DUTIES AND TAXES,
other tax was ever known since Hungary was the imperial flag—and that for the protection, first called by that name. Noblemen, bish- or even extension, of the limits of absolute ops, priests, artists, were free from any Austria. kind of duty or payment. Except in the In the former time, in every case of need, case of war, they paid only by free will — the free men of Hungary cheerfully took the that is, the subsidia, wbich had been fixed by field. Maria Theresa's German dominions the Diet. The farmers had several obliga- were saved by the arms of the faithful Magtions. They paid a small sum of money for yars; Francis the Second was supported their land, and rendered hand-labor (robot) against Napoleon by the sabres of Hungary; twenty, fisty, a hundred, or a hundred and and without the same loyal service, the fifty days in the year, according to the ex- throne of the Hapsburgs might have been tent of their farms. But, by the last Na- demolished in the storms of a complicated tional Assembly, all these obligations were policy. But now, with what hope of sucgiven up by the nobles, without any com- cess can Austria look for protection to the pensation.
free will of Hungary? We know not -- but The taxation paid by the whole country, this we know, that if the defeated cause of before 1848, was under fifteen millions of Hungarian independence call again for the florins. The support of the army-twelve arms of its children, every man will be ready regiments of hussars and fifteen regiments of to devole to it life and property. The counthe line-cost less than ten millions of flo try that once resounded with the shout, rins; the expenses of the home government, Moriamur pro rege nostro !” will not reincluding the comitatus of the shires, were sound with the cry, “Moriamur pro usurpaunder five millions and a half. The revenues tore nostro !!" The murmurs of discontent of the Crown, from its gold, silver and salt and indignation that are now heard, advise mines, landed estates, and import duties, us of the events that must follow. That the amounted to 14,940,730 florins. Now, all national spirit is not dead, but only suppressis different. The same forms of taxation ed, is witnessed by the immense mass of genprevail as in the Austrian dominions--taxes darmes, spies, and soldiers--the only pillars on paper, books, wine, spirits, tobacco, &c., of an absolute government—which are mainnone of which were known before. The tained. Never, even when Hungary was proceeds of this exhausting system may be threatened with foreign conquest, had she calculated as follows : - Direct taxation, such a grandiose army as now—600,000 solthirty-eight millions ; duties on articles of diers, besides 150,000 police. consumption, thirty-five millions—and all This crushing weight of expense must this in addition to the revenues raised be- of itself produce bankruptcy, if the weight fore; so that Hungary pays in all, under of oppression do not first provoke a revoludifferent forms, the yearly sum of 163 mill. tionary eruption. In either case the House ions of florins. As Austrian paper money of Hapsburg will not find the support on is in circulation in Hungary to the amount which it has hitherto reckoned from those of pretty nearly fifty-five millions, it follows deceived nationalities, the Croats, the Serbs, that every florin must be repaid to the Gov- or the Wallachs. The same iron hand has ernment ihree times in a year. It must be, pressed on all, and provoked all
. Their at the same time, well understood, that the clergy humiliated, by having taken from them money is taken from the country, and never the management of the schools, lest they returned to it again.
should disseminate political ideas; the nobles There is no option now, in the amount or deprived of their property, name, and rechoice of taxation. A simple decree, writ- spect; the traders and peasantry ground by ten by a German Minister's clerk in Vienna, taxation ; Magyar and non-Magyar, are all is equivalent to an Act of the National Par. now united as brethren, and ready to fight liament.
under the read-with-green banner. The same absolute prerogative is exerted But the fate of these countries is not in in raising an army. 'Heretofore, the ruler the hands of negotiators. It is in the hands was obliged to lay before the Parliament the of a mysterious destiny-in the sacred hands number of men needed to recruit the ranks, of that God who guides all events, and pities and the soldiers were supplied by ballot. the oppressed. We pray, with all sufferers, Now, a simple decree is of sufficient autho for the manifestation of His goodness! rity to bring every man in the country under
LAS CASES' NAPOLEON.--A beautiful edition in four The Messrs. HARPER have issued “Travels in volumes, of the celebrated Memoirs of Napoleon by Europe and the East,” by the Rev. Samuel Irenæus Count Las Cases, has been issued by Mr. Redfield, of Prime, D.D., one of the editors of the N. Y. Observer, this city, illustrated with numerous portraits and in two volumes. Without furnishing any novelties, or viewe. The work has long been out of print, and a adding much to the information respecting the cournew generation grown since its first appearance de tries visited, they engage the reader with pleasant lighted the public mind. With all that has appeared descriptions, and good, wholesome moral reflections. on this fruitful subject, no work has the profound and
The Athenæum says that a Russian press, printtouching interest of this. The bosom friend and companion during his exile, the author became the ing works in Russian, of a democratic order, is in depository of the Emperor's most secret judgments full operation in London. The first Russian gramand feelings. In the course of his conversations, he
mar ever printed was at Oxford, in 1696, by Larehearses the whole of his life, he re-enacts his deeds
dolf. Hertzen, in 1853, issued from the above press
an address to the Russian noblemen ; he has now of war and statesmanship, often entering into minute details of persons and battles. The reader published a work entitled “Prison and Banishment." plans, his enterprises, with all the explanations and left an estate, which has just been sworn under criticisms which his sober review supplied. The £9,000. Times have changed since Johnson exaffectionate feeling with which the author regards claimed, on hearing that Goldsmith died £3,000 in his subject, would of course make him very partial; debt, "was ever poet 90 trusted before " Southey but it rather assiets than impairs the value of the died worth about £7,000, and Wordsworth as much, revelations which he makes. Napoleon appears often while Rogers is a millionaire. in amiable and noble light in these volumes, and no one can read them without deep commiseration
The London Critic has the following items : for the misfortunes of the illustrious exile.
"Leigh Hunt is about to give the lovers of poetry
something they have long desired, viz., a collection The Messrs. Carter have added to their store of of his best narrative poems—Elizabeth Barrett admirable religious books recently, some valuable Browning and Robert Browning are both preparworks,
Footsteps of St. Paul” is a clear, ing new poems for this year. Mre. Browning's is a graphic, and interesting sketch of the life and labors narrative poem.-Miss Jewsbury bas a novel ready of the great Apostle, told in animated style, and for publication.—A volume of selections from the with such illustrative lights of histo y, topography, writings of Thomas Carlyle is announced to be and archæology, as to reader the whole intelligible edited by one who will do his work with taste and to the modern reader. It is a work of very great discrimination.-A literary discovery of some interlearning, infused by an earnest spirit and a strong est has lately been made. It comprises above a imagination, and puts the reader in possession of hundred letters of James Boswell, principally adthe missionary career of St. Paul in the clearest dressed to his friend, the Rev. Wm. Templer, Rec
tor of St. Gluvias, in Cornwall, whose name is menA large and beautiful edition of the celebrated
tioned in the life of Johuson. They were rescued, “Saint's Rest” of Richard Baxter, has also been
some years ago, from the hands of a shopkeeper in issued by the Messrs. CARTER, which will attract
France, with a mass of other less important corattention from its readable character. Its worth as
respondence, addressed to Mr. T., but have not been a devotional treatise has been established by the tes thoroughly examined until lately. Preparations timony of generations.
are now being made for their publication. Mr. REDFIELD has published a Life of the Hon.
Public LIBRARIES OF FRANCE.—The French MinW. H. Seward, with extracts froin his speeches. It
ister of Public Instruction has issued a work on the is an abridgment of the larger work published by it appears that, excluding Paris, there are in all the
Public Libraries of France and Algiers, from which him some time since.
libraries 8,733,439 printed works, and 44,070 man“The Minister's Family,” is the title of a delight- uscripts. Bordeaux has 123,000; Lyons, 130,000; ful story, by the Rev. Dr. Hetherington, of Scot- Rouen, 110,000 ; Strasbourg, 180,000 ; Troyes, land. It is a record of facts, and depicts a career of 100,000; Avignon, 60,000; Dijon, 80,000; Veradmirable fortitude under trial, and illustrates the sailles, 56,000 ; Tours, 57,000; Grenoble, 80,000; benefits of earnest piety. R. CARTER & BROTHERS. Nantes, 45,000 ; Marseilles, 51,000 ; Amiens,
The same house issue a uniform edition, in three 53,000; Toulouse, 50,000. In 1853-4, there were volumes, of the writings of the late Caroline Fry expended for all these libraries 407,781 franes, of _" The Listener," Christ our Example," and
which sum only 184,227 francs were for the pur“ Christ our Law.” Miss Fry's writings display
chase of books and binding. There are 330 public remarkable clearness and felicity of style, an ear.
libraries. nest purpose, and great point. Her views are MR. SCRIBNER, announces "Historical Sketches of strictly evangelical, and animated with a fervent the most eminent Orators and Statesmen of Ancient aim.
and Modern Times,” by D. A. Harsha. "The Par