Hesse Cassel will have an international law | rain pierces the dense fog, which gives that of copyright. The truth will find its way decided physiognomy to London, without into a Petersburg journal at the risk of life. I which it could not be recognized. Mr. SimpThe Prussian Ambassador in Petersburg | son had given his friends a magnificent sup(Baron von Werthern) will bring out a new per, in honor of his being appointed purveyor edition of the “Sorrows of Werther.” Ma- to her Majesty Queen Victoria, from which the rius will emigrate from the ruins of Carthage rich tradesman Joffrey is just returning, and to Bomarsund. Xenophon's Anabasis, or the in osder to reach the City, cuts across from “Retreat,” will be translated from the Greek Regent-street to Trafalgar-square. A man into the Muscovite. A new planet will be who, like Joffrey, enjoys thrice daily a meal discovered in the tail of “Ursa Major,” which like that he had just finished with his friend the astronomers will christen “ Humanity." Simpson, doubtless knows no trace of hun

“In the year 1855, 365 eclipses will take ger. The consumption of meat and eggs, place, which will be visible at all places where which is as necessary for a real English siothe eyes are not shut. The first of these mach as the daily dry bread to the 50,000 eclipses will take place on New Year's day, poor in the same city, at least produces the when the congratulators will not have any effect which the boa feels when it has swalthing to see. The second eclipse will take lowed a jaguar: it is unsusceptible and inplace in Germany, commencing at Bamberg different to all that crawls around it. and extending to Frankfurt, and this eclipse " The same may be assumed of Joffrey. will be so total, that folks will not see the Stuffed with that respect-demanding quanknout before their eyes. The third eclipse, tum of meat, tea, game, and pudding-who coming from the North, will cover the Cres would be astonished that such a man can not cent, and extend its shadow over Arndt's comprehend one of his fellow-beings suffer

Wo ist des Deutschen Vaterland,' set to mu ing from hunger ? Wrapped in his cloak, sic, and provided with notes.' The fourth Joffrey consequently hurried along past all eclipse is a total one, commencing with the the misery which night in London drives on Gold region' and extending far beyond the the streets. Trafalgar-square is one of the • Credit zone. The fifth eclipse will be visible finest and largest squares in the world, as far at Silistria, where not the smallest Russian as Europe signifies the world. Centre of the can be seen for the heaviest sum of money," fashionable West end, the royal palaces of &c., &c.

Old England surround it, and the public But the joke of jokes in Saphir's Alma- buildings and museums; while, divided by a nac is contained in his illustrations of the magnificent terrace, it supports on either side signs of the zodiac. Under "Aries," he a statue-above, the King George; below, writes as follows: "Aries, or Richard Cob- the lofty pillar of the naval hero of Trafalgar den, the lamb of peace and the apostle of and Abukir, both of which are bedewed by wool. This sign indicates the season when the fine watery dust of the fountains. Even the sheep are driven out to pasture. This the palace-resembling private edifices, which ram of ours annually drives his flocks of rise in a long row from the Strand as far as Pallpeace to the meadow of publicity. Peace Mall, exhale that proud aristocracy which and wool!' is his motto. It is evident that a was peculiar to the style of the past century, sheep is the most fitting advocate for both, and whose type the English nobility of the even if he bleats pro domo."

present day most faithfully represents. The principal jokes, however, in all the " These palaces are generally adorned with comic almanacs, appear to relate to Charley small porticos, which with their cold and Napier's celebrated order "to sharpen cut-polished stones serve as a resting place for lasses,” and to the “ Jahde Busen," or Gulf the homeless. There it is where children of of Jahde, which Prussia recently purchased five years cower behind a pillar, tremble for from Oldenburg, for the purpose of estab- cold, and try in vain to wrap themselves in lishing a national harbor for Germany. their rags. Horrible women take refuge

But before parting from our kind readers, there, and in bestial carelessness throw tbeir we will fulfil our promise of giving them beads, heavy with gin or rum, on the cold some German notions of English manners, stones, while they clutch tightly a long bottle which we will derive from the opening part of spirits, which offers them the acme of all of the siory to which we alluded. “ London, human delight. Men with shaggy beards, that central point of trade, of riches and want, and only covered with the absolutely neceshas fallen into the arms of sleep and rest, for sary rags, barefooted, without shirts, coat, midnight is long past. The fine, penetrating perhaps with only a patched jacket on their shoulders--naked and starving--these are they have not, we have ! But how true it a few sketches from that picture which is that a prophet is not honored in his own misery produces nightly in London. Round country! We always thought Trafalgarthe proud palaces of Trafalgar-square crime square the laid idéal of everything that was and misery lurk, defiling those marble pillars i execrable; and yet here comes a, doubtlessly with their pestilential breath, and during the worthy, German, and calls it the finest square night the stones and the mortar of these in Europe! We wish we had known Herrn porticos are horrified listeners to curses Rellstab when in England--we should have against fate, to lamentations and complaints been glad to hear his opinion about the against the rich--the same stones which, on Wellington Statue at Hyde Park. However, the next day, the delicate feet of a duchess if fortune favor, we may be enabled to enor countess will trip over.”

lighten our readers on the subject next There ! have our readers had enough? If year.

From the Biographical Mag a zine.


More than a century ago, when the inhab- | scenes of magnificence and Oriental splendor, itants of London expected a hostile visitation and in many a journey through beautiful of Highland clans, when the Thames was lands placed under his sway, through wide comparatively a pure river, and pleasant regions thrice greater in extent and populagardens and villas still existed between Char- tion than England, which he won for Enging.Cross and Temple-Bar, a boy wandered land's crown. to and from Westminster School, in whose Nearly forty years had passed away after character, as in that of many other little boys, this resolution was formed; forty years of the career of the future man was very dimly arduous toil and weary work to that middleforeshadowed. His family were in decayed aged gentleman, peculiarly handsome, with a circumstances, and he easily detected the broad and high forehead, and a quiet smile respect paid to wealth, even in those years playing over features hardened and worn at Westminster; while at home he heard tra- with care, who is reading Horace, in the ditions of times not far removed, when his small, although richly-furnished cabin of a ancestors held a high place among the Eng: ship from India, which is doubling the Cape lish squirearchy. He would be often told of on the homeward voyage to England. He his Danish ancestry—the connection of his paraphrases one of the Latin poet's difficult family with barons and earls—and those fair odes, and we copy some of the verses which English manors, sold by his grandfather's he has written : grandfather, for means to fight the battle of

He who enjoys, nor covets more, the Cavaliers and Royalists, when he follow

The lands his father held before, ed the Stuarts' standard through folly and Is of true bliss possessed ; rain to the end. Daylesford, the last of the Let but his mind unfettered tread family possessions, had belonged to them un- Far as the paths of knowledge lead, til a recent date ; and their records bore the And wise, as well as blest, names of its owners for nearly five hundred

No fears his peace of mind annoy, years. Eighteen years before the school- Lest printed lies his fame destroy,

Which labored years have won ; boy's birth it had been sold to a Bristol citizen, but the Westminster lad determined to

Nor packed committees break his rest,

Nor avarice sends him forth in quest buy it back again ; and seventy-four years Of climes beneath the sun. after its sale he realized this juvenile purpose, a purpose to which he clung amid Daylesford and his Westminster purposes are floating over the statesman's mind while | Dowla. He had gained the esteem of the he reads and writes in the Southern ocean. natives, and his captivity was light; although Ten years after the ship had reached Eng. Surajah Dowla violently opposed the England, this great Eastern politician, wishing to lish interest; but this Indian chief was soon convince the world that he was not an Eas. afterwards defeated by Meer Jaffier, losing tern nabob, published a statement of bis ex- his throne, and subsequently his life; while penditure; and challenged reproach on that his former prisoner was accredited by Lord head except in the matter of Daylesford, for Clive as Resident Minister to the Court of the which he admitted that the money paid was conqueror, probably too much. But we must wander The calamities of some men become the over this romance of half-a-century. A springs of their prosperity; and the captivproud boy, conscious of poverty and of ialent, ity of Hastings may have prepared the way decides to earn fame and wealth with the res- for his diplomatic employment.

He acolution of manhood. He selects a course, quired great influence over the natives in studies hard, wins a way through grammars bis new capacity; and after contributing made difficult (as were all elementary works materially in his contracted sphere to the in those times), and leaves his classes at an interests of the empire, he returned from early age, with the character of a remarkably India in 1765. Hastings remained in this clever lad, but rather gloomy and man-like, country for a few years, and in 1768 he —just as if his body and soul were not of was appointed by the Directors of the East the same age, and the material was much India Company a member of the Council younger than the mental section of his being for Madras; with the understanding that

The school is abandoned, and then the be should succeed to the government of question occurs, how is his capacity for the Presidency. He proceeded to his post acquiring languages to be turned into gold ? in 1769. It was a period of great embarFar away in the East English power begins rassment; for the British Empire was then to be recognized. The British flag has been menaced by numerous foes.

Civil war firmly planted in Asia, and waves beside threatened its finest colonies. Intestine dithe deep rivers of India, yet often to be red- vision was followed by successful revolt, dened by the blood of Britain's boldest youth. and revolution, in America. A great conThe Oriental crusade from the Western Isles spiracy of Indian kings bad been formed has commenced. Many young hearts will against the infant empire of the East. All beat high on the way to death ere it be closed. the influence and power of the French in But India has unbounded wealth, and the India were employed to sweep the British adventurous or the hopeful turn therefore flag from Hindostan. The pecuniary resourto it. They commence the reflux of “huma- ces of the Company in the country were nity” to the old home of our race, but the forestalled. The competency of our military tide moves slowly. The Westminster boy chiefs in Asia was denied. Even our naval needs influence for the first step. It is pro forces in the Indian seas had been unable cured, and the East India Company bestow to defend the coasts of the Presidency from a writership on bim, not recognizing in the the attacks of the French fleet. The East nameless heir of Daylesford, who sails to India Company's power was then on the win again his alienated Worcestershire ma- brink of destruction. The Directors and nor-their future master.

Proprietary trembled for the value of their The boy was Warren Hastings. Born stock; and the history of the Anglo-Indian in 1733, he was, in 1750, upon his first voy- Empire seemed nearly complete. Such was age to Hindostan, classed as a writer in the the emergency when the Directors at home Company's Bengal service. He discharged determined to place their affairs at Calcutta his routine duties with assiduity and care ; under the control of a man of energy and while forming an intimate acquaintance with genius ; and Warren Hastings was ordered the Hindoo and Persian languages. His to proceed from Madras, and assume the attainments combined with his knowledge of Governorship of Bengal, in 1771. business to recommend him to his superiors, The Bengal Presidency had recently be. and at a very early age he was appointed come British property. A few years preto the superintendence of a new factory, in viously the Company with difficulty obtained the interior of the country. This mercantile permission to trade where then they were enterprise was unsuccessful, for war the virtual rulers. Warren Hastings was commenced in the district, and Hastings was the first Governor-General of India who ex. taken prisoner by the soldiers of Surajah Iercised direct authority over the population,


His predecessors, Lord Clive, Mr. Verelst, and barrassing and painful. The Court of DiMr. Cartier, had acted in conjunction with rectors endeavored always to provide a the Court of Moorshedabad. They doubtless majority against his measures in bis Counexercised complete powers under a pretence ; i cil. The land-tax adopted in 1772 was limwhich Hastings was instructed to withdraw. ited to five years. All the plans of renewal He had therefore to construct a new system proposed by him were invariably resisted by of government for thirty millions of persons, General Clavering, Colonel Monson, and Mr. without a Parliament, without precedents; Francis ; while they were as invariably supwith a distracted Cabinet at home and a di- ported by Mr. Barwell

. The revenues of the vided council in India ; while the basis of Presidency were endangered by this division his power was shaken by the attacks of ex- of opinion; but the death of Colonel Monternal foes and intriguing partisans. In this son in 1776 delivered the Governor-General conjuncture of difficulties he was almost the from this thraldom, for the Council being only one capable of government, for his equally divided, his casting vote rendered assistants knew little of the habits, the his- him supreme; and he applied - his energy tory, the laws, languages, and religions of and genius to the financial business of the those nations whom he was to form into a country, without the fear of defeat. The compact state.

five years' leases had not realized the nomiThe Rohilla war broke out immediately nal rental. The arrears amounted to after his appointment. The contest originated 129,0001., and the remissions to 118,0001. in an alliance with the Nawab of Oude, At the end of the period, Mr. Francis, the which Hastings did not frame, although he great opponent of the Governor-General, in approved of its conditions; and they strength. Council, proposed a fixed and invariable ened the frontier of Hindostan by securing a rent; while the latter, in conjunction with faithful ally among the native princes. That Mr. Barwell, desired a strict inquiry into the war bad scarcely been brought to a conclu- capabilities of the soil, and the adoption of a sion, when he was drawn into a serious variable tax. Hastings enforced his opinion contest in defence of Bombay against the by bis vote. And as the Directors wished Mahrattas. The Presidency of Bengal was to postpone the adjustment of the rent-roll, then far removed from the nearest territory annual arrangements were made until 1781. of Bombay. Independent nations stood be. The vacillating policy of the Directors turned tween them; and a Governor at Calcutta of all Hindostan into a tenure at will for a less patriotism than Hastings would have number of years, and yet the inconvenience left the Bombay authorities to fight by them of an unsettled revenue fell upon their

represelves those battles which they had under-sentative, to whom “life in India” was a suctaken. This policy might have been prudent cession of annoyances. The Directors, refor a man of ease; but it could not be ceiving dispatches four months after their adopted by the sagacious statesman who date, issued orders, proceeding upon their probably foresaw the union of the three contents, which were to be enforced four Presidencies under one government. The months after they had been written. These Bombay forces bad been beaten by the orders generally were to undo whatever HastMabratias, when the Bengal army arrived, ings had performed, who, with nearly equal changed the current of events, and saved determination, postponed or refused complithe Presidency. But Bombay was saved ance with their requests. only to allow Bengal and Hastings to succor The Rohilla war was discussed and conMadras, overwhelmed by Hyder Ali and the demned by the Directors, who passed a resincompetency of its governors, while threat olution reflecting severely upon the Governorened by a French army and fleet. The armies General. The proprietors, at their next of Madras were either defeated in the field meeting, passed a contra-resolution, expresor starved in the forts. The commissariat sive of their highest opinion of the services was in distress, and the treasury was empty. and integrity of Warren Hastings, Esq.,' Captivity and disgrace, or death by famine adding, that “they could not admit a corand the sword, were the only apparent alter- rupt suspicion of him without proof.” This natives of the British in Madras, when the vote was given on the 6th December, 1775; genius of Hastings devised, and his perse but on the 8th May, 1766, the Directors re, verance accomplished their rescue.

solved to address the King for the recall of During these struggles the Governor- Hastings; while on the 17th of the same General's position with his Council at Cal-month the Proprietors, by a vote of 377 to cutta and the Directors in London was em. | 271, instructed the Directors to reconsider

their intention of addressing the Crown on consisted of Mr. Barwell and bimself, disthat subject; and in the following July the avowed Colonel MacLean, and refused to Directors, in a storm, rescinded the resolution, resign. The intrepidity of the dismissed which was thus neutralized.

Governor-General was never surpassed. Mr. This balance of parties increased the diffi- Wheler was on his voyage to India, with his culty of governing India. Native and appointment by the Directors, and the apFrench forces, in the field, harassed the mili- proval of the Monarch in his possession. A tary authorities, who entertained an unnatural military man, the bitter opponent of the disjealousy of the civil service. The Directors carded official, had been appointed at home assailed Mr. Hastings through all the pro- interim chairman. Hastings and Mr. Barwell, cesses of Government at this period, but updaunted by the array opposed to them, their resolutions were virtually rescinded by threatened to maintain their position by the Proprietors. The former endeavored force. A civil war between the governperpetually to obtain and support a majority ing parties in Bengal was imminent; but in the Council, but they were baffled, and General Clavering, respecting the courage of parties were balanced in this contest by the his adversary, succumbed. The Judges of solemn intervention of death. To those who the Supreme Court decided in favor of Hastexplain the existence of the Anglo-Indian ings, on an appeal to them; and he met Mr. Empire from ordinary causes, the bravery of Wheler, on the arrival of the latter, armed our armies, the conduct of our diplomatists, with their decision. That gentleman bad, the sagacity of the Directors, or the wealth bowever, a seat in the Council, and would of their employers, we recommend a careful have neutralized Mr. Hastings' policy; but reading of its bistory, when the East India the crisis commenced at Calcutta on the 19th Company struggled with poverty; while June, 1777, closed when General Clavering their affairs were apparently cast into inex- died in the following August. Mr. Wheler's tricable confusion, yet always solved and additional vote was thereafter worthless, retrieved through the exertions of one man, and the casting vote of Hastings continued endowed with great genius and talent. in the ascendency. The Directors wrote

The anxiety of the Directors to replace angry missives, requesting the Council to Hastings was evinced by a curious incident cancel his acts. He replied by equally firm in 1777. He had confided the settlement of explanations, which assumed the character some personal affairs to Colonel MacLean, of refusals ; trusting to the balance of power who was returning to England on private in London between the Directors and the business. This gentleman stated that he Proprietors for his indemnity. This warfare had authority from bim to tender his resig- extended to minute affairs, such as the apnation. The Directors appointed a committee pointment of local agents, and was extremely to investigate the nature of Colonel Mac- indecorous ; while the resistance of the GovLean's instructions ; who by a majority ernor General to the appointment of Mr. decided for their validity. The Court acted Wheler, by the Directors, enforced by the on this decision, accepted the unoffered approval of the King, approached to an open resignation, appointed Mr. Wheler as suc- defiance, for be determined to cast the cessor to the chair, and instructed General responsibility of his dismissal on the home Clavering to occupy it, until the arrival of authorities, and not to be entrapped into a the new Governor General. This appoint- resignation by their policy, while the affairs ment was ratified by the King. The only of India were unsettled. apology for these proceedings—a passage in Hastings received his appointment in 1771, a letter from Mr. Hastings to Colonel Mac- commenced the discharge of its duties in Lean, in which be stated a determination to 1972, and had held his high office for five resign, unless certain steps were adopted, years in 1777, when he married ; and yet which the Directors decided not to take- Mrs. Hastings' marriage settlement amounted was a weak justification of a ludicrous farce. to no more than 10,0001., and was paid by The Directors, afraid to dismiss their chief in bills on England ; from wbich we infer that India, tortured the contents of a private note, in bis five first years of power

the Governorfounded on contingencies, into an absolute General had not amassed a large fortune. offer of the chair. General Clavering sum- During these five years he was deeply enmoned a Council upon the receipt of this gaged with measures to provide against a re intelligence, which consisted of Mr. Francis currence of a famine which desolated Bengal and himself, to assume the management of in 1770. His plans were eminently successBengal. Hastings summoned another, which ful; and while periodical famines wasted the

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