cared for, the lowest term secured by the most , topic, the originality with which the work is niggardly arrangement being twenty-five years, conceived and executed, the vast variety of whereas in England it is the munificent number facts, anecdotes, and letters, which are now of seven. Yet the most laborious works, and often the most delightful, are for the most part of a kind produced for the first time, the new and which the hereafter only can repay... No

more truthful light in which the old materials consideration of moral right exists, no principle of are disposed, the introduction into the picture economical science can be stated, which would of Burke, Johnson, Garrick, and other celejustify the seizure of such books by the public be brated members of the Goldsmith group, fore they have had the chance of remunerating the render these Memoirs as fresh and novel as genius and labor of their producers.

though Mr. Forster had been the first bio

grapher of the poet, instead of the last. The volumes of Mr. Forster afford many Much, indeed, of what had been previously touching proofs of the truth of his positions, done consisted of a loose collection of stories and contain, indeed, the most complete and about the man, but here we have depicted affecting representation with which we are the man himself as he moved along his path, acquainted of the bitter struggles and reverses and at every turn of the story, which is unof men of genius in all the walks of life. No folded with the vivacity and regularity of an author in this productive and charming de actual drama, he stands before us in the vividpartment of literature has ever exhibited so ness of reality, with all the changes which wide a range of knowledge and sympathy, had been wrought in him by each previous and, though his hero had become a hackneyed stage of bis journey. This is real Biography.

From the Biographical Magazine,


There is often an epoch in the life of a movements of the Generals Clauvel, D’Arlanman when every incident in his career is in- ges, and Letang, in the province of Oran. The vested with a novel and extensive interest, capture of Tlemcen, the expeditions to Chewhen the present reflects a lustre on the liff and Mina, the revictualling of Tlemcen, past, and recollection gives confidence to the battles of Sidi, Yacoub, Tafna, and Sikhope. So is it now with the commander of kak, revealed his brilliant military qualities, the French army in the Crimea.

and gained him the rank of captain, on the FRANCIS CANROBERT was born in 1809, in 26th of April, 1837. In the course of the the department of Lot, some leagues from year be proceeded to the province of the village where Murat first saw the light. Constantine, where the Duc de Nemours He entered the school of St. Cyr in the and General Damremont preparmonth of November, 1826, and obtained the ing to take revenge for an insult. He rehighest honors in that establishment after pass-ceived a ball in the leg at the storming of the ing two years in laborious study. On the first He was at the moment by the side of October, 1828, he was appointed to the of Colonel Combes, an old soldier of the Isle sub-lieutenancy of the 47th regiment of the of Elba, under whom he was acting as orderline, and was made lieutenant on the 20th of ly officer, and who was mortally wounded Jane, 1832. In 1835 he embarked for while mounting the breach. Before Colonel Africa, and arrived in the province of Oran, Combes expired he recommended the young where the emir, Abd-el-Kader, had held the captain to Marshal Valeé as an officer of full French troops for some time in check. Soon promise. after bis arrival he accompanied the expedi- Captain Canrobert returned to France in tion to Muscara, where he first distinguished 1839 with the decoration of the Legion of himself. He followed with his regiment the Honor, and was entrusted with the duty of organizing, for the foreign legion, a battalion ceeded Colonel Claparede in the command. out of the foreign bands which had been Eight months of continual warfare ended in driven over the frontier by Culreia into the the pacification of the country, and the French territory. Through the persevering | superior officer, to whom the result was due, activity of the organizer, these remnants of obtained the rank of Colonel on the very the civil war were quickly brought into a field of his exploits. condition to be associated in the labors of the After having commanded the 2d regiment troops in Algeria.



of the line, he was transferred to the 2d forIn 1840 he was on duty at the camp of eign regiment, on the 31st of March, 1848, St. Omer, where he composed in obedience and kept possession of Bathna. At this peto the commands of the Duke of Orleans, riod General Herbillon entrusted him with several chapters of a manuel for the use of the command of a strong column, with orders the light troops. In the month of October, to attack and intimidate the mountaineers of Captain Canrobert was incorporated into the the Aures. This commission was promptly 6th battalion of Chasseurs-à-Pied, and re- executed. Colonel Canrobert surprised the turned to Africa in 1841. In this new cam- enemy at the foot of the Djebel Chelea, depaign he signalized himself in the battles feated them, and followed them closely to which took place on the hills of Mouzaia and Kebeck, in the Amar-Kraddou, taking the Gestas, as well as in the bloody struggle Bey Ahmed prisoner. Returning to Bathna, which the Beni-Massers maintained against he took the command of the regiment of the troops. Having obtained the rank of chef- Zouaves at Aumale. In this new post he de-battalion in the 15th light regiment on had an opportunity of acting vigorously the 22d of May, 1842, he was placed in against the Kabyles and the tribes of Tarcommand of the 5th battalion of chasseurs, gura, which he brought into subjection. wbich kept up the campaign on the banks of It was in 1848, however, that Colonel the Chetiff. He was present at the affair of Canrobert displayed energies beyond all the grottoes, at that of the Sheah, and, lastly, praise. Cholera was raging in the garrison at several battles on the Riou. A part of of Aumale, but the events which were the year 1842, and the whole of the year passing at Zaatcha summoned them before 1843, were employed in new operations in the walls of this oasis. What courage, what Africa ; and there, in a manner worthy of coolness did it require in the commander of himself, Commander Canrobert sustained the the Zouaves to lead his soldiers in this manhonor of his battalion. He accompanied ner through all the perils of an adventurous Colonel Cavaignac in the expedition of march, soldiers constantly accompanied by Ouaren-Senis, and had a command in the the afflicting spectacle of misery. 'He, as it column under the orders of General Bour- were, multiplied himself. He exorted the golly, whose division, after having attacked sick, devoted his attention to them, threw a the Flitas, fought resolutely in the country reinforcement into the town of Bou Sada, of the Kabyles of Yargoussa. On all occa- the garrison of which was blockaded, deceivsions the 3d and 5th battalions were com- ed the enemy who opposed bis passage, by manded by him, and with extraordinary suc-announcing that he brought pestilence with

him, and that he should communicate it to He had been an officer of the Legion of his assailants, arriving at Zaatcha on the 8th Honor for two years, when Colonel Št. Ar- of November. On the 26th he led, with naud, who in the year 1845 succeeded Col- wondrous intrepidity, one of the attacking onel Cavaignac to the government of Or- columps. Out of four officers and sixteen leansville, made use of his services against soldiers who followed him to the breach, sixBou Maza. The chief of the 5th battalion teen were killed or wounded at his side. In played a distinguished part in the affairs of recompense for his conduct he was nominated Buhl, Oued Metmour, Oued Gri, and Oued Commander of the Legion of Honor on the Lenzig. In the first he succeeded with iwo 11th of December, 1849. hundred and fifty bayonets in holding his Having distinguished himself at the battle own against more than three thousand men, of Narah, be was elevated to the rank of who could not make any impression on him. general of brigade on the 13th of January, Consequent upon these transactions followed 1850. He came then to Paris, and took the his appointment to a lieutenant-colonelcy, on command of a brigade of infantry, and was the 26th of October. He was soon after attached as aid-de-camp to the Prince Preswards closely blockaded by the Kabyles, in ident of the Republic. On the 14th of Janthe town of Tenez, where he had just suc- uary, 1853, he was appointed general of division, still preserving his functions as aid- the success at Alma, where he received a de-camp to the Emperor. Three months wound. It is well known that Marshal St. afterwards he was called to the command of Arnaud, who had learned his value, had aba division of infantry at the camp of Helfaut, solute confidence in his talents and bravery, and nearly at the same time appointed to in- and it is certain that the young general had spect the 5th arrondissement of the same neglected nothing to make him worthy of arm. Lastly, being placed at the head of this confidence. Before his departure he the first division of the army of the East, he was known to be occupied at the military has played one of the most active parts since depot in profound studies, having for their the commencement of the war, both in making object the knowledge of the theatre of war, preparations for the difficult operation of the as if he had a presentiment of his future desdebarkation, and in contributing greatly to tiny.


From the Dublin University Magazine.


“ Austere and lonely, cruel to himself

Did they report him.''-HOME

DURING the middle ages, and even later, , of the land trace their ancestry to the conseeducation was principally confined to the quences of his amours. He was fond of monks, the students of learned or scientific splendor and show, maintained a retinue as professions, and a few (very few) of the costly as that of Richelieu, and as he inhigher orders. Hence, priests, bishops, and dulged himself freely, was liberal in his concardinals were frequently to be seen grasping cessions to others. Ximenes was an ascetic, the helm of State, and either chosen for, or who had subdued and rooted out his own elevatiog themselves to become the prime passions by a long course of self-mortificaministers of sovereigns, and their advisers tion, and bad little inclination to accord tolor controllers in worldly affairs, as well as erance or pardon to frailties, against which the keepers of their consciences in things his own nature and habits were invulnerably spiritual. Amongst these princes of the fortified. Wolsey was too much given up to church and lights of legislation, Francisco power, pomp, and personal aggrandisement; Ximenes de Cisneros is entitled to hold a Richelieu was an incarnation of selfishness; prominent, if not the very foremost position. Mazarin, as constitutionally cunning and deHis predecessor, Cardinal Mendoza, recom- ceitful as the arch-enemy himself; Alberoni

, mended him, o his deathbed, as the most a hypocritical double-dealer; and Dubois, eligible man in Spain, to succeed him an atheistical, unprincipled profligate, within the office of minister and chancellor, out even the outward assumption of sancwhich, for twenty years, he had filled with tity or decent morals.* But Ximenes was such undisputed ascendancy, under Ferdi- thoroughly honest, and sincerely religious nand and Isabella, that he was called by the a bigot, if you like, but still a conscientious courtiers, "the third king of Spain." The bigot. Austere, even to cruelty, and deaf same sobriquet was afterwards applied to to appeals founded on mere compassion; but Richelieu in France, under similar circum- ever consistent in his own life and actions, stances. Mendoza bad previously obtained which reflected faithfully the creed he profor Ximenes the appointment of confes fessed; while we feel that he was harsh, we sor to the Queen, and thus by double are compelled to admit that he practised as steps assisted him to mount the ladder of he preached. Ambition was the only preferment. But the patron and his protégé worldly passion, or weakness, which bis were widely opposed in personal character. strong mind acknowledged; but he never Mendoza had been a libertine in his youth, after the usual practice of the Spanish clergy * Cardinal Fleury, minister of Louis XIV., apof his day; and more than one noble family | pears to have been a virtuous exception. VOL. XXXIV.--NO. I.



suffered ambition to predominate over his ligently pursued his studies for six years conscience, his faith, and his moral rectitude. The death of his father recalled him A stern confessor he undoubtedly was, and to Spain, whither he returned, with a bull one whom, in the discharge of his duty, even from the Pope preferring him to the first bea royal penitent could not awe into compro- nefice that might fall vacant in the see of mise; but we never find that he indulged in Toledo. No such promotion opened to him the tyranny of personal rudeness, or abused until 1473; he then prepared to avail himthe license permitted to his clerical function. self of his grant; but Carillo, the archbishop It was not so with the general of the Cor- of the diocese, had promised the post to one deliers, who being alarmed at the sweeping of his own followers, and resisted the claim reforms of Ximenes, came from Rome, to of Xinjenes. The latter maintained it stoutly, conser with Isabella on the subject, and to whereupon the prelate, using the strong arm oppose the measures which interfered with of power, imprisoned him in the castle of his own views. In an interview with the Santorcaz, for six dreary years. The mere Queen, he conducted bimself with so much privations and hardships to which he was intemperance, that she asked him, when he subjected were of no little moment 10 a man had finished a violent harangue, if he was in of his self-denial, who long afterwards, under his senses, and recollected whom he was ad- the purple robe of the cardinal, wore his old dressing?

habit of the order of St. Francis, with a hair “Yes," replied the insolent monk, “I am shirt; and, in the midst of all his ministerial in my perfect senses, and know very well splendor, contented himself with a bed of that I am speaking to Isabella, Queen of straw and one frugal meal. On his liberation, Castile ; a mere handful of dust and ashes, he obtained possession of his benefice, but, no better than myself.”

in 1480, exchanged it for the chaplaincy of Ximenes has found many biographers. Seiguenza. His long imprisonment had His career is inseparably mixed up with all deepened the natural austerity of his dispogeneral histories of the period; but his indi- sition, and tended to convert bin into a religi. vidual life has been ably treated by Alvaro ous enthusiast. He became altogether weaGomez de Castro, in Latin; by Quintanilla, ried of secular avocations; and, in the year and other Spanish writers of inferior note. following, having duly performed his novitiTwo French authors of celebrity-Flechier, ate, became a Franciscan monk, of the most Bishop of Nismes, and Marsollier-have also rigid section of the order. During this employed themselves on the same subject. translation, he practised towards himself unWe are not aware that any of these works flinching discipline--enduring vigils, fasts, have been translated into English, although and flagellations, with patience and perseverquoted and referred to as authorities by all ance seldom equalled, and never surpassed. writers in our language, down to Prescott He then assumed the Christian name of inclusive the latest and the best on the list. Francisco, in compliment to the patron saint Flechier deals with Ximenes as if he was ex- and founder of the society, and abandoned clusively a saint. Marsollier describes him that of Gonzalo, by which he had been bapas a universal genius-a sort of an Admira- tized. ble Crichton-and mixes up in his narr:ative His reputation for holiness crowded his more of fable than reality. De Castro de confessional, until it resembled the levee of picts the man nearly as he was; and Quin- a sovereign. This disturbed his thoughts, tanilla, who was employed to procure from and induced him to retire into a lonely conthe Vatican the canonization of his hero, in- vent, situated amidst mountains and forests, clines somewhat more to the marvellous than where he dwelt in a small cabin built by modern readers will be disposed to follow. himself, and passed a life of ascetic infliction

Francisco Ximenes was born at Tordela- which the anchorites of old-Anthony, Paul, guna, in Spain, in the year 1436. He and Hilarion—could scarcely have emulated. sprang from a noble, but decayed family. The great powers of bis mind were wasted Quintanilla carries up his genealogical tree to in these mistaken mortifications, which renremote royalty ; but a pedigree is more dered him visionary and ecstatic, and reduced easily alleged than provided. At fourteen him to wbat would now be considered a he entered the college of Salamanca, and at state of dreaming insanity. From this usetwenty received the degree of bachelor in less condition of vegetative existence, supecivil and canonical law, from that renowned rior command transferred him to the convent and punctilious university. Three years of Salzeda, of which community he was after this he repaired to Rome where he di. I soon appointed guardian, where active duties

late sove

recalled him from bis sublimated reveries. the energy of enforcing obedience. Soon after In 1492, he was selected for the Queen's bis elevation, the troops revolted for want of confessor, but the advancement produced 110 pay. As Ximenes was addressing them, in change in bis manners or mode of life. His the hope of producing a better disposition of coarse friar's dress, emaciated form, and mind, one of the soldiers cried out, “ Give us haggard countenance, contrasted strangely our arrears, and no more speeches !” Ximenes, with the glittering throng of courtiers and without the least emotion, turning to the lovely ladies, with whom, in spite of himself, ranks from wbence the voice proceeded, found he was sometimes compelled to mingle. But out the speaker, bad him hung upon the spot, all sense of enjoyment was dead within him and then went on with his barangue. The -temptation was powerless; and if ambition high grandees, as a matter of course, looked whispered to his heart, the voice was so low upon him as an obscure upstart, thrust into that he heeded it not. In 1494, Queen Isa- a position which they considered as exclubella obtained a bull from Pope Alexander sively belonging to their own order. He cared VI. (of infamous memory), to reform the not for their impatience or opposition, acted conventual abuses, which existed to such an fearlessly, and spoke without reserve. His extent throughout Spain, that the whole enemies were more disgusted by his speeches nation rang with their notoriety. Ximenes, than by his actions. "By God's help,” he being appointed provincial of his order, was was wont to say, “and with my girdle of St. empowered to carry out the edict; and never Francis, I will bring every great man to his did reformer labor with more untiring zeal, or duty, and with my sandals I will stamp upon enforce precept by more unswerving ex- the insolence of the nubility.” The latter example. In 1495, Cardinal Mendoza died, claimed loudly against his authority, and a and vacated the dignities of Archbishop of party of them entered his palace one day Toledo and Grand Chancellor of Castile. without ceremony, and abruptly demanded to The revenues of the see alone amounted to know by what right he governed the king80,000 ducats, or something like £175,000 dom. “By virtue,” answered he, "of the sterling of our present money. The sum is power that was given to me by my nearly incredible, yet does not appear to reign, Ferdinand, and which has since been have been exaggerated by historians. The confirmed by his successor, Charles V.” political and religious importance of the joint “ But Ferdinand,” retorted the malcontents, office placed the possessor on a level with being only the administrator of the kingdom, princes, and second only to the Pope him had not the power of appointing a regent; self. In preference to many candidates, and the Queen alone could lawfully do that.' in spite of strong interest in other quarters, "Well

, then,” said Ximenes, retreating with the Queen conferred the post on Ximenes; them into a balcony, from whence a battery of who, taken thoroughly by surprise at the an- cannon was discovered, wbich was at ihat nouncement, positively refused to accept the moment thundering forth a furious discharge, proffered dignities. He was at that time “behold the power with which I have

goverging on his sixtieth year; and if ever he verned, and with which I intend still to had encouraged ambitious thoughts, now govern!” They departed in silence, and came the opportunity to indulge them, which complaints ceased on the instant. was not likely to occur again. Still he per- Ximenes, while he jealously watched the sisted resolutely in his denial, saying he was interference of the nobility and curbed the too old for public life, for which he had nei. license of their tongues, allowed the lower ther capacity nor inclination. That he was classes to canvass the acts of his

government sincere appears certain ; and he only yielded and express their opinions freely. He used when a second bull from the Pope positively occasionally to say,

6. When a man is in commanded his obedience to the sovereign power, and has nothing to reproach himself authority of the Church. Ximenes then ac. with, the wisest course he can adopt is to quiesced, and became minister of Spain, most permit the people to enjoy the wretched conunquestionably against his will.

solation of avenging their wrongs by their He cannot be justly accused of hypocrisy, i speeches.”

He was in the right. Open and it may be said with truth that be was grumbling is less nearly allied to rebellion called back from the grave to the world. But than moody, brooding silence. Frederick the though not desirous of power, and inex- Great acted on this maxim of the Spanish perienced in its exercise, having once accepted, cardinal, and to a much greater extent. he used it promptly, and soon proved that he Being asked one day why he permitted so possessed the innate faculty of command with many libels to be printed against him, he

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