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Enraged at the death of this valiant soldier, which occurred almost immediately upon his arrival in England, King Edward determined to go in person to the assistance of his fair ally. But his presence was productive of no actually favorable results, and his enterprise concluded by a somewhat compromising treaty.
lords, her adherents. Little argument was d'Artois, who had been sent to command the necessary at this protracted period of fatigue | English, having been badly wounded, was and suspense, to over persuade these nobles. I conveyed home. Allured by the promise of personal safety, which the bishop was empowered to concede from the leader of the French force, his nephew, and possessing, after all, but a secondary interest in the question, the sad moment had arrived when the countess must behold her whole intentions abandoned, and perhaps be dragged to a prison with the child for whom she was so heroically struggling. The French troops were actually marching to take possession, when the countess, whose eyes had been riveted upon the sea, and who had with desparing energy proclaimed the change of the wind to a quarter favorable to her hopes, rushed from the turret where she had taken her position, with the joyful exclamation," I see the succor! I see the English vessels! No capitulation!" Joyously the incarcerated and worn towns-people ran to the ramparts-the good tidings were confirmed-glory again shone upon the invigorated gaze of the lately complaining garrison. We can scarcely imagine, during the tediThe English forces, headed by Sir Walter ous interval of suspense and anxiety, the sufManny, entered the town, and were enthu-ferings of the unfortunate De Montfort, imsiastically received by the lady and her sol- mured in a hopeless captivity, and possibly diers, the treacherous bishop having taken in perfect ignorance of the struggles and exhimself off. But a large machine arrived ploits of his heroic wife. Her active prowess shortly afterward, the result of the informa- afforded her something like distraction to the tion of the ecclesiastic, which, we read, never grief of separation from her husband; but ceased, night nor day, from casting stones the poor prisoner in the Louvre could but into the city; and this was, perhaps, a more brood painfully over his present position, and alarming neighbor than even his lordship anticipate the worst event. His release had himself. been the first condition stipulated for by the King of England at the time of truce, but the French monarch chose to violate the terms, and keep him a close prisoner.
Certain epochs are productive of particular virtues, and it is more frequent to witness a constellation of rare merit than a solitary star. The Countess de Montfort's example raised, or at least immediately preceded two similar characters-the wife of Charles de Blois, who, almost under the same circumstances, and with equal valor, as well as success, took her husband's place later in the war, and the English Queen Philippa. During this absence the Queen of England, mounted upon her white charger, formed a brilliant and spirited picture of womanly energy.
To the great joy of the countess, and totally without any expectation of such happiness, De Montfort contrived and executed his escape. Disguised as a peddler, he eluded the vigilance of his enemies, and made the best of his way to the English court. Here, receiving fresh offers of cordiality from King Edward, he tarried only long enough to muster a small force, and hastened to recross the sea, and join the woman who had proved so admirable a mate for his high and noble spirit. But what must have been the agony which this devoted wife endured, after the first raptures of receiving back the object of her constant and unwearied efforts to success! Captivity and grief had done their work: the fine lineaments of the count were irrevocably tarnished by disease-the tenderness of Jane, formerly omnipotent, failed
Some months after this, and when a truce had been concluded until the following summer, the Countess de Montfort, accompanied by her son, paid a visit to the English court, where she desired to present him to his future father-in-law, and hoped to arrange some plan for the delivery of her husband from captivity.
Not long, however, did she absent herself from the scene of action. Obtaining further assistance from King Edward, she embarked on her return homeward. On the seas an encounter took place with some hostile ships, which was only put a stop to by a storm separating the two fleets: the countess chose to take her usual conspicuous part in the action, and with "a trusty sharp sword in her hand" combated bravely. Vannes was the first town taken by the friends of the imprisoned duke, and here his intrepid wife entered with great rejoicings; it was, however, shortly after recovered, and the Lord Robert
engage the widow's jaded spirit. In the bright summer-time, when every thing was preparing for the majority of the young duke in the following year, (which was to herald his departure with his duchess for Brittany, to take possession of his long-contested domain,) Mary of England was seized with a disorder which sapped the springs of life, and consigned her, within a few weeks, to an early grave.
Little further remains to be told of the subject of our memoir. The Countess de Montfort's checkered and turbulent career had nothing in store to force her into that prominent position that she had occupied in her earlier days. It is probable that, having once held so distinguished a role in the long contest between France and England, she continued until her death to take interest, if not an actual share, in the agitating events of the period; but she retired to the Château of Lucinio, near Vannes, where the remainder of her life was spent in comparative quiet. Her son inherited her brave and dauntless spirit, and, as John the "Valiant,” is familiar to every reader. He was twice married after the unhappy termination of his first nuptials, and left a numerous progeny to dispute the heritage of their forefathers, and share that fated imprisonment and struggle apparently inseparable from scions of the royal line of Bretagne.
to bring a smile to his wan lip, or a flash to his heavy and languid eye-the sword had rusted out, and the days of "le bon Jehan," as his faithful people delighted to term him, were numbered. A few months he lingered -they passed-and the Countess de Montfort stood a widow upon the soil for the possession of which she had so long warred. If we may judge of her feelings at that sad moment of her loss, it must have appeared a poor and valueless conquest; yet motive for action still remained in the young son of this spirited pair. Jane de Montfort's was not a temperament to resign itself to supine and heedless grief. The castle of Tickhill, in Yorkshire, received the bereaved mother and her child, and here she continued to scheme and plot, varying her residence by visits to the English court, and to the shores of France, as seemed most advisable for the interest of the young heir of Bretagne. The Princess Mary of England, betrothed to this prince, was the companion of his childish years, and it is possible that warmer feelings than were usual, in state marriages of the period, grew up between them. The count ess (or the Duchess de Bretagne, as she was styled in England) had therefore more than common satisfaction in seeing her son united to his long-affianced bride at Woodstock; but not long were the brilliant auguries and actual happiness of this marriage suffered to
VESUVIUS.-The Neapolitan correspondent of the Athenæum writes:-"The expectations of the visitors have been much raised by the prospect of an eruption of Vesuvius. Indeed, for a year past there have been predictions and appearances of such an event, though at present they have assumed a greater probability. On the top of the cone of Vesuvius, says an accurate observer, a large and deep abyss has opened, from which issues much smoke. It lies near the base of the Punta del Palo, the name given to one of the three craggy points at the top of the cone facing the north. Its diameter is about 100 metres, and depth somewhat more. Its walls present a series of strata of basalt, broken, however, for the reason that a part of the interior of the crater has fallen in. The soil surrounding this abyss presents wide fissures, showing that a great part of it threatens to sink in; and, indeed, a considerable space about the Punta del Palo must shortly
be swallowed up in the abyss. To the geologist the present appearance of Vesuvius must be very interesting, as the cut through the crater is so clear and deep as to reveal distinctly the several stratifications. The usual path to the cone is now interrupted, and great care is required not to approach too near the precipice, as the soil is ready to be precipitated into the same abyss which has already thrown out so much material. The old guides say that every thing indicates an approaching eruption; but as yet the smoke does not issue with a sufficient impetus, perhaps, to justify that belief. Indeed, the present smoke may be only vapor arising from the copious rains which have fallen through the various fissures into a higher temperature, and are being again ejected in another form. Should the Punta del Palo fall in, the strongest point in the top of Vesuvius will be wanting, and the form of the mountain will be altogether changed."
From Chambers' Journal.
A HONOLULU NEWSPAPER.
We have lying before us a recent number of the New Era and Weekly Argus, a newspaper printed at Honolulu, island of Oahoo, one of the Hawaiian group-better known to many of our readers as the Sandwich Islands. Ere proceeding to give some account of this remarkable voucher of the prosperity and civilization of the country which has been apply termed the Heart of the Pacific, it may be interesting to trace briefly the modern history of the islands, which are certain ly destined at no distant period to become an important and powerful maritime state.
The whole group is of volcanic origin, and on Hawaii is the largest active volcano in the world. The mountains attain the enormous height of 14,000 feet, and the general scenery of the islands is picturesque and beautiful.lation. Even thirty years ago, upwards of fifty whaling ships have been in the harbor of Honolulu at one time. At the present day, hundreds of whalers, chiefly from the United States, Sydney, and Hobart Town, annually visit the ports of Honolulu and Lahaina. In 1820, the first missionaries landed at Hawaii, idolatry having already been abolished by the will of the king, and of a number of the leading chiefs and priests. From this period eivilization progressed steadily and surely. In a few years, many churches were erected, schools were established, printing-presses were at work issuing books in the native languages; England, France, America, Spain, Russia, and other countries, had resident consuls; a considerable trade sprang up; and the whole group was rescued from the slough of gross and degrading superstitions. Suffice it, that at the present time the Hawaiian Islands form a recognized independent kingdom, possessing a regular constitution, code of laws, and system of government. The power of the king is limited, and he is aided by ministers of different departments of state to administer the laws and govern his kingdom. The laws themselves are enacted by a House of Representatives, chosen by the people, and by a House of Nobles. Notwithstanding the various unhappy differ
ences which have occurred from time to time between the Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries, and the jealousies and struggles for predominancy between the American, English, and French consuls and settlers, the little kingdom has really been very judiciously governed on the whole, considering its antecedents, and its unique position and character. Its trade and commerce is increasing at a very rapid ratio; and according to some recent writers, the decrease in native population is likely to cease ere long, although others predict, that by slow and sure degrees the race of pure-blooded aborigines will become altogether extinct. Mr. Jarves, the able historian of the islands, declares that "this group is capable of supporting a dense popuWith the exception of metals, its natural resources are sufficient to meet all its necessities." It is, however, the remarkably advantageous geographical position of the islands, which is certain eventually to render them populous, and exceedingly important possessions. "Their position," says Jarves, "is central to both the neighboring continents, being nearly equidistant from Central America, Mexico, California, and the north west coast, on the one side, and the Russian dominions, Japan, China, and the Philippine Islands, on the other. When a civilized and enterprising population shall have developed the resources of these countries, these islands will bear the same relative importance to them, in proportion to their extent, that the West Indies now do to North and South America." We are inclined to anticipate a far more magnificent destiny for the islands than that indicated by their historian. In less than another generation, they will become one of the greatest depôts of commerce in the world. Australia was comparatively unimportant in relation to the Hawaiian group at the time Mr. Jarves wrote, but the case is very different now.
And now for our newspaper- one of the two or three weekly broadsheets published at Honolulu. Of its contemporaries, we only know that one, The Polynesian, is the
semi-official organ of government. The wear, can be procured at Honolulu-for a number of the New Era before us bears consideration. Literature, we regret to add, date June 8, 1854. It is a paper of four appears to be at a discount. At any rate, pages, somewhat smaller in size than the there is not a single bookseller's advertiseLondon Globe, yet its price is 12 cents per ment, although there certainly is one of the copy, or six dollars per annum, paid in ad." Honolulu Circulating Library Association,"
So high a price indicates a very which announces that “donations, whether small circulation, or else great expense of of books or money, will be most thankfully production. In its general appearance it received." Only one advertisement is given precisely resembles an Ameriean local news- both in English and Hawaiian, being an inpaper, but it is well printed, on shabby timation “ by command of the king,” to the paper. Notbing conveys a better idea of a effect that "it has pleased the king to apstrange place than a copy of the local news point William Webster, Esq., Assistant Agent paper. A glance over the columns of the for the sale and letting of His Majesty's New Era, gives the coup de grâce to any lands, and for the collection of all rents due lingering romantic fancies associated with the and accruing for the same.” There are also name of Honolulu, and that of the island of a couple of noticeable advertisements which Oabu, of which it is the capital. We are announce the forthcoming meetings of the struck with the one pervading idea, that Excelsior Lodge of Ancient Foresters — or Honolulu is a place where business traffic, perhaps Shepherds, for a couple of crooks ordinary, prosaic buying, selling, and ex- are affixed, and the letter-press is somewhat changing – is the general, if not the sole, mystical to us—and of a lodge of freemasons. pursuit of the people. All that meets our It is easy to see from the advertisements, eye in the paper has some connection with that many of them are addressed more ez. dollars and cents. At the outset we count pecially to the captains of ships entering or one hundred and seventy-five advertisements, calling at the port. In fact, not merely does
. occupying thirieen out of the twenty columns Honolulu supply hundreds of ships annually of the paper. These advertisements are ad- with what the need for their own crews, dressed to all whom it may concern, by but it is a grand depot where whole cargoes tradesmen, merchants, and professional men of miscellaneous goods are bought by vessels of all kinds. A dozen or more hotels solicit from all countries bordering on the Pacific, public support, on the score of providing to carry elsewhere for sale and barter. The first-rate comforts and luxuries; and drapers, same observation applies to European ships grocers, provision and other merchants, trading in that great ocean on a roving combutchers, bakers, brewers, confectioners, tai- mission. lors, clothiers, bosiers, hatters, shoemakers, Of the remaining seven columns of the ironmongers, watchmakers, jewellers, per- paper, nearly four are occupied by reports of fumers, auctioneers, estate, commission, and the “ Hawaiian Legislature, one contains shipping agents, masons, lawyers, physicians, foreign intelligence, and the residue is occusurgeons, druggists, &c., all set forth their pied by editorial paragraphe. The foreign claims to patronage in excellent Queen's news is relative to the war between Russia English, and in the orthodox advertising and Turkey, England, and France — the
, style. We are only ocrasionally reminded declaration of war by the Western powers that they hang out their signs on an island having just reached Honolulu. The reports in the heart of the remote Pacific, by such of the Hawaiian parliament are novel and names of streets as Nuuana, Kaahumanu, interesting. As in England, the real burden Mauna Kea, Alakea Street, &c. The major- and business of legislation is evidently done ity of the streets, however, appear to bear in the Lower House-hor House of Representcommon English names. One circumstance, atives, as they call it. The proceedings also, is very suggestive—we do not notice a appear to be based on the English and single native name among those of the bun- American system. There were a number of dred and seventy-five advertisers; four-fifths petitions presented of the usual local characbear English patronymics, and the residue ier--one of which, by the way, curiously are German and French. Goods of every enough, shows that the canine race is becomconceivable description—in some cases, entire ing as great a nuisance in the Hawaiian ships' cargoes--are offered for sale. Articles group as with us in Britain. It prays “that of utility and luxury from every quarter of the dog-tax be raised to five dollars per the globe, almost every thing the epicure can head.” We read of speeches on many subwish to eat and drink, or people of fashion to "jects that sound exceedingly familiar to Eng
lish ears. Thus, there were Orders of the Day;" discussions, &c., on the "Landlord and Tenant Bill;" the "Bill to Amend the Laws on Sinuggling;" a "Bill to Amend the Law of Evidence; a "Discussion of the Militia Bill," &c. We meet with native speakers, the reporter telling us that on the subject of the Honolulu Reef Bill," Mr. Kaumaea was eloquent;" that "Messrs. Kalama and Maika very earnestly advocated the bill;" that "Mr. Kamaipelekane read for the first time a bill," &c. About half of the names of the representatives are English. Here are two curious items: "Mr. Nahakuelua read first time a bill to make soldiers of all illegitimate persons: laid on the table. Mr. Uma read first time a bill to forbid the king to sell any of his lands to foreigners." A singular instance of roguery at Honolulu comes out in the discussion on a bill to reduce the duties on alcohol imported for medicinal or mechanical purposes. "Mr. Bowlin, in advocating this bill, stated, that there was in Honolulu at present a very good article of brandy labelled 'Heard's Sarsaparilla,' which was imported as sarsaparilla, entered as brandy, and afterwards withdrawn from the custom-house under a minister's permit for medicinal purposes, infused with a slight tincture of cloves, and then sold as Heard's Sarsaparilla."" In other words, by underhand manoeuvring, brandy was openly sold under a false name, thus evading the heavy duty on that article. The proceedings of the Upper House of Parliament are reported under the head of "House of Nobles." Judging by this newspaper, the proceedings in both houses appear to be conducted with great decorum, order, and deliberation; and the speeches of some of the representatives, both native and naturalized foreigners, are straightforward, and replete with good sense.
Turn we now to the editorial department, to which is prefixed the motto: "Open to all controlled by none." Adverting to the expected arrival of the English and French squadrons, the editor calls the attention of the legislature to the necessity of deepening and widening the harbor; and "as under almost any circumstances, a proper dredgingmachine could not be sent for and arrive from the United States or England before some time next spring, we are absolutely obliged to fall back on our own mother-wit and power of contrivance to meet the dilemma." And so 66 we, the poor, libelled, vilified editor of the New Era and Argus, offer 200 dollars to any person who, within a month from to
day, shall lay before the government for its accptance the cheapest and most feasible plan of clearing out the sand and mud of the passage of the harbor of Honolulu; the work to be performed by the first of December next." Patriotic editor! Several paragraphs on local subjects of interest follow; one being an acknowledgment of a present of "a bag of new corn-meal, ground at the steam flouringmill at Honolulu." It would appear that the personal comfort of the editor is worthily held in thoughtful remembrance, for he begs that "the person, gentleman or lady (for kind hearts are of both sexes), who, during our absence the other day, furnished our sanctum with a commodious editorial chair, will be pleased to receive our grateful acknowledgment." May the editor live to read, six months hence, this article descriptive of his newspaper while he lounges, like the luxurious fellow he probably is, in that very chair!
Some omissions in the paper strike us as rather remarkable. For instance, there is not a single paragraph relating to crimes, trials, or accidents; there are no births, marriages, or deaths announced; there is not a single scrap of poetry or of literary extract. The foreign news is solely confined to intelligence concerning the great European war; and it would seem that the Hawaiian Islands either are singularly barren of incidents of domestic interest, or that the good people there are totally devoid of all curiosity or concern in any and every subject, except what immediately relates to their pockets. But taking it all in all, the Honolulu New Era is a literary curiosity, and does honor to the press in the Pacific. It has given us a clearer idea of the growing importance, and the splendid future of the Hawaiian Islands, than the perusal of a dozen books of travel
Iwould have done.
Since we began to write this paper, a letter has been published in the Times, dated from on board Her Majesty's ship President at sea, July 28. The President is the flag. ship of the English squadron in the Pacific, which, in conjunction with the French squadron, is sailing in search of the Russian menof war. The combined squadrons arrived at Honolulu last July, and the writer gives some interesting details concerning that place. He says that Honolulu is a "well-built town, of about 15,000 inhabitants, where every thing bears the air of advancing civilization and improvement." King Kamehameha III. "keeps up his court in the same manner as in England: he has his palace-guards, ministers of departments-European principally