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like manner the recording style covers over | guage, and printed upon paper with considerwith blue lines all the surface of the paper ex-able rapidity and precision. The paper and cepting what forms the letters, thus
ink are self-supplied from a store which lasts
for a considerable time. Plumbago or verwhich may represent the letter 0, as if milion are considered preferable to printing written with white paint on a shaded ground. ink, as they do not require to be so frequently These electro-chemical telegraphs may, upon replenished. Mr. Brett arranges bis letters the principles we have described, transmit to on the type wheel in the order of the frea distance copies of profiles, or portraits, or quency of their occurrence, which is as fol. outline drawings of any kind.
lows e, t, a, i, o, n, s, h, r, w, d, b, c, f, m, The art of photography has for a long u, 6, 9, P, j, y, k, v, 4, 9, 2. He assures us, time been employed in France for the detec- that messages may be printed more rapidly tion and identification of thieves and other than a well-practiced person could write criminals. When the culprit is brought into them; and tbat after a little experience, " a the police office, bis picture is instantaneously clerk might manipulate upon the finger key. taken, and though he has learned to put his board upwards of 150 letters in a minute.” features on these occasions into contortions, The American printing telegraph of Mr. yet the artist never fails to catch them in House is a very complex but ingenious and their natural state. Mr. Gardiner, the gover- useful instrument. It has at the transmitnor of Bristol goal, has recently introduced ting station a key-board with each letter of the same practice. His apparatus cost only the alphabet upon a key. When the operator £10, and the expense of working it is not presses down the key with the letter A, for above £5 per annum. The following case, example, the same letter A, which is a type which he has published, shows the great upon a dial or wheel at the recording stavalue of his plan, which he is anxious to tion, is brought by the electric current into a have introduced throughout the kingdom. certain position, and having in its passage to “J. H. came into the Bristol goal upon com. this position received ink from the inking apmitment for trial, a perfect stranger to me paratus, a band or ribbon of paper is pressed and my officers. He was well attired, but against it and receives an impression of the very illiterate. The state of his hands con- letter. The next letter of ihe message is vinced me that he had not done any hard brought into its position in the same way, work, while the superiority of his appearance and as the ribbon of paper is drawn forward, over his attainments led me to suspect that its impression is made next to the letter A he was a practiced thief. I forwarded his which preceded it. The advance of the likeness to several places, and soon received ribbon, the inking of the type, and the presinformation that he had been convicted in sure of the paper against it, are produced by London and Dublin. The London officer an apparatus moved by the operator, at the who recognized him by his portrait was sub- recording station, by the action of a treadle. pænaed as a witness, picked him out from Grove's battery is used as the electric power, among thirty or forty other prisoners, and and about thirty cyclindrical pairs are requirgave evidence on his trial in October 1854, ed to produce the effect for a distance of 100 which led the Recorder to sentence bim to miles. This apparatus was first employed in six years' penal servitude.” This admirable 1849 upon the line between Philadelphia and process may now be extended by means of New York. It is now in use on upwards of the copying telegraph. We can not convey 1,358 miles of the American lines, and mes. a photograph along a wire with its lights and sages printed at the rate of from thirty to shades, but an outline either of the whole thirty-five words, or from 165 to 200 letters person, or of the head, or profile, may be per minute, have been printed in common easily transmitted, and there can be no doubt Roman character at a distance of 500 miles. that an outline of the culprit, even if the face The celerity of transmission must no doubt is not seen at all, may often be sufficient for depend on the skill of the operator, for we his identification.
are informed by Mr. Turnbull, that on one The next telegraph that attracts our par- occasion 365 letters per minute, or upwards ticular notice is the printing telegraph of of six per second, were transmitted from New Mr. J. Brett, who received a Council Medal | York to Utica, a distance of 240 miles. The at the Great Exhibition for this and other in average number, however, as we have stated ventions connected with telegraphic commu- already, is from thirty to thirty-five words nications which he exhibited. By this tele- per minute, or 500 letters, when, as a newsgraph communications are sent in any lan- | paper, abbreviations are allowed. In the autumn of 1850, a newspaper despatch of be wrought by the right and left hand of the 7,000 words was transmitted from Syracuse operator, each telegraph working upon a to Buffalo. in two hours and ten minutes, separate wire. The object of the double inwhich is at the rate of fifty-four words in a strument is to make the signals more rapidly, minute.
in consequence of a much greater number of The telegraphs most commonly used in signals being obtained by combining the dethis country are what have been called the flections to the right and left of both needles. Needle and the Dial Telegraphs. The first The dial telegraphs which are used in this . transmits messages by signals or the different country, as well as in France and Germany, positions of a magnetic needle, and the sec- all indicate letters and numbers upon a dialond by pointing in succession to the differ plate like that of a clock, the operator at the ent letters of the messages upon a dial-plate iransmitting station turning the hand or index containing the letters of the alphabet and to a particular letter, and the operator at numerals. Although the telegraphs of both the transmitting station observing the index these constructions perform their work well, on his dial-plate pointing to the same letter. yet it seems to be the general opinion that These effects, though of the same kind, the dial telegraphs are more easily wrought are produced by different pieces of mechanand less subject to error. In the needle tele-ism, differing more or less in their simplicity graphs each signal is independent of those and ingenuity. The German telegraphs, howwhich precede it, so that in making up the ever, constructed by Siemens, differ in one despatch the operator does not discover the respect from all the rest. The dial is placed error, whereas in the dial telegraph he no- horizontally, and is surrounded by a circular tices any incoherence in the despatch while key-board, the letter engraven on each key he is reading it, as it were, upon the instru- corresponding in position to that upon the dial. ment.
When the current is sent through the wires, The single needle telegraph consists of a the hand or the index of the dial-plate at all galvanometer or coil of wires for strengthen the stations on the line moves with greater ing electric current, and a commutator appa- or less rapidity like the seconds hand of a ratus, by turning the handle of which in clock, with uninterrupted but regular motion, different directions, the current may be either and on all the dial-plates upon the line the stopped or inverted in its direction. A mag. hand reaches the same letter at the same innetic needle is placed within the galvano. stant. When the operator at the transmitmeter, but on the same axis is placed another ting station places his finger upon the key of needle which may be either magnetic or not, the letter A, the revolving index is stopped but which, while following all the motions on that letter at all the stations, in conseof the magnetic needle, indicates upon a quence of the current being stopped. After dial plate the letters or signals which are to the proper pause, he transmits the next letter, be transmitted, or which are received. The and so on till the despatch is completed. In alphabet is placed into two halves, the first this very ingenious telegraph, the index dehalf from A to L on the left hand of the scribes the semi-circumference of the dial in needle standing vertically, and the other half a second, that is, it gives fifteen signals in a from L to Y on the right hand of it. Beneath second. In order to obtain this velocity, a each letter is placed the number of motions pile of five couples of Daniell's battery is suffiof the needle by which the letter is express- cieot at each station for each apparatus ; but ed, the needle moving to the left for the first the number of couples required does not inhalf, and to the right for the second half of crease in proportion to ihe length of the the alphabet. In like manner a row of nu- telegraphic circuit which separates the inmerals is placed beneath the lower end of struments. With subterranean wires, M. the needle, those from 1 to 6 on the left hand, Siemens found that for a distance of 50 Gerand from 6 to 9 and 0 on the right hand, man miles, a pile of 25 couples of Daniell's and the number of motions of the lower half battery was sufficient; but this power is used of the needle which correspond to them is only on lines where there are no intermediate placed above them. The letter M, for ex- stations. When there are such stations, inample, is indicated by one click and motion stead of employing a more powerful batof the upper half of the needle to the right, tery, we have only to introduce into the cirand the letter A by two clicks and motions cuit the electricity of the intermediate piles of the needle to the left.
when despatches are to be sent between the The double needle telegraph is merely a extreme stations. M. Siemens, however, has combination of two single ones, which can invented an additional apparatus for working the telegraph at great distances without boat,* yet Mr. Jackson never prosecuted his greatly increasing the strength of the battery. views and turned them to public use; and He has constructed also a very ingenious even if, without any other evidence in his apparatus for printing the despatch by the i favor but his own, we were to admit that he ordinary type upon a ribbon of paper; but did make a useful communication to his felthough it was generally used in Prussia for low-passenger, this would only make the ina considerable time, it has been replaced by vention more clearly an American one, and the more rapid printing process of Morse. would still leave to Professor Morse the high
Having thus given a brief history of the merit of baving realized the idea of another, different proposals that were made during and made it of general use to bis own counthe last hundred years to construct electric try and to Europe. While men high in telegraphs by persons who did not realize office, and even men of science on both sides their schemes, and perhaps were not fitted of the Atlantic, entertained doubts of the to realize them, and described, in a very applicability and practical use of the tele. general manner, the more interesting as well graph, Professor Morse was actively engaged as the more common forms of this noble in pressing the importance of his invention instrument, we shall now endeavor to give a on the attention of Congress, and "though popular and general account of the labors of only half convinced, by his earnestness and those individuals who have the high merit of demonstrations, the federal legislature conhaving introduced the electric telegraph into sented to make the experiment, and with that actual use, either for private or public pur- view appropriated a sum of money for the poses.
construction of a telegraph forty miles in MM, Gauss and Weber of Göttingen, were length between Washington and Baltimore. decidedly the first persons who applied an This may be considered as the parent teleelectric telegraph to purposes of actual graph of the transatlantic world, from which utility. So early as 1833, they had erected
a system has since sprung which, from its a telegraphic wire between the astronomical extent and achievements, is well calculated and magnetical Observatory of Göttingen, to fill both native and foreigner with astonand the Physical Cabinet of the University, ishment.”+ for the purpose of carrying intelligence from Morse and his coadjutors took up the subthe one locality to the other ; but the wireject of the electric telegraph, not as a mere was destroyed on the 16th December, 1833, adjunct of a railway for railway purposes by a flash of lightning which struck it at the chiefly, but as a great national instrument place where it passed the top of the Tower for the rapid conveyance of intelligence, enof St. John. They employed the pheno- tirely independent of the railway system, mena of magnetic induction discovered by and which might have been established if Mr. Faraday; and their signals were made railways had never existed. The American by the different movements and oscillations telegraphs have therefore the peculiar of a magnetic needle observed through a character of not always following the railtelescope. *
way lines, but of pursuing a shorter path The merit of inventing the modern tele- from point to point through a wild, broken, graph and applying it on a grand scale for and uncultivated country through which no public use is, beyond all controversy, due to railway could be carried. Many places Professor Morse of the United States. So have, therefore, been brought into teleearly as the year 1832. in the month of graphic communication with each other beOctober, when on board the packet boat tween which no railway exists, and the Sully, he described his invention to W. Pell, inhabitants of distant and inaccessible locali. the captain of the packet boat, and to Mr. ties, who never can expect the luxury of Rives, the Minister of the United States to railway transport, are provided with all the the French Government. Both these gen- advantages of telegraphic communication. tlemen bear testimony to the fact in the most Owing to the independence of the teledistinct manner ;t and though an unsuccess-graph system of lines of railway, it has ful atienipt has been made to rob the Amer- necessarily made a more rapid progress in ican professor of his just rights, by asserting America ihan in any other part of the world. that á Mr. Jackson had communicated the A large number of independent Companies invention to him on bo.ird the same packet have been established, and new ones are con
* See Göttiogische gelehrte Anzeigen, August 9, 1834. No 128, pp. 1273, 1274, and 1834, No. 36. Idem, tom. viii. p. 345. † Comptes Rendus, &c., tom. vii. p. 593.
+ Mackay's Western World, vol. ii. p. 252.
stantly forming, each surpassing its predecessons who erected a real modern telegraph, sor in the extent and grandeur of its schemes. .we must name M. Steinbill of Munich. The In all the American telegraphs the de- | Bavarian telegraph, as this may be called, is spatches are conveyed by a single conducting an application of the discoveries of Oersted, wire. They all write or print their de Faraday, and Schweigger. In a copper spatches, the telegraph of House in actual wire about eight English miles long, and letters, and those of Morse and Bain in a three-fourths of a line thick, M. Sieinhill cipher,-Morse by indenting short and long produced a voltaic current by the action of a lines upon a paper ribbon, and Bain, as we rotatory magneto electric machine, similar to bave seen, by writing them upon chemical that of Clarke. The conducting wire terpaper. The following was the extent of their minates at different stations in multipliers of lines in 1853 and 1854.
from 400 to 600 coils of very fine and insuEnd of 1853.
lated wire, in the middle of each of which is Morse's lines, 19,963 miles. 36,972
a magnetic needle placed on a vertical axis House's do.
terminated by two points. The deviation of 2,400
3,850 Bain's do.' 2,012
this needle from its primitive position by the 570
electric current affords the means of obtain24,375
ing telegraphic signals. As visible signals,
however, appeared 10 M. Steinhill to be imthe increase in little more than a year being perfect, from their requiring the constant 17,017 miles. The capital employed upon attention of the operator, he placed on the these lines is about a million and a half ster- side of his two magnetic needles two bells ling.
with different sounds, and by changing the A line of enormous magnitude, uniting the direction of the current, he could ring either Pacific and Atlantic oceans, has been proof these bells at pleasure. By means of the jected from Natchez in the State of Missis- deviation of the needle, he gave motion to sippi to San Francisco in California, a dis- two pointed tubes containing a particular tance of 2,400 miles, and a Company is said kind of ink, so that at each stroke upon the to be organized to carry out this scheme bell one of the tubes pressed its point upon with a capital of upwards of a million ster- a ribbon of paper revolving with an uniform ling. When this line is completed, and motion, and made a mark corresponding to Newfoundland joined by a submarine or the needle and bell to which it was attached. transmarine telegraph with the old world, a The marks of each point were, of course, message may be conveyed from Europe to formed in the same line, so that we have the Pacific in less than a day.
two lines of marks upon one ribbon of paper. This great extension of telegraphic com. By combining the sounds and marks to the munication in America arises from the exten- extent of four, M. Steinbill has obtained a sive use which is made of it by all classes of spoken and a written alphabet, comprehendsociety as a method of transmitting and ing all the letters which are necessary to receiving intelligence. The price of a mes
write every word of the German languaye. sage of ten words sent ten miles is about These are exhibited in the following diagram, fivepence, and for greater distances it is and if we conceive each four marks to be about 0035 pence per mile. The mes joined by lines, we shall see how they besages of the government have always the
come more distinct as signals : precedence, those for detecting criminals come next, then death messages, then cases
A B D E F G H CH SCH IK LMNOP of sickness. Important news by the press are next sent. Commercial men use the
RST V W Z telegraph to a great extent, some houses paying even £200 per annum. Parties converse with one another at the distance of The ten numerals are distinguished in a 500 or 700 miles. Sales are effected by it-simil-r manner. This telegraph was estab. absent friends correspond with their families lished in July, 1837, and consequently it -medical consultations pass along the wire, must have been invented, and its invention and in the towus near New York, invitations known, some time before. It commenced at 10 a party, inquiries about health, and even the observatory of M. Steinhill in the Lerjokes, all tremble along the copper line. chenstrass of Munich, where the conducting
As one of the earliest inventors of tele- wire was united to a plate of copper six graphic apparatus, and one of the first per- inches equare, buried in the ground. From
this the wire passed over the houses to the percba to the insulation of the wires, and laid Academy of Sciences, where the second sta- down a telegraphic line to cross the Rhine tion was established. From this it went to at Cologne. the Royal Observatory at Bogenhausen, These steps, however, though very imwhere there was a third station, and where portant, were not be to compared with the the wire terminated in a plate of copper six bold and successful attempt to carry a subinches square buried in the ground.
marine cable from Dover to Calais. In 1850, M. Steinbill, to use his own words, “thinks the Submarine Telegraph Company made the that he has invented the first telegraph in necessary arrangements with the French and the true sense of the word, that is to say, an Belgian Governments, and Messrs. Newall apparatus which speaks a language easily and Co., the celebrated wire-rope makers of comprehended, and which writes what it | Gateshead, were intrusted with the maouspeaks, or rather what we wish it to speak. facture of 24 miles of a wire-cable, to stretch We concur with the inventor that this is the over a distance of 21 miles. * For this purcharacter of his telegraph, and we do not hesi- pose, four copper wires, the sixteenth of an tate to express our admiration of the sagacity inch in diameter, were covered with successand ingenuity which it displays in all its ive coatings of gutta percha. The wires parts. The fact that the earth may be used were then twisted together, and surrounded as one half of the conductor, is a discovery with a mass of spun yarn soaked in grease of vast importance, made, independently we and tar, so as to form a compact rope imperdoubt not, by him, but we owe it to Sir vious to water. In order to give strength to William Watson, who, in 1747, completed this combination, and protect it from external the circuit at great distances by water, and injury, ten galvanized wires are twisted round even by two miles of dry ground. But the rope, so as to form a submarine cable. while we give this well-merited praise to M. This cable was completed in three weeks, but Steinhill, we are not prepared to admit that owing to an accident in Jaying it down, it his was the first real telegraph of the mod suffered a twist or bend, which took it out of ern type.” The claims of Professor Morse the direct line and prevented it from reaching can not be overlooked, either as an inventor to Saugat, south of Calais. It was necessary, of telegraphic apparatus, or an active intro- therefore, to add to it another mile of cable, ducer of his invention as a national improve which being immediately done, though the ment. With all its ingenuity, the Bavarian task was not an easy one, the communication telegraph had undoubled disadvantages, and between Calais and Dover was completed on we are told “ that M. Steinhill bimself bas the 17th October 1851, and since that time, abandoned it in favor of a modification of the Great Britain and the Continent of Europe instrument of Morse.”
have, by this iron larynx, conversed with The first promoters of the Electric Tele- each other on every subject which can intergraph, sanguine as they were of its ultimate est humanity. The expense of the cable was triumph over the prejudices of the railway £9,000, and the station at Dover and Calais, companies, who at first rejected it, and of £6,000. This line of telegraph belongs to the supine governments, who were blind to its Chartered Submarine Telegraph Company. advantages, and never contributed to its ex- By the private enterprise of Messrs Newall tension, they yet never anticipated that its and Company, a still longer submarine cable lines would span wide arms of the sea, and, was stretched across the Irish Channel from by crossing even oceans themselves, would Holyhead to Dublin, or rather to Howth. In girdle the terraqueous globe. The submarine the deep sea portion of it, the gutta percha telegraph was not a corollary of the terres- rope containing one copper wire, was surtrial. It was a new idea, which it required | rounded by ten twisted iron wires, and the genius to suggest, and science to realize. Dr. shore ends of the same rope surrounded by O'Shaughnessy, so early as 1839, succeeded six iron wires. Transported from the works in laying down an insulated conducting wire, at Gateshead on twenty wagons, it was sent attached to a chain-cable in the River Hoogly, by railway to Maryport, where the Britannia which carried the electric current from one carried it to Holyhead. On the 4th of June bank to another. Another step was made in 1852, it was deposited in the Irish Channel, 1847, by M. Siemens, who first applied gutta where the depth of water is 70 fathoms,
* See Comptes Rendus, &c. tom. vii. p. 590-93. An unsuccessful attempt had been made in where he has described his invention.
1850, when the cable broke by the action of the Phil. Trans. 1747, or Priestley's Electricity, waves rubbing it against a ridge of rocks near Calpp.102–109.
ais, at Cape Gris-nez