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his native county was what one catalogue | famed and best known of all coffee-houses, calls a lignified hog, and another a tree root stood at No. 1, Great Russell-street, opposite which had grown into that shape. The cus- the future site of the house that succeeded tomer and donator was Richard Cromwell. it in position, under Addison's patronage,
The medical profession had, of course, namely, Button's. It derived its name from special houses of resort, which supplied the its founder, William Urwin. Dryden first place of modern lecture-rooms, reports and made it the resort of wits, frequented it all journals, and where the conversation of the his life, and erected it into such an authority many eminent men who attended was the l' in the critical art, that he himself condechief study of the inexperienced. The walls scended to answer in bis prefaces the objecwere hung round and the tables covered, in tions that he there heard advanced against inverse proportion to the respectability of his productions. The wits' room was up
' the house, with puffs and announcements stairs on the first floor. The company grad. of popular pills, drops, lozenges, and denti- uated in literary position, from the crowd frices; private rooms were assigned for inter- of philosophic mutes" about the door and in views or consultations. Summonses for even the lower part of the room, to the large the physician of the Crown were received of table where a crowd of little writers asthese houses. This gave rise to what is now sembled “second-rate beaux and wits, a very stale trick among young practitioners, who," says a contemporary satirist, "were and detailed with great glee by Ben Allen conceited if they but had the honor to dip a and his friend in “Pickwick.” The doctors, finger and thumb in Mr. Dryden's snuffamong whom Dr. Hannes in his young life box,” the attainment of which distinction made himself conspicuous, were accustomed forms the only story of Halcro, the minstrel, to send their boys in hot haste to seek their in Scott's “Pirate.” These were chiefly masters during exchange hours at some place authors of comedies and fugitive pieces. The under medical patronage. “Was Dr. Hannes Spectator tells of a fop who entered Will's (or other, as it might be) in attendance, as on the strength of bis poesie of a ring: and he was wanted immediately-by his Grace Ned Ward says he heard a Panegyric on of Such-and-such." Unto which demand Orange Water and a Sutire on Dirty Weather. the famous and witty Dr. Radcliffe, proto- Then came the upper table, where “three or type of Abernethy, was wont to rejoin four of the first class were rendezvoused;" "That lie was afraid it was the Duke that and last, the seat of the immortal poet. In was wanted immediately – by the Doctor.” most of the coffee-houses there was this seat The table at the head of which,“ surrounded of honor, occupied by Radcliff, the Major, by apothecaries and chirurgeons,” it was R. Cromwell, &c., respectively. At a rather his habit to deliver this repartee was at later period it is spoken of as a matter of Garrway's, in Change Alley. Another course by Addison. It is notified that in occasional house for physicians was Child's, the Smyrna Coffee-house, Pall-mall, “the in St. Paul's Churchyard, where Dr. Mead seat of learning is now removed from the was the first man. Child's was also the
corner of the chimney on the left hand meeting place of Sloane, Whiston, Halley, towards the window, to the round table in &c., and in Addison's time had been monop- the middle of the room, over against the olized by Doctors of Divinity and young fire.”. Dr. Johnson says that when he was men fresh from Cambridge and Oxford. Å thinking of writing a life of Dryden, Swinney
A still more favored school of medicine was the gave him the information, “that at Will's Bull's Head, in Clare market. Here Dr. Dryden had a particular chair for himself, Radcliffe waited, among a conclave of doc. which was set by the fire in winter, and was tors, for the last bulletin on the health of then called his winter chair, and that it was the Duke of Beaufort, and upon hearing of his carried out for him to the balcony in summer, death, annouced his retirement from active and was then called his summer chair.” life; here the notorious quack, Dr. Gibbon, There were, of course, other houses less flourished through the satire of Tom Brown eminent where literature was the chief topic; and the contempt of his brethren; and here among the rest, Wat's, where amateur acting came Surgeon Bancroft, who commemorated was the chief amusement, and the drama the in a famous epitaph upon his child's tomb- subject of conversation. The scene of the “Hind stone in Covent Garden the physician whose and the Panther Traversed” is laid at Will's, ignorance caused its death.
of which there is the following description :Will's Coffee - house, which through its As I remember, said the sober mouse, connection with “Glorious John," is the most 'I've heard much talk of the Wits' coffee-house;
Thither, says Brindle, you may go and see tradesmen, admitting, while making light of,
sisted upon by the supporting side. CoffeeBut, above all, what shall oblige thy sight,
houses, say the former, are but "lay conAnd fill thy eyeballs with a vast delight,
venticles," "good-fellowship turned puritan,” Is the poetic judge of Sacred wit,
“the hypocrite's ambuscade,” the "nonconWho doth i'ih' darkness of his glory sit ; formist's bull baiting.” But the defence is "And as the moon, who first receives the light very warm and earnest.
Scientific analyses With which she makes these nether regions are published in reply bright,
the liquid itself So does he shine, reflecting from afar
being said to resemble “syrup of soot, or The rays he borrowed from a better star;"
essence of old shoes.” A pamphlet of 1674 For rules which from Corneille and Rapin flow.
the merits of the houses that sell Admired by all the scribbling race below.
it by calling them “the newsmonger's ex
changes, the wise man's recreation, the cit. Dryden's snuff-box is thus alluded to: izen's academy, where he learns more wit “ Bayes (Dryden) : Pray take notice of it, than ever his grannum taught him. Here it 'twas given me by a person of honor for is where we may have the sparkling cyder, looking over a paper of verses, and indeed I the mighty mum, and the recruiting chocoput in all the lines that were worth any late, and here also that coffee that can alone thing in the whole poem."
make us sober and keep us so; so let all Next in rank to Will's, was Wat's, that shall hereafter presume to petition "where the drama was the chief subject of against it be condemned to drink nothing but conversation;" and the Grecian, whose name Bonny Clabber all their days.” Aubrey might justly imply it to have been the resort commends “the modern advantage of coffeeof scholars and philosophers, though really houses, before which men knew not how to derived from its founder, Constantine, a be acquainted but with their own relations.” Greek. Here resorted Dr. Halley, the Another writer testifies to "the sage and astronomer, Dr. Sloane, and even Sir Isaac solid reasonings here frequently to be heard Newton, to discuss the last meeting of the of experienced gentlemen, judicious lawyers, Royal Society, and thus communicate its able physicians, ingenious merchants, and results to the general public. The Grecian understanding citizens in the abstrusest was also much frequented by the more emi-points of reasoning, philosophy, law, and nent members of the legal profession, who public commerce. As you have here the had also other houses in the Squire's, in most civil, so the most intelligent society, the Fulwood's-rents, and Serle's, in Serle-street, frequenting of whose converse and observing Lincoln's Inn.
their discourses and deportment, can not but The parsons also seem to have possessed civilize our manners, enlarge our understandsome houses of a more private nature than ings, refine our language, leach us a generthose of other classes, for about the time
ous confidence and handsome mode of adwhen coffee-houses were in the worst favor dress, and brush off that pudor subrusticus in the eyes of Government, it was resolved (as I remember Tully somewhere calls it), at Lambeth House that, in order to draw that clownish kind of modesty frequently them away from the suspected places, “the incident to the best natures.” In a famous chaplains and gentlemen officers should re- pamphlet of 1673, which contains designs pair, when so inclined, to a still-room, where for the general amelioration of the English a good woman shouid supply them.” social condition (« The Grand Concern of
Such were some of the principal coffee. England Explained”), among one or two houses during the reign of Charles. Their sensible and a host of impossible restraintive character and influences were then so various measures (such as the universal reduction and unique, that their history, as Disraeli of wages, the checking of London building, remarks, is that of the habits and morals the suppression of stage coaches), it is sugeven more than of the politics of the people. gested that coffee, tea, chocolate, &c., be Their civil utility was more appreciated by prohibited, for the encouragement of home the people than their political power was productions and native drunkenness, and for dreaded by the Government. In the pamph. The suppression of the idleness and discussion let war and the proclamations we have among the “lower orders” which they are referred to, the attacking party inveighs said to foster. This is the picture which a against the danger of the discussion of State "Lover of his country" gives of them :questions there, and the waste of time among And for coffee, &c., I know no good they do. Only the places where they are sold are conve- | Majesty therefore thinks it fit and necessary nient for persons to meet in, sit half a day, and that the said coffee-houses be put down. discourse with all companies that come in of the legality of this proceeding of Danby's State matters, talking of news and broaching of lies, arraigning the judgments and discretion of
was the subject of a consultation of the judges, their governors, censuring all their actions, and and it was decided by a narrow majority that insinuating into the ears of the people a prejudice
“the sale of coffee might be an innocent against them, extolling and magnifying their own trade, but as it was used to nourish sedition, parts, knowledge and wisdom, and decrying that spread lies, and scandalize great men, it of their rulers, which if suffered too long, may might also be a common nuisance." The prove pernicious and destructive. But, say there effect of the proclamation was to paralyze all was nothing of this in the case, yet have these
London social life; petitions were presented coffec-houses doue great mischiefs to the nation, and undone many of the King's subjects, for they to the King, and it was threatened to carry being very great enemies to diligence and indus. the question before Parliament; the judges try, have been the ruin of many serious and could not decide that the proclamation was hopeful young gentlemen and tradesmen who be according to law; Sir W. Jones, the Attorfore they frequented these places, were diligent ney-General, was decidedly averse to it; so students and shopkeepers, extraordinary husbands that it was deemed advisable-reserving of their own time and money; but since these houses have been set up under pretence of good license to rescind the order within a fort
some restraintive enactments concerning the husbandry, to avoid spending above one penny or twopence at a time, have got to these coffee- night of its promulgation. houses, where, meeting friends, they have sat In later times, Button's in Great Russelltalking three or four hours, after which a fresh street; the St. James's; the Grecian, in acquaintance appearing, and so one after an Devereux-street; White's, in St. James'sother all day long, hath begotten fresh discourse, street; and others, raised the coffee bouses so that frequently they have stayed five or six hours together in one of them, all of which time
to their height as places of amusement; but their shops have been, &c., their business has, &c., they had by this time lost their national and their servants have, &c., their custumers, &c., most of their social power. They were &c., &c.
superseded by the essayists and journalists, The proclamation for their suppression, by the organization of party in Parliament, dated 20th December, 1675, takes the same and by the professional establishments and tone. It sets forth that coffee-houses are
scientific societies whose place they had the great resort of idle and disaffected per. almost alone previously supplied. But besons, that they have produced very evil and fore the Revolution it is easy to understand dangerous consequences, as well as that how necessary they were to the political many tradesmen do there misspend much of action of the people, to the facilitation of their time who might otherwise be employed commerce, to the cultivation of taste and the about their lawful calling; moreover, that in dissemination of news throughout the counthem divers false, mal ous, and scandalous try, to the promotion of medical practice and reports are spread about to the defamation general science, and, not least in such times, of his Majesty's Government and the dis to the encouragement of habits of decorum, turbance of the peace of his realm. His regularity and sobriety.
LECTURES by Miss MartineAU. — Miss | she considers dangerous to the peace and Harriet Martineau, the distinguished author. well-being of Europe and the world. Her ess, with a desire to instruct by information language was suitable to her audience, who regarding the political and social aspect of I were principally of the working class, and who the Russian government, and its present express their gratitude for the lady's endearchief, has lately been giving a series of lec- ors to convey instruction to them. tures in the Lake district, illustrative of what
From the Edinburgh Review.
THE SIEGE OF RHODES
In speaking of Rhodes in its historical | sketches (and very original they are) were connection with the Kniglits of St. John i copied by the medium of woodcuts, and of Jerusalem, we naturally point to three printed with Caoursin's book at Ulm in 1496. sieges equally memorable. The first is the Caoursin was not a native of Rhodes, as it four years siege which terminated in the has been the fashion to consider bim, but of conquest of the island by the Order, under French Flanders :-“Gallus Belga Duacius” Fulk de Villaret; the second is the subject -as he styles himself. Our readers may of this article; and the third is that which is possibly agree that his assertion of his own perhaps the best known of all, as resulting nationality as a brave Belge is corroborin their capitulation and loss of the island. ated by the manner of his Commentaries. The first may be said to have reawakened They are written in the true vein of a public the fame and importance of Rhodes; and the orator; of a man who was always officially last to have created that of Malta. Though upon his legs, in days wben “orationes hano such obvious historical sequence can be bitæ" were more exclusively the mark of the said to flow from the second, inasmuch as it scholar, and more carefully conned and deleft the fortunes of the island in the hands livered than they are at present. The lanin which it found them, it is richer in brilliant guage is Latin, and such Latin as became and suggestive details than either of the the official mouthpiece and recorder of the other two, as reported by contemporary his great and Sovereign Order of St. Jobn, the torians. It occurred, moreover, at an epoch military bulwark of Christendom. There is when the success of the defence was even of a noble turgidity in the style; a tendency to more importance to Europe than the actual run into sonorous and Euphuistic triplets of possession of the place can be said to have expression, in almost every sentence far outbeen to Asia half a century later. Mahomet doing in their grave and decorous volume the Second, conqueror of Trebizond and By: Cæsar's thrasonical brag of “I came, saw, zantium, was a more dangerous neighbor than and overcame.” Caoursin was a man to any of his successors on the Turkish throne. whom every subject naturally arranged itself
Whoever would entertain such conjecture under three heads. It would perhaps hardly of this small point of time as we can lend be unfair to say that he viewed the world as him, must be pleased to place himself under composed of three principal ingredients, of the guidance of two chroniclers who have which " Magister Rhodi,” the Grand Master, led over the ground all subsequent historians was the first; “Ordo perillustris,” the Order of the Sovereign Military Order of St. John of St. John generally, was the second ; of Jerusalem, from Bosio and the ingenious and “Guillelmus Caoursin, Rhodiorm ViceAbbé Vertot to the Chevalier Taaffe, the last Cancellarius,” the third. A touch of schoknightly encomiast of his illustrious brethren. lastic vanity was pardonable in the fifteenth They are by name one William Caoursin, century in a man whose historical commentvice-chancellor and public orator of the Order ary was not only written, but printed “quæ for the time being, and one Mederic or Mary per orbem impressorum arte est divulgata." Dupuis, a French soldier (as we take it) of Mary Dupuis is a very different sort of perAuvergne. We shall also have the assist- sonage. Though Vertot quotes him as an ance of an anonymous artist, whose original eye-witness of the siege, relying on the ex
pression," selon que je peu voir a l’ueil,” it * 1. Gulielmi Caorsin Rhodiorum Vicecancellarii is clear that he does not pretend to be one obsidionis Rhodiæ urbis descriptio. Ulm, 1496. 2. Relation du Siège de Rhodes. Par Mary Du- Rhodes shortly afterwards. The name of
of the garrison, but only to have visited 3. History of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Pierre Dupui, a knight of the Priory of AuBy Chevalier TaaFFE. London: 1852.
vergne, is found in the archives of the Order
as one of the actual defenders of Rhodes in was reserved for his descendant, Solyman 1840. Mary may have been some relative | the Second, some forty years later. of his, and may have claimed kindred with The Chevalier Taaffe, with the feeling of Raymond Dupuy, the first Grand Master of an exile the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem.
“che gema in duri stenti Modestly conscious of his own literary infe. E de' perduti beni si rammenti riority, as well as of his imperfect military science, he styles himself “gros et rude de gives a picturesque description of Rhodes as sens et de entendement,” but is reads, for it was under the sway of the Order. We the information of " ceulx les quieulx en vou quote it at length, as a bird's-eye view which
leront savoir des nouvelles,” io describe, as
may illustrate and give life and color to the briefly and truly as possible, what he had plan which we subjoin, for the clearer comseen with his own eyes no long time after prehension by our readers of the course of the siege was raised, as well as what he had the siege :heard from many who were actually present and witnesses of all, both Knights of the
"-Rhodes, that lovely island, -rich, salubri. Order and inhabitants of the town. Although lawns, renarkable from its quantities of roses,
ous, and diversified with beautiful upland and his narrative is thus at second band, it has whence probably the name. On the top of a plain every appearance of being as correct in de in the north-east stands its capital, 'also called tails as Caoursin's; and they are both con- Rhodes, as round as if drawn by a compass, nor firmed in the general outlines of the story by unlike the full moon, when partly in light and the despatch written by the Grand Master partly shade—the side of the port, where the 10 the German Emperor within a month of water bathes the foot of the houses, being in
shade, and the city, the part in light, glittering the raising of the siege. This despatch is like gold. And in the still mirror of the port given at full length by the Chevalier Taaffe (which itself is also a round) is the best place posin his recent history : we are not aware that sible to observe the lunar reflexion ai that ecstatic it was ever published before.
moment, Note, however, it is only one side (the No one with a map in his hand or head eastern) has the sea and that commodious port, can wonder that the Grand Turk should have and three the land. This in its varieties had risbeen anxious to dislodge the Chevaliers of ling ground and hillocks, some of them close to St. John from the island of Rbodes and its
the ramparts; and as far as the eye could reach,
even from the steeple of St. John's, the view was appurtenances. Tradition was in favor of loaded with orchards, gardens, villas, and most the attempt. They had been driven back splendid forest-trees, and waving corn, and vinestep by step from the Holy Land itself, from yards, and pastures full of well-bred cattle and Cyprus, and along the coasts of Asia Minor. fine fleet horses.” Convenience urged him on. They must have been in his eyes a pestilent set of warlike
There is the Chevalier Taaffe in his original wasps, placed there on purpose to vex the English. As corroborative evidence, let us Crescent and uplift the Cross: a hive of mis put beside him Mary Dupuis, in his original chief-makers, who were always setting him French. He points out the military disadand his neighbor, the Soldan of Egypt, by vantages implied in the picturesque beauty the ears, or at least perpetually intriguing been long enough in use in the fifteenth cen.
of the situation. Heavy ordnance had not for a temporary neutrality with the one, more successfully to harass the other. Posted tury to make the Knights aware of the lifeat the corner of the Ægean and the Levant, and death importance of fortifying and they commanded both seas, to the great ac- maintaining the hill of St. Stephen :tual detriment of his navy, whether warlike or commercial. Policy, moreover, made it
Laquelle ville de Rhodes est asaise en beau
pays et de belle venue de toutes pars bien murée imperative on bim to clear them out of the
et tourrée et à la muraille a XXII piex despesseur way. His most cherished idea was an as- et plus; et y a de beaux fosses et larges tours à sault upon the Cross in its stronghold: no- fons de cuve, et la ville la mieulx clause que je thing less than the subjugation of Italy itself. veix oncques qui soit au monde comme je croi, et To attempt this with the Knights of Rhodes est bien garnie d'artillerie tant grosse que petite in his rear would have been dangerous if not
et de tous autres batons, et y a toujours beaucoup
de nobles et vaillans chevaliers et de toutes les impossible. He resolved to attack them
nations du monde qui sont chacun jour prests et simultaneously, and failed; only succeeding appareillés de combatre pour la foy Catholique et for a short time in the establishment of bis défendre la Chrétienté, et qui souvent courent en power at Otranto. The conquest of Rhodes | Turquie, et qui jamais n'ont paix anx Turcs et