nund, who hated him in his heart, at his , suffered in consequence, and during his latter death appointed him regent of his kingdom." years he endured much from changes of the

A parallel between Ximenes and Riche atmosphere and inclement weather. He lieu was written by the Abbè Richard slept litile, eat less, and listened more than in 1705, which Prescott has quoted and he talked. He cared not for general conreferred to. The points of resemblance versation, and was seldom roused to particiare somewhat forced, and the balance inclines pate eagerly, unless when the topic happened heavily in favor of the Spaniard. A marked io be some leading question of theology. His distinction attended the circumstances of style was short, clear, and straight to the their deaths. Richelieu was so universally point. If a tedious visitor wearied him, he execrated, that a popular tumult accom- took


a book as a signal that it was time panied his funeral, and his remains were in for the intruder to go. When he spoke, bis danger of being torn from the grave and voice was clear, though somewhat harsh, and scattered in the elements. Ximenes was the accents came slowly from his lips. His carried to the sepulchre amidst universal carriage was erect, his forehead unwrinkled, tears and lamentations. But in one point bis stature tall, his features sharp and thin, there was a striking similarity between them. his eyes small, dark, and deep set, and the Both were true members of the church mili- general expression of his countenance, repultant, and braved the dangers of war with the sive and severe. His cranium was examined alacrity of practised soldiers. Richelieu forty years after his death, and found to be fought at Rochelle in the panopoly of a man totally without sutures. That of Richelieu, at arms, and Ximenes headed his troops on the contrary, was ascertained to be peragainst the infidels of Oran. His biographer forated with small holes. The Abbè Richard Gomez de Castro says, that he once declared reasons on this after a manner which may himself that “the smell of gunpowder was amuse comparative anaiomists, physiologists, more grateful to his senses than the sweetest and surgeons.


says, “On opening the perfume of Arabia." His military propensi- head of Richelieu, twelve small circular holes ties may have influenced his decisive and were discovered, through which the vapors of arbitrary legislation.

his brain exhaled, and for this cause he never Most readers like to know something of had a pain in his head; on the other hand, the the personal appearance and habits of any skull of Ximenes was without seam or openremarkable individual who has excited their ing, which accounts for the headaches with curiosity or interest. No one will figure which he was almost incessantly afflicted.” Ximenes to their mind's eye as other than We may safely conclude that Richelieu gaunt, graceless, and unprepossessing: Long was the most accomplished and agreeable of before he attained middle life, the penitential the two great cardinal-ministers; Ximenes severities to which he had accustomed bim- the safest and most honest. Both were to self reduced his frame to the attenuated be feared, but one only could be trusted. In appearance of an anatomie vivante. Conti- the former, we are called on to admire transnence and abstemiousness, while it rendered cendent ability ; in the latter, we bow with him outwardly rugged and repulsive, strength more respect before the same exalted genius, Seped his constitution, and gave vigor to the because we find it linked with far superior seeds of life. Yet he carried his personal integrity of purpose, and a much higher deprivations to such an extent that his health | gree of constitutional virtue.

From the Biographical Magazine.



The legal profession, in its largest scope other, Sir Richard Crofts, was accoucheur to and meaning, has two great divisions, or its the Princess Charlotte, in 1817. The death followers are divided into two great classes, of the Princess was charged by the public on who are again divided and subdivided into her attendants. Many estimable qualities many sections. The barrister, moreover, had endeared her character to those who bad knowledges the attorney as a lawyer; and looked to her, as their future Queen, for rethe latter, on his part, seldom aspired to the dress from such evils as a Sovereign can redistinction, until recently. The study of law, form. They blamed the medical gentlemen in either walk, is a dry and parched road to without, probably, any adequate cause ; for fame and wealth ; long, tedious, and weary. they had every inducement to care and vigiThese characteristics are greatly increased in lance. It is certain that Sir Richard Crofts the bigher branch. The young barrister has soon afterwards committed suicide. no ready means of distinguishing himself. Dr. Denman's father held a farm at Sto. Co aparatively few barristers live by their ney-Middleton, in the vicinity of Bakewell. profession. To many it is a refuge from idle. His son retained the farm, and improved the ness, which they never expect to fertilize. farm-house. Thomas Denman bad a similar To many others it is a snare, wherein their attachment to the paternal acres. He still life is caught.

further enlarged and improved the premises The technicalities of legal studies do not into a residence of great beauty. This farm expand the mind. Philosophers, politicians, has enjoyed extraordinary distinction, being or literary men are generally unsuccessful the favorite retreat of the farmer's son—the lawyers. Bacon and Brougham stand out as Court physician of his time, and of his exceptions to the rule. The late Judge Tal- grandson—the Lord Chief Justice of Engfourd was another exception. Scoit and land. Wilson were indifferent lawyers. Eren Jef- Thomas Denman studied at Eton, and subfrey, although an admirable judge, was only, sequently at St. John's College, Cambridg. in other respects, conspicuous as a critic. His younger years were not more distinThe host of lawyers connected with literature guished by any other occurrence than his are not often associated with the courts. early marriage, in 1804, in his twenty-fifth The late Lord Denman, who has occupied a year, to Miss Vevers, a lady who, as the high position in legal circles for nearly all the daughter of a clergyman, probably possessed years of the current century, can scarcely be a small fortune and many virtues. Lady considered one of the exceptions to the com- Denman died in 1852, when eleven of their mon rule, that a great lawyer is rarely con- children were still alive, and four were dead. versant with other sciences. He was born Mr. Denman was called to the bar by the in 1779; and when he died, on the 22d Society of Lincoln's Inn, in 1806: and beSeptember last, was in his seventy-sixth year. came, at an early period of his career, con

Thomas Denman was the only son of Dr. nected with the Whig party ; but he geberThomas Denman, who attained a large medially anticipated their political views by sev. cal practise in the west-end of London, and eral stages. His professional assistance was was one of the Court physicians in the reign frequently sought upon political trials, and of George III. Dr. Denman was also dis- in defending actions for libel. He was entinguished as a medical author; and having gaged for many years in all cases of importacquired a considerable fortune, he enabled ance affecting the freedom of the press, wbich his son to pursue his legal studies without he endeavored to shield. This description of any of those embarrassments that frequently practice was not, in itself, lucrative; while, beset the road to eminence. Dr. Denman in the state of political feeling then too prevhad two daughters, who both married medi- | alent, it was calculated to injure his profescal gentlemen. One of whom, Dr. Baillie, sional prospects. was celebrated as an anatomist; and the In 1817 be defended the Derbyshire “rebels ;" a body of enthusiastic working-men, | British statesmen were unstained by the drawn into overt acts of treason, by the per- blood shed in these times; but undoubtedly suasion of others, who betrayed them. The both in England and Scotland their subordicomplicity of Lord Sidmouth and the Gov- nates were guilty. And it may be recorded, ernment in these dark transactions was very as a curious fact, that men confessedly comgenerally believed, not only in 1817, but at plicated as spies in 1817 and 1818, have à much more recent period. Oliver, who since held responsible positions in the metrowas charged with the concoction of the riots, politan press, until within a recent period. was undoubtedly in correspondence with The courage, determination, and eloquence Lord Sidmouth. The publication of that of the young barrister could not avert the statesman's life and correspondence by Dr. doom of the Derbyshire rioters. Three were Pellew, Dean of Norwich, in 1847, fixed the executed, eleven transported for life, four for one fact that Oliver was sent down to the fourteen years, and five were imprisoned for midland counties, during the political excite different periods. ment of 1817, to collect information respect- The country was alarmed with assertions ing the designs of the Radicals. This corres- respecting conspiracies. The Government pondence also shows that Lord Sidmouth employed detectives" or "preventives” in instructed Oliver, if possible, to prevent con- their political business, who, transgressing spiracies and secret meetings. The policy their instructions, incited men to crimes which did not suit the temperament and views of they were employed to crush. This is the the detective, who desired the acquisition of mildest statement of the case for the Governimportance with his influential employers. ment, and it is aggravated by their resistance Mr. Bamford's “Life of a Radical” rather of all efforts to execute justice on their serestablishes the opinion that Lord Sidmouth vants. The Cato-street conspiracy in 1820 was cheated by his emissary, and his instruc- was the most atrocious of these plots. It tions overdone. Bamford published his book followed rapidly after the excitement consewhen he had nothing to fear from relating quent upon the “ Manchester massacre" on the truth; and his statements acquire more the 9th August, 1819 ; but the events had weight on that account than any publication not the slightest connection. Thistlewood of the period. Mr. Denman's defence of the was the chief organizer of the Cato-street rioters was remarkable for eloquence, al- conspiracy, but he was actively assisted by though they were found guilty. Against Edwards. They arranged the assassination some of them the evidence was fatally dis- of thirteen or fourteen Cabinet Ministers, who tinct. Brandıeth, their captain, in the ad- were to dine at Lord Harrowby's on Saturvance of one hundred upon Nottingham, was day, 19th February, 1820. Edwards who apparently insane. He certainly shot one had helped to plan this horrible crime, warnfarm-servant, because arms were refused to ed Lord Harrowby. His guests were told to him, at a farm-house inhabited by a widow meet at Lord Liverpool's

. The police atand her family. Brandreth was a stocking tacked the loft in Cato-street, where the conframe-worker. He had been often “ pinched spirators had assembled; one of the policeby poverty,” and members of his family had men was killed, and Thistlewood escaped, received parochial relief. He was an enthu- but he was apprehended in Moorfields next siast, maddened by want, and the secret morning; and executed with four others, counsels of a cool, intellectual man, like Oli implicated in the proceeding, on the 1st of rer, must have wrought up the mind of a May. Five persons concerned in the busisufferer in the position of Brandreth to tem- ness were banished for life. The Ministry porary insanity. Mr. Denman contrasted resisted a motion, in the House of Commons, him with Byron's “Corsair,” declaring that on the 9th May, by Alderman Wood, for the he had attained complete mastery over his production of papers, in the case of Edwards; followers by the influence of great courage, and his punishment. This man lived in affluof uncommon decision, of unrelenting firm- ence, although he was ultimately obliged to ness; the influence of an eye like no eye he leave London. The protection afforded to ever beheld before; of a countenance and him by the Ministerial party actually invested figure formed for activity, enterprise, and Thistlewood and his companions, in public command. “Nevertheless," Mr. Denman estimation with the characteristics of marinsisted that “he was most clearly an instru- tyred men ; which they did not deserve. ment wielded by other hands.” No doubt Thistlewood was the son of a Lincolnshire can now be entertained of that historical fact. farmer. He was an educated man; and the We would gladly believe that the hands of l lines addressed to his wife, from his prison, on the day previous to his execution, evinced | union between the husband and wife. George feeling and genius. He had squandered a IV. charged his queen with infidelity during considerable fortune before he became a con- her residence in Italy. The King endeavored spirator. Remote journals published their to bargain with bis Ministry for a divorce letters, poetry and speeches of the plotters. bill. They at first refused the terms; but The policy pursued by the Ministry was ex- they consented to omit the Queen's name ecrable. No man protested against it more from the Liturgy, and enjoined that it should courageously and firmly than Thomas Den be excluded from public prayers. The clergy man, although he thus became deeply mark- very generally, both in England and Scoted; and he was sensible of all the scores land, obeyed their instructions; but excepagainst him in the opinion of the Cabinet. tions were found in many places. An old

Mr. Denman was returned to Parliament, Scotch minister was blamed by his brethren for the borough of Wareham, in the vear for including the Queen's name in his public 1818, through the influence of Mr. Calcraft, prayers. He replied, that if she were guilty, a well-known Whig or Radical. His Parlia his prayers were much needed, and if she mentary career was alike distinguished and were innocent, she could be made no worse judicious. He seldom addressed the Com- for them. Mr. Denman, in one of his numer. mons, except on legal questions, and he vigious speeches on this subject, said, that if the lantly watched all the measures calculated

ated Queen had a place in the Prayer-book at all, to abridge the liberty of the subject, intro. it was in the prayer for "all that are desoduced under Lord Liverpool's Government late and afflicted.” When this omission was hy by Lords Castlereagh and Sidmouth. He promulgated, the Queen hastened from Italy invariably opposed the coercion of opinion, io England, having first written to Lord Livand vindicated zealously the rights of con- erpool, with the request that her name should science. Through all the debates and dis- be inserted and her title recognized. She cussions that preceded the reforming era from landed at Dover on the 6th June, 1820. 1829 to 1834, Mr. Denman bore a conspicu- Upon the same day the King, by a message ous part in advocating the extension of free to the House of Peers, recommended their dom, or resisting infringement on rights al lordships to inquire into the conduct of his ready secured ; yet, generally, confining his wife. Her journey to London was a triumarguments to the legal bearings of the point phal progress; and in London her public reviewed. A brilliant exception runs like a reception resembled that which might have golden thread through silver work, in all his been accorded to a great national benefactor. long life. He was the ceaseless opponent of Two commissioners, Messrs. Brougham and slavery ; the earnest advocate of negro free- Denman for the Queen--and the Duke of dom, not on legal grounds, for the question Wellington and Lord Castlereagh for the was out of their range; but on the broad King, endeavored to arrange their differprinciples of moral right. Like Lord Brough- ences. They failed, and on the 9th June the am he opposed the recent policy of the Whigs failure was announced. The three subsein equalizing the duties on slave and free quent months were periods of great popular grown produce of the tropics. He supported excitement. The people adopted the Queen's the blockading system of Africa against all cause; and ber overwrought advocates sharthe opponents of that plan; and he had the ed her popularity. The legal skill, the cool proud satisfaction in finding a practical and bearing, the eloquence, and the astute powsuccessful exponent of his views, in his son, ers brought by Mr. Denman to the crossCaptain Denman, who was long engaged in examination of the witnesses arrayed against suppressing the slave-trade on the African her, established his professional character coast.

upon a very wide basis ; wbile it barred the The unhappy history of Queen Caroline is way to any advancement that his opponents connected with the life of Mr. Denman; for could withhold. Both Mr. Brougham and when, in 1820, she claimed to be considered Mr. Denman acied with courage and disinQueen of Great Britain, and the Ministry interestedness. They incurred the personal troduced a bill of divorce, Mr. Brougham enmity of the reigning sovereign and his accepted the position of Attorney-General to probable successors ; for this was a family the Queen, and Mr. Denman became her quarrel, in which the Dukes of York and Solictor-General. The Queen had been long Clarence joined. The arguments, examinaseparated from her husband and her daugh- tions, pleadings, and replies did not close ter. The death of the latter, the Princess until the 2d of November. Upon the 6th, Charlotte, had dissolved the last bond of I the second reading of the bill of pains and

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penalties was carried by a majority of 28 in existed than that attained by Mr. Denman. a house of 218 Peers. Upon the 10th, the He was an able pleader and a sound lawyer, third reading was carried by a majority of but he devoted more time to political consulonly 9. Lord Liverpool immediately stated tations than appears from Hansard ; he stood that the Governmeni could not proceed with higher with the attorneys in political law the bill, "considering the state of public than in branches of a more profitable characfeeling, and the division of sentiment just ter; and he had earned the repute of exevinced by their lordships.

treme conscientiousness--not always the most The issue was received with general re- eligible recommendation for a lawyer. joicing in all parts of the country. Ad- În the events of the next eight years Mr. dresses were transmitted to the Queen from Denman interposed no farther than any very many towns. Mr. Denman, on the 23d dependent member of Parliament, or political of November, began in the Commons to read and public man. The lapse of Lord Livera message from her Majesty. He was inter- pool's Government; the brilliant but short rupted by the summons from the Peers to Ministry of Canning; his death ; the career the Commons to hear another Royal message of Lord Goderich; the battle of Navarino ; for the prorogation of Parliament. The and the accession of the Wellington AdminisQueen, by her solicitor, mentioned that offers tration, passed over without affecting his poof money had been made to her, upon condi- sition. The repeal of “The Tests and Cortion of her selecting a foreign residence, poration Act," and "The Roman Catholic which she rejected, and sought some provi- Emancipation Bill” received cordial support sion from Parliament. The Commons sub- from him, in his po-ition, although he opsequently voted an annuity of 50,000l. ; but posed the general policy of their authors. it was not long enjoyed, Death passed the Roman Catholic emancipation brought no bill which Parliament resused. Upon the repose to Ireland; and the events of 1830, 7th of August, 1821, the King was a widow- in France, produced a deep sensation in all er, childless and friendless; and his subse political circles. They followed rapidly aster quent life, like much of the past, was miser- the death of George IV., who expired on able. The Queen died in her fifty.third year. June 26, 1830, in his sixty-eighth year; a Two men were killed by shots in the riots prince unhappy and unloved, in the midst of that attended her funeral procession. The brilliant triumphs; and who, even while on people decided that the procession should the įhrone, might have been truly termed an pass through the city. The soldiers were unfortunate man. ordered to oppose this arrangement. Thus When a new Parliament was chosen and the shots were fired, but the people attained had assembled, under a new King, the Wel. their object. The body was conveyed from lington Administration were defeated, partly Harwich by sea to Stade, and Queen Caro- in consequence of the stubborn opposition of line was buried in her family's vault at their leader to all reform. Earl Grey formBrunswick.

ed a Cabinet, in which Mr. Brougham was The enmity of the Court did not terminate Lord Chancellor, and Mr. Denman, Attorneywith the existence of the Queen. The path General. The events of 1820 were forgotof preferments was apparently closed against ten, in the interval of ten years, by William, her solicitor, who, although gifted with solid or his resentment survived not the original talent, neither possessed the aptitude for agi- causes. The new Monarch had also personal tation nor the versatility of his colleague Mr. grievances against the late Premier, and probBrougham. The corporation of London was ably did not regret the overthrow of his Go. one of the most popular bodies at that time, vernment. As Mr. Brougham obtained a and, in 1822, they appointed him Common peerage, no reasonable objection could be Sergeant of the City. As political matters made to conferring the usual knighthood on gradually matured towards a decisive change, the Attorney-General, who was thenceforMr. Denman continued to give an efficient ward Sir Thomas Denman. In his official and warm support to the Liberal party ; capacity a large portion of the actual busipreceding its leaders on nearly all popular ness of the Reform Bill devolved on the Atquestions. At the Bar he enjoyed an exten. torney-General. Not only in those discussive, and apparently a lucrative, practise ; sions patent to the world, but in consultawhich, however, never reached those mag. I tions necessary in devising its clauses, he nificent receipts attained by a few of bis labored more incessantly than other statespredecessors. Even

bis contempora- men whose names have been more frequently ries, “ better practises,” measured by fees, and fully associated with the bills. The


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