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From Sharpe's Magazine.

WILLIAM PRYNNE AND MONT ORGUEIL CASTLE.

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A PLEASANT place, in spring or summer | It is as clear as crystal, and even in midsumtime, is the Island of Jersey. But in autumn mer cold as ice. To those who have been more especially, when the lawyer breaks used to the purest water—and London pro

— loose for the long vacation, and mingles with duces some of the best, particularly from its the herds of tourists who quit the pent-up old pumps, in the Temple, Aldgate, and St. city at that season, for a week or two's ram- Paul's Churchyard--a draught from this ble" in parts beyond the sea,” where can be spring will be esteemed a real luxury.

. found a pleasanter spot for a fortnight's! Mont Orgueil Castle has its cells—the sojourn ? We write with a full recollection dark, narrow prison-rooms with which a of its narrow, shady roads, overarched with feudal fortress was always furnished; and foliage; its pleasant variety of hill and dale; one of these is celebrated as having been the its orchards of apple-trees laden with clus place of captivity of the celebrated William tering fruit ; its beautiful bays, where the Prynne, after be had been cruelly maimed transparent waves leap one after another on and branded by order of the Star-Chamber. the sand, leaving behind them wreaths of It is a low, dark hole, which the visitor canfoam, or playfully clasp the pointed rocks, not enter without stooping; lighted by a like beautiful sea-nymphs disporting them single embrasure in the massive wall, and selves in the joyous sunlight; and its pretty cold and cheerless as a tomb. Here, for villas that rise on all sides, comfortable and nearly three years, was imprisoned this brave substantial, but light and elegant-hemmed and restless Puritan, whose spirit neither in with gay flower-gardens and luxuriant threats, nor sufferings, nor years could tame; shrubberies.

and whose fate it was, in an age of civil comJersey has also historical sights of some motion, to suffer persecution at the bands of interest to the thoughtful wayfarer. Among all parties. these is the old castle of Mont Orgueil, There are many interesting circumstances "proud mount,” or “mount of pride," at connected with Prynne's captivity in Jersey, the eastern extremity of the island; a fort- which are honorable alike to the prisoner ress of great antiquity, erected it is said by and to the jailer in whose custody he was the Normans, near the site of a Roman en placed. Sir Philip Carteret was at ibat time campment, as early as the tenth century.* lieutenant-governor of the island, over which Its situation is striking and romantic. Like he exercised almost despotic authority. Sir some of the Rhineland castles, it appears to Philip was a staunch royalist, of ancient name have grown out of the solid rock; and de- and lineage; but his heart softened towards spite of war, and wind, and weather, it stands the unfortunate captive who had been comfirm and immovable as the rock itself-themitted to his care, and he treated him-Puribeau ideal of a feudal stronghold. From the tan and Malignant as he was— with rare kindsummit of the keep there is a fine view of ness and consideration. He allowed him the coast of France, six miles distant; and every indulgence in his power; gave him on clear days the triple towers of the Ca- permission to take the air when he chose on thedral of Coutances are plainly visible. In the platform surmounting the keep; and conthe castle itself are discernible all the pecu- versed at all times with him freely and on liarities of the Norman fortress, which we equal terms. The relationship of captive and shall not bere stay to describe. The tourist jailer was soon converted into a tie of a very will do well, before he quits the place, to different kind. Above all, the ladies of Sir take a draught of water from the castle well. Philip's family were permitted to lavish their

courtesies on the Puritan prisoner. Dame CarSee Charles Il. and the Channel Islands, by S.

teret vied with her lord in gracious kindness; Elliott Hoskyns, M.D., vol. i., 1854.

and these were afterwards acknowledged by VOL. XXXIV.-NO. IV.

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Prynne, in the dedication of a volume of very | Christmas decorations, bonfires, and mayo indifferent verses (for he was certainly no poles, were regarded by the enthusiast with poet), " To the right worshipfull, his most the same holy horror as the comedies of Jonhighly honored, speciall kind friend, the son, Fletcher, and_Shakspeare. That the truly vertuous and religious lady, Anne Car- works of glorious Ben should be printed on teret."

better paper than many Bibles, appeared a a Thus indebted to his jailer for all that could sore grievance to Prynne ;-almost as bad, in soften captivity, Prynne was not behindband fact, as dressing up a house with holly and in gratitude. His attachment to the Carterets ivy on the day on which Christians comsurvived the period of his captivity; and he memorate the Saviour's nativity. Dancing even went so far, on his return to England, as was, in his eyes, the devil's profession. “The to take Sir Philip's part against his Puritan woman that singeth in the dance," he said, opponents in the island. Few of the incidents of “is the prioress of the devil, and those that our civil commotions are more interesting than answer are clerks, and the beholders are the this firm alliance—commenced in compassion parishioners, and the music are bells, and the and cemented by gratitude--between the stern fiddlers are the minstrels of the devil.” Even and uncompromising Puritan and the stead hunting, hawking, and out-door amusements fast, resolute royalist. Such an alliance might, came in for a share of reprobation. The at the first blush, appear incongruous and im- Histrio-Mastyx was, in fact, a faithful picture probable; but we shall be able to show that of the gloomy side of Puritanism, and a bold Prynne possessed accomplishments and quali- exposition of its most unpalatable doctrines. ties well calculated to render his society agree. To give power to such principles, and to renable to any person of ordinary refinement. der such strange notions popular, it was only It is still too much the fashion to suppose that necessary to invest the author of the work all the Puritans of the days of Charles I. and with the honors of martyrdom. the Commonwealth were coarse and vulgar in In the persecution of Prynne, the advisers their habits, and destitute entirely of taste, of King Charles I. displayed, as usual, little wit, and elegance. But such was by no means discretion or moderation. On the 7th Februathe fact. Prynne was emphatically a gentle ry, 1633, he was brought to the Star-Chamber, man, by lineage, education, feeling, and con- —that odious and much-dreaded tribunal,duct. He was born near Bath, of an ancient and an information was exhibited against him Somersetshire family, about the year 1600, by Mr. Attorney-General Noy, for the publicaand received the first rudiments of his education of libellous and seditious matter contained tion in the grammar-school of that city. Whilst in the above-mentioned work. Archbishop a mere stripling, he was removed to Oriel | Laud is said to have been the author and abettor College, Oxford ; and, being intended for the of these proceedings. He had taken the book to legal profession, he from thence, at the proper the king, and pointed out some of the most offentime, repaired to Lincoln's Inn. As soon as

As soon as sive passages, upon which his majesty thought the necessary period of probation had expired, fit to direct a prosecution. The gravest charge he was called to the bar; and though his against Prynne was that, in bis condemnation practice was small, he was in such repute for of " all women actors,” he reflected upon the legal learning that he was made, at an early queen herself, who had acted a part in a pasage, first Reader and then Bencher of his inn. toral at Somerset-house. This circumstance At this time he became immersed in contro- was adverted to in the Information ; but the versial divinity. For all abstruse investiga answer to the charge was—and one would tions he had undoubtedly a natural inclina. have thought that it should have proved satis. tion, and such studies were then the fashion factory that the book was published six of the age. Theological zeal, however, soon weeks before the queen’s acting. Nevertheless brought Prynne into difficulties ; and it did so the fact was relied on, throughout the whole in rather a novel and unexpected manner. proceedings, as cogent evidence of the dis

In the year 1632, he published his famous loyalty and malignity of the accused. As for book, called Histrio-Mastyx ; or, a Scourge the attack on stage-plays and players in genefor Stage-Players. This work, which was ral, it required some ingenuity on the part of written in an exceedingly angry and vehement the crown lawyers to make this out an offence tone, comprised not merely a general censure against the laws of England. It was urged of all theatrical representations, but also de- by Prynne in his book, that stage-players nunciations of every diversion then in vogue. were rogues by act of parliament. To this the It exhibited in every page the “cry-aloud - Attorney-General replied, they were not and-spare-not” spirit of genuine Puritanism. I rogues unless they wandered or went abroad

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a species of argument which it requires the man--a proceeding hitherto unknown in mind of a special pleader to appreciate True England, and intended to throw peculiar it was that the book contained references to odium on the author. As for Prynne himmany other matters than theatrical perform self, he was to be disbarred, and declared ances. “ He falleth upon those things," said incapable of hereafter practicing in his proNoy, “ that have no relation to stage-plays: fession ; to be expelled from the society of music, music in the church, dancing, New Lincoln's Inn and from the University of Year's gifts, whether witchery or not. Witch. Oxford (at which part of the sentence Laud, ery, church ceremonies, &c., indistinctly he who was present, observed in a low tone,“ I falleth upon them ; then upon altars, images, am sorry Oxford ever bred such an evil hair of men and women, bishops and bonfires; member"); to stand twice in the pillory, in cards and tables do offend him, and peruques two places, in Westminster and Cheapside, do fall within the compass of his theme." with a paper on bis head declaring his ofBut, however offensive these puritanical criti- fence; and to lose both his ears, one in each cisms might be, it was difficult for the acute place; and, finally, to pay a fine of £5,000, Attorney-General himself to torture them into and be imprisoned for life. so many seditious libels. With some justice, This sentence would seem to exhaust the however, he complained of the violence of degrading severities of the penal code; but Prynne's language. • The terms which he one member of the court was for going even useth,” said Noy, “are such as he finds among further in respect to personal torture. The the oyster-women in Billingsgate:" an obser. Earl of Dorsei, who was generally considered vation which shows that the use of strong the most moderate of the Star Chamber counlanguage, in the metropolitan fish-market, is cil, recommended with great gusto a little sanctioned by the practice of more than two further mutilation of the bold Puritan. centuries.

“Now, for corporal punishment, my lords," On the part of Prynne it was contended he broke in, “whether I should burn him in that the prosecuted work was, for the most the forehead or slit him in the nose. . . . He part, a justifiable censure of the licentiousness that was guilty of murder was marked in a of the stage; and his counsel, Mr Atkyns, place where he might be seen, as Cain was. I afterwards a judge of the Common Pleas, should be loth he should escape with his ears ; concluded an able appeal on his behalf with for he may get a periwig, which he now so the following quaint remarks :

much inveighs against, and so hide them; or “I have long known him in a society of force his conscience to make use of his unlovely Inns of Court, where he has lived; and for his love-locks on both sides : therefore I would ordinary discourses (except the matters in this have him branded in the forehead, slit in the book), they have not been factious or seditious. nose, and his ears cropt too.” The sentence But now he is before your lordships, troly, was however ultimately executed, on the 7th for my part, I compare him to the astron. and 10th May following, with our Lord Doromer, who fixed bis eyes so much upon set's ingenious additions. the stars that he did not look to his feet, As far as the interests of the government but fell into a ditch ; for his eyes were so were concerned, nothing could be more imfixed upon this subject, upon the common politic than these harsh proceedings. Such of resort to stage-plays, and the great abuse the Puritan or Presbyterian party as had been that comes by them, that he forgot to look hitherto inclined to moderation, began now to down to his hand that guided his pen." * look upon resistance to the monarch and his

As it was the invariable practice of the advisers as a measure of self-defence. The court of Star Chamber that conviction should persecution of Prynne was considered a direct follow accusation, all arguments and appeals attack upon liberty of conscience. Moreover, on Prynne's behalf were thrown away. On plain persons of all stations and opinions were the fourth day of the inquiry, the lords pro- puzzled by the apparently anomalous charceeded severally to pronounce judgment and acter of the prosecution-directed, as it was, to pass sentence. The Chancellor of the Exches against the assailant of notorious immoraquer (Lord Cottington) first spoke, and passed lity. It was said that my Lord of Cantera sentence characterized by extreme severity, bury, in order the more effectually to exterwhich was concurred in by the majority of minate godly Protestantism, had entered into the court. He, in the first place, adjudged an alliance with Belial, and had taken the the book to be burnt by the common hang. stage players under his protection. Was it

consistent, in a serious divine, to champion * State Trials, vol. iii., p. 571.

the loose principles of the theatre ? In what

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other light could Prynne's trial be regarded, the lords to take a stricter view of him, and than as part of a deep-laid conspiracy against for their better satisfaction the usher of the the sober and pious portion of the nation ? court was commanded to turn up his hair Was it the duty of the King's Attorney- and shew his ears : upon the sight whereof General to screen profligacy and punish plain- the lords were displeased they had been forspeaking ? Such were the questions asked merly no more cut off, and cast out some on all sides by those who witnessed the disgraceful words of him. To which Mr. Puritan's sufferir.gs. Instead of being an Prynne replied, My Lords, there is never a object of contempt or derision, the author of one of your honors but would be sorry to Histrio-Masty.c was elevated into a martyr, bave your ears as mine are.' and becanie the object of general sympathy. L. Keeper. In good faith, he is somewhat

After undergoing the most degrading part saucy. of his cruel sentence, Prynne was imprisoned "Mr. Prynne. I hope your honors will in the Tower, where he appears to have been not be offended. Pray God give you ears to permitted the use of writing materials with hear.” out let or binderance. This proved to him, All the prisoners displayed upon this ocalas ! a dangereus privilege. Instead of being casion the same undaunted demeanor. Dr. deterred by his grievous sufferings from Bastwick said, in concluding his address to again engaging in political and polemical the court, “ But if all this will not prevail controversy, those sufferings only stimulated with your honors to peruse my books and him to more daring efforts in what the Pu- hear my answer read, which here I tender ritans called the “good cause." His was upon the word and oath of a soldier, a gennot a nature to be conquered or softened by tleman, a scholar, and a physician, I will severity. “The more I am beaten down, the clothe them (as I said before) in Roman buff, more I am lift up," was his motto. Rather and disperse them throughout the Christian than refrain from the open expression of his world, that future generations may see the opinions—captive as he was-he was ready innocency of this cause, and your honors' to undergo fresh tortures and degradation- unjust proceedings in it; all which I will do nay, even death itself. Thus it happened though it cost me my life.” Mr. Burton that three years of his imprisonment had not exclaimed that rather ihan desert his cause passed away before he again fell under the be would desert his body, and deliver it up censure of the Star-Chamber, for writing and to their lordships, to do with it what they publishing a pamphlet called News from Ips would. So stern and unsparing was the lanwich, reflecting severely on the Bishop of guage of these intrepid men, that the court Norwich and Archbishop Laud.

at length considered it expedient to command This time he was not the sole culprit. Dr. silence, and proceeded to pass sentence. John Bastwick, a physician, and Mr. Henry They were then all three condemned to lose Burton, a learned divine, were joined with their ears in the palace yard at Westminster, him in the same information; all three being to be fined £5,000 each, and to perpetual charged with writing and publishing schis imprisonment in three remote places in the matical and libellous books against the hier- kingdom, namely, the castles of Carnarvon, archy. To this information answers were Cornwall

, and Lancaster. Prynne was in prepared by the defendants; but these an- addition condemned to be branded in the swers contained matter of such a character cheek with the letters S, and L., as a sedithat no counsel could be found bold enough tious libeller. The procredings ended with a to sign them; and the consequence was that long speech from Archbishop Laud, who forthe charge was taken pro confesso. Against bore to take any part in the sentence,"bethis injustice the defendants loudly exclaimed, cause the business had some reflection on when they were brought before the lords of himself.” the Star - Chamber to receive sentence. On the day fixed for the execution of their Prynne's second appearance before this court sentences, the bold Puritans were brought into is ihus recorded in the State Trials : the Palace yard, where they all made long

" Jan. 14 (1637). The lords being set in speeches before delivering themselves into the their places in the Star-Chamber, and the hands of the hangman. Prynne was the first three defendants brought to the bar to receive to suffer, and he endured without flinching their sentences, the Lord Chief Justice Finch, the touch of the hot iron, and the deprivation looking earnestly on Mr. Prynne, said, 'I of the portion of his ears which had escaped had thought Mr. Prynne had no ears, but me. on the occasion of his former mutilation. thinks he hath ears ;' which caused many of | An eye-witness thus describes his demeanor:

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". Christian people,' he said, 'I beseech | Dame Carteret did not neglect the first and you all stand firm and be zealous for the noblest duty of her sex—that of administercause of God and his true religion, to the ing consolation and assistance to the woundshedding of your dearest blood, otherwise ed, the desolate, and oppressed ; rememberyou will bring yourselves and all your posing perchance those grand and gracious terities into perpetual bondage and slavery.' words, “I was in prison, and ye visited me, Now the executioner being come to sear him naked and ye clothed me;" and, “ Forasand cut off his ears, Mr. Prynne spake these much as ye did it unto the least of these, ye words to him : 'Come, friend, come burn me did it unto Me." -cut me, I fear not. I have learned to fear During the three years that Prynne rethe fire of hell, and not what man can do mained “shut up close prisoner in Mont unto me: come, sear me, sear me, I shall Orgueil pile," he received, as we have already bear in my body the marks of the Lord stated, every indulgence which Sir Philip Jesus :' which the executioner performed Carteret could consistently with his duty bewith extraordinary severity, heating the iron stow on him. He might have been left alone twice to burn one cheek; and cut one of his in his cold, dark, narrow cell, day after day, ears so close, that he cut off a piece of his and week after week, with no other sound cheek." It is said that Archbishop Laud, to break the stillness of his prison-room than having been informed by his spies of Prynne's the dull, monotonous roar of the ocean. language in Palace-yard, moved the lords, Instead of this he received words of kindness then sitting in the Star-Chamber, “ that he and deeds of charity, the memory of which might be gagged, and have some further was most precious to him throughout the censure presently executed upon him; but remainder of his life. It is most creditable that motion did not succeed.''*

to him that he took the earliest opportunity Branded and mutilated, hut not cast down of acknowledging and of evincing his gratiin spirit, Prynne was conveyed to the Castle tude for the kindnesses for which he was so of Carnarvon, which had been designated as much a debtor. Times were about to chanye. the place of his captivity. Here he was the The nation was on the eve of a great revoobject of general interest and compassion. lution. The oppressed were to become opSympathizing friends focked around the pressors in their turn; haughty peers and castle from all parts of the country, craving prelates were to give place to the despised permission to see him, and speak to him Puritan; and the branded and earless capwords of comfort. When this was reported tive was, by a freak of fortune, to be turned in London, it was determined to remove him, into the protector of his former jailer. together with his fellow-sufferers, to some At the beginning of the Long Parliament, still remoter corner of the kingdom ; and ac- in the year 16+1, Dr. Bastwick, Burton, and cordingly, by warrants which were after. Prynne forwarded their respective petitions wards

declared illegal, Dr. Bastwick was re- to the legislature, in which were minutely set moved to the Isle of Scilly, Mr. Burton to forth the circumstances attending their trial Guernsey, and Prynne to the Island of and conviction, their subsequent sufferings, Jersey.

and illegal imprisonment beyond sea. Upon his arrival in Jersey, “after fourteen Prynne's memorial a grateful allusion was weeks'

voyage in the winter season, through made to the kindness of the Carterets. After dangerous and stormy seas, in a bruised, mentioning his arrival in Jersey, and his being ship-wrecked vessel," and with papists for conveyed close prisoner" in Mount Orgatile fellow-passengers (which he appears to have Castle there," and the strict orders that had regarded as a great aggravation of his suffer- been given for his rigorous treatment, the ings), Prynne was delivered into the custody petitioner concluded his narrative with these of Sir P. Carteret. His appearance must at words—“So that being deprived of his callonce have excited the compassion of his ing and estate, exilęd, and shut up close jailer. Pale and sick, and clothed in mean prisoner among strangers, remote from all apparel, he still retained, in spite of suffering his friends, denied all addresses by person and mutilation, the dignified bearing of the or letter, he had certainly perished in his scholar and the gentleman. If Sir Philip's almost three years' close imprisonment, had heart was touched at the spectacle which not the extraordinary providence and goodbis liigh-minded captive presented, that ness of God, which he shall ever adore, and of his noble lady's was

less so.

the noble charity of those under whose custody

he did remain, furnished bim with such diet State Trials, vol. iii., p. 749.

and necessaries as preserved him both in

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