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swept; and when the first excesses of reac-esting to stand in this Hall at four o'clock in tionary frenzy had spent themselves, it was the afternoon of some important debate ;
; judged a wise act to adopt and legalize, if while statesmen whose names fill the Europe they required legalizing, all the laws passed of to-day pass by into the House of Comby the Parliaments of the Commonwealth mons, and at the same time the thoughts are and the Protectorate, and thus the parlia- carried back to the days when the two mentary history of England regained and houses were assembled io frame the timecarried forward the unbroken sequence of honored laws under which we live-here in its progressive career, till the work begun by this very Hall. It is not less interesting to Stephen Langton and Richard, Earl of Pem- ascend ihe magnificent flight of steps at the broke, in 1215, was consummated by Earl south end of the Hall, and turning to the left, Grey and Lord John Russell, in 1832; the to enter St. Stephen's Chapel. Here then is authors of the Reform Bill proving them the spot consecrated to the genius of free selves worthy descendants of the champions institutions. This is the Chapel which King of Magna Charta. This was the last great Stephen built and dedicated to his patron step ; doubtless there are others yet to come. saint ; which Edward III, endowed; which
To one who on a fine May evening walks Edward VI. allotted as a place of meeting to from Charing-cross through Whitehall and his faithful Commons; where the faithful Parliament street to Westminster, by the Commons have consulted ever since till within Admiralty, the Horse Guards, and the public the last twenty-one years. offices, amid a crowd of cabs and omnibuses, In 1834, when the Houses were burnt a throng of passengers, mitred and coroneted down, this chapel was among the first of the carriages bearing temporal and spiritual peers buildings that fell in. But the place had beto their places in Parliament, while busy come consecrated with a higher unction than members for Manchester or the West Riding that bestowed upon it by Stephen's priests ; push along the pavement to a similar desti- and although the walls and roof were bopenation, it is difficult to recall the time when lessly gone, the site was preserved with jealfrom this now bustling metropolitan street, ous care : walls of the same height, a roof London was nearly two miles distant; when of the same pitch—were again erected ; and there was but a rough road leading through a chamber new yet old, the exact verisimilithe meadows by the river towards Thorney tude in length and breadth and height, occuIsland, amidst the thickets of which the tow- pies the very same space, and we may say, ers of Westminster Abbey rose in solitary in all but the identity of the bricks and morsmokeless magnificence ; while beneath their tar, is the very same room as that in which protecting shadow, within the shelter of their Elizabeth's Commons joined heart and band sanctuary, lay the humbler buildings where together to support their royal mistress in the king held his court, where his great coun- repelling the assault of Spain ; where Hampcil, the Parliament, tendered him their peti- den protested against the illegal payment of tions, and his officers administered justice. ship-money; where Falkland lamented bis Thorney Island is drained, solitude has de country's wrongs, and repudiated his party's parted, smoke has come, but the theory of crimes'; where Walpole for so many years the English constitution remains the same. resisted all the efforts of the ablest and most Her Majesty may indeed reside at Bucking- factious opposition ever perhaps combined ham Palace, but the royal presence is still against a single minister; where Pitt, the regarded as the centre of authority present great Commoner, hurled that thunder which in the new palace of Westminster; there the shook with fear the hearts not only of parliaQueen's judges still sit and administer justice mentary opponents but of the foreign enein the royal name; there the Sovereign still mies of England; where Burke declaimed repairs to sanction the acts, sometimes to re- in a higher than parliamentary wisdom to an ceive the humble petitions and advice of her inferior and inattentive audience ; or de. assembled Parliament.
nounced Warren Hastings with a ferocity of In happy fulfilment of this just idea, West- invective that made the great Governor of minster Hall was made the vestibule of the India quail before his own conscience and bis new houses of Parliament. Whatever may unsparing persecutor; where Sheridan spoke be said of the building as a whole, none can on the same Eastern question with such overimpugn the happy thought which suggested whelming eloquence, that the House, disthe present use to which the Hall is applied, trusting its own power of judgment under or the admirable skill with which the thought the influence of so potent a spell, deliberately has been put in execution. It is truly inter- I adjourned its decision to a calmer hour;
where Pitt the younger and Charles James tion of domestic or foreign executive policy, Fox opposed each other with a rivalry not to his first impression is that the debate is be quelled till the time when they should strangely irrelevant, that old forms are very both sleep together in the adjoining abbey; much abused; but being better advised, he where Canning wasted bis splendid talents in recollects that this is one of England's best defending a policy which he did not approve, privileges, this right to redress grievances.
, and vindicating a party with which he could in more modern phrase, to obtain informanot sympathize ; where Wilberforce and Fow. tion from Government before granting sup. ell Buxton delivered their testimony against ply. He sees a mild gentlemanly man in a crimes which England has since acknowl- grotesque costume, armed with a sword like edged, repented of, and repaired; where a lath, but he does not smile, at least not in Peel commenced that career, the end of contempt, for the very name of Serjeant-atwhich has so endeared his name to the grate Arms is suggestive of the hardly-won and ful recollections of his countrymen; where rigidly maintained privileges of the Comlastly the great battle of the Reform Bill was mons; of struggles with the court on behalf fought and lost, and fought again and won. of liberty ; of commitments to the Tower;
It was well to preserve a chamber rich in in a word, of the material force which is at such associations, and though no longer itself hand to enforce the rights of the people's the Commons House, it serves as an appro- representatives. He sees lords and honorapriate entrance corridor, adorned by the stat- bles upon the benches below, and he hails it ues of Hampden, Clarendon, Falkland, and as a consequence and memorial of that fusion Walpole, destined to receive hereafter the of ranks by which the son of a peer
becomes effigies of other of the great worthies whose a commoner, and all ranks are bound together names are written in the book of English his by a common interest. A message is brought tory, whose works have followed them in the down from the House of Lords, the respectroll of English liberties.
ful salutations made by the bearer of it to Passing through a door at the end of this the Speaker provoke him not to ridicule, but famous chapel, the parliamentary student who to a comparison of the time when both seeks to understand the old by the new finds Houses sai together, and the voice of the bimself in the central ball, from wbich cor- Commons was utterly lost in that of their acridors lead to the House of Lords on the knowledged superiors-the Lords. Scarcely right hand and the House of Commons on a quarter of an hour passes but his attention the left. Taking the latter direction, he is arrested by some minute form, often troupasses through one more door and enters the blesome, often tedious, often grotesque, but lobby. Here truly all is modern. It is im- never omitted ; and in its patient performpossible to associate the post-office, the ance he acknowledges a profound wisdom, electric telegraph office, the illuminated clock, for he knows that easy as it is to laugh and or even the surpassing insolence of the be witty at the expense of ancient forms, white-beaded door-keeper, with the digni- these are notwithstanding the only limits by fied simplicity of our remote ancestors. But which popular discussion can be controlled, let him pass on into the gallery of the House the only conditions under which a popular itself, and there he may con his historical assembly has ever greatly flourished. He is lessons with full profit. The arrangement of aware that some of the greatest politicians* the House, the Speaker in the chair, the of continental Europe delight to dwell upon clerks at the table, remind him immediately these forms with all the energy of half-enof quaint old woodcuts which he has seen in vious admiration; politicians who have learnt magazines, representing the Parliament of by experience how hard, how impossible, it centuries ago; the mace lies upon the table; is to manage, or to create, popular assemhe remembers Oliver, and “Take away that blies without the safeguard of time-hallowed bauble.” He hears the words, “ That this and deeply significant, though to a superticial bill be now read a third time;" he recognizes observer unmeaning, forms; in a word, in the the wise jealousy of hasty legislation which jealousy of ancient form, which hedges in bas interposed so many stages between an and regulates but does not cramp a debate act introduced and an act passed ; be bears upon a modern Reform Bill, the educated or further the question put by the Speaker, thoughtful observer perceives that careful “That I now leave the chair,” as prepara- clinging to the golden mean between permatory to going into committee of supply; and when upon this question a discussion arises
• Such as Professor Dahlmann, of Bonn Univernot on matters of supply, but on some ques- I eity.
nence and progress, that attachment to his- | bound up together; so may they continue ! torical development, that readiness for re- The Palace of Westminster itself, standing form, that abhorrence of revolution, which as it does in close neighborhood to the Abbey has constituted the strength and greatness of Edward the Confessor, furnishes us with of England.
a symbol of conservative progress. The This is the moral which St. Stephen's Tower of Queen Victoria looks down upon Chapel teaches : the Old and the New are the Hall of William Rufus.
We present, with this number, a portrait | brance of those who admire honest feeling of the poetess and journalist, Eliza Cook, and strong good sense. whose position in the world of letters is both Miss Cook bas also figured largely, and honorable and well defined. First introduced with credit, as a journalist. She founded, to public notice by her poetry, she acquired and for many years conducted, a weekly peà name which will be associated with those riodical, Eliza Cook's Journal, which for of Hood, Mackay and Elliott, more conspic- variety, piquancy, and benevolent aim, hardly uous for vigor and earnestness than for had a superior. It was, however, not appre. beauty. Her poems are remarkable for their ciated; after a noble struggle, it fell; and life, and flowing and facile versification, and since that time, the accomplished editor has for the strong good sense with wbich they not been much before the public. Her feaabound. Though sometimes delicate and tures disclose a masculine character, which tender, her muse more frequently delights her writings do not belie. Strength rather in the sensible, the sarcastic or the humor- than beauty is her characteristic quality. On ous; much preferring to hit a foible than to i retiring she was afflicted with painful disdisclose a beauty-to knock down a vice With the removal of that, it is to be than to embellish a virtue. Some of her hoped that her vigorous pen will resume its poems are peculiarly memorable in their way, activity. and will not soon be got out of the remem
LORD PETER ROBERTSON.-Lord Peter the effect that the latter, after perpetrating Robertson, whose death is announced in the the enormous folly of writing and publishing London papers, was one of the few intimate -in his old age-two successive volumes of friends whom the late Mr. Lockhart, of the verse, happened to visit London and to dine Quarterly, had in Scotland. They had known with the editor of the Quarterly, to whom each other when both were young and brief- the second volume was dedicated. The huless barristers, and the proud and sensitive morist had become unus
usually sentimental, Lockhart, who wished, it was said, after the and begged that, after his death, bis host death of his great father-in-law, Sir Walter should honor him-not with a biography, Scott, to drop all acquaintance with Scotland, but with an epitaph. Lockhart extemporized Abbotsford, and Scottish companions, pre- the following felicitous couplet : served and cultivated the friendship of the Here lies the Christian, Judge and Poet Peter, jovial Patrick. There is a story current to
Who broke the laws of God and man--and metre. From the New Monthly Magazine.
SOME OF THE INCONVENIENCES OF PAYING ONE'S DEBTS.
This is a serious business.
All's Well that Ends Well.
It is much to be regretted that virtue | a man should remain unmarried—it was a should have its penalties as well as its pleas- shame! Depend upon it there must be ures. I have myself been a martyr to one of something wrong." Fortunately there was its lowest forms: a martyr without any of no tangible spot upon my character; but the the honors of martyrdom. Paul Pry's ex- usual machinery of we would an' if we clamation that “he would never do a good could,” and “such ambiguous givings out" Datured thing again as long as he lived," were put into requisition; and although was an expressive phrase of unrequited kind- nothing was said, it was taken for granted ness; but mine were not even acts of good that a great deal might have been said, “or nature.
Mr. Blank would not have looked so serious, As long as I moved ambiguously upon the or have avoided the subject so pointedly as surface of society I was comparatively happy. he had done." I had formed an innumerable It was only when I had taken a good house speaking acquaintance at clubs, and libraries, and adopted the habit of regularly paying and public places; and one of the great my debts, that I began to be miserable. pleasures of my morning walk was to have a
In no other way could I have been reputed talk with them all ; but now I was either wealthy. No one knew my income. Secre-coldly bowed to, or passed without notice. I tiveness was one of my largest phrenological was also designated as a shabby fellow, who developments, and my affairs had always had the means but not the inclination to be been studiously kept to myself. It was hospitable; and this was assumed merely solely, therefore, because I was in the habit because I had adopted the practice of payof paying my debts that I brought upon ing my debts. myself all the penalties of reputed wealth. The next evil consequence was, that I be.
The “world” argued that any one might came the prey of every designing philanthrotake a good house ; but that to live in it, and pist. If I attended a religious or charitable continue to pay one's debts, was proof that gathering, to amuse myself by listening to there must be what is called a handsome some celebrated speaker, I was sure to be property:
waited upon the next morning by one of the Of this one of the first painful conse- gentlemen who had done " the heavy busiquences was an universal desire to make ness” of the previous day-usually a clerical my acquaintance. I became suddenly appre- young man in black, with a long neck careciated :
fully done up in hot-pressed white-who,
referring to our very interesting meeting," Others could see, although myself could not,
had called for the favor of a donation or I was indeed " a marvellous proper man.”
subscription." Every Mrs. Jellaby who had But all this was incompatible with my habits. concocted a pet scheme of piety or charity, I preferred making my own selection ; and after inflicting upon me the reading of a long dire was the offence. Mothers had sought prospectus and correspondence,“ had no me for their daughters' sakes. In vain I doubt she should have my countenance and honorably refused attentions for which I support.” The common places to which I could not make the expected return. In vain was doomed to listen, while they were read I assured them that I was really not a mar- to me with all the aggravations of exagger. rying man. Every one whose overture was ated emphasis, would of themselves have been rejected became an enemy. "That so wealthy a grievous affliction. “It is our duty to do
all in our power to promote the welfare of | fessor had made his expenditure harmonize others ;"—and then the reader would fix a so badly with his means as to have incurred pair of fiery gray eyes upon me, and wait the threats of his creditors, he hoped I would for my assent to this obvious truism. But lend him fifty pounds. If an actor had bethe attempt was not only upon my patience, come “the unhappy victim of unforeseen but my money,
Excellent in themselves, circumstances,” he threw himself upon what but endless in their number-Baths, Wash- he was pleased to term “my well-known houses, Ragged Schools, Mendicity Societies, kindness and generosity.” If a shopkeeper Hospitals, Female Refuges, Reformatory had eaten up his capital in the shape of hot Establishments, Sailors' Homes, Protestant suppers and champagne, he trusted that I Alliances, Irish Missions, Home Missions, the would not refuse to assist him with a small Conversion of the Jews, and a long et cætera sum to meet his Christmas engagements, -all had their claims upon one who was ac- which I might depend upon his repaying in counted wealthy, merely because he was in three months : and in less than one he was the habit of paying bis debts.
in the Gazette. If some fellow, through ill. The only thing to which I contributed with usage or neglect, had lost his horse or cow, unmixed satisfaction was the poor box of a he seemed to think it nothing more than rea. police office ; for in that case I saw nothing sonable that I should give him the means of of the recipients, and had not been asked to replacing it. If a bankrupt porter dealer had give.
obtained the situation of tax collector, I was What I had done, or what it was hoped I asked to be his security for five hundred would do, led on to another infliction. My pounds; and in six months he had absconded. committee and board meetings were so nu
Useless wives who (muddling away their merous that I was induced to take into my husbands' gaios) service, as amanuensis, an ingenuous and sharp-witted juvunile delinquent, whose prin
Spent little-yet had nothing left cipal employment was to keep a record of my engagements and appointments. How that daughters, as they assured me, of parents ended it would be premature to say.
who bad been in affluent circumstances ; My servants complained that their time the idle, the helpless, and the profligate, all was wholly occupied in admitting applicants found their way to the wretched being whose for my name—which they assured me would be of special service--as a subscriber to En purse was believed to be the poor man's
California, merely because he had been in the cyclopædias, Dictionaries, Gazetteers, Illus
, trated Scenery, Tables chronological, histori- habit of paying his debts.
, cal, biographical, or genealogical: Cathedral Antiquities, Lodge's Portraits, Casts from
Shut, shut the door, good John ! Shakspeare's Monument or the Elgin Marbles, and every form, in short, in which the was unavailing. It did not succeed even ingenious make war upon the wealthy. The when Pope himself was the appellant. agents
wine-merchant upon the Con- Life became intolerable ; and I could see tinent waited upon me for orders. When- no remedy for its evils but to break up my ever any real property, or an eligible invest-establishment, and fly for refuge to the Con. ment was offered for sale, I was specially in- tinent. vited to be present ; and estates were strongly Furniture, wine, horses, pictures, articles recommended to me which would have been of “bigotry and virtue,” were all brought to cheaply purchased at fifty thousand pounds. the hammer, with an effect that was instan. I felt that I was occupying a false position ; | taneous. The opinion of the "world” was but it was no fault of mine. I had never changed as by the pantomimic wand of a pretended to be wealthy. I had merely been magician. It now held that I could never in the habit of paying my debts.
have had “much of an income,” and must The whole world seemed to have conspired have been living upon my principal; but it against my peace. The exhibitors of circuses, admitted that, at any rate, I had been in the plays, panoramas, dwarfs, wonders, objects habit of paying my debts. of art, and assaults of arms, all came for my Of this, the last and most grievous consepatronage and my money. If a musical pro- quence was a long and unwished-for exile.