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I do not find, in fact, that it has ever done, that manner, and see two compact bundles anything considerable since ; which is the one made of them, in the meanwhile. sure symptom of rising. My probable con- Moritz, the new Elector, did not last long. jecture rather is, that it has done (if Na- Shortly after Johann Frederick got home to ture's Register, if the Eternal Daybook, were Weimar, Moritz had already found his death, consulted) very little indeed, except dwindle in prosecution of that game begun by him. into more and more contemptibility, and im- It is well known he had no sooner made the potence to do anything considerable what- Electorate sure to himself than he too drew ever! Which is a very melancholy issue of sword against the Kaiser ; beat the Kaiser ; Moritz's great efforts; and might give rise to chased him into the Tyrol mountains ; could unspeakable considerations, in many a high have taken him there, but-“I have no cage man and many a low-for which there is not big enough to hold such a hird,” said Moritz, room in this place.
so he let the Kaiser run; and made the Johann Frederick, it is well known, sat Treaty of Passau with him instead. Treaty magnanimously playing chess, while the Kai- of Passau (A.D. 1552), by which Johann ser's sentence of death was brought into him; Frederick's liberty was brought about, for he listened to ile reading of the sentence; one thing, and many liberties were stipulated said a polite word or two; then turning for the Protestants ; upon which Treaty inround, with “ Pergamus, let us proceed!" deed Germany rested from its religious batquietly played on till the checkmate had been tles, of the blood-shedding sort, and fought settled.* Johann Frederick magnanimously only by ink thenceforth, till the Thirty years' waited out his five years of captivity, excel. War came, and a new Treaty, that of Munlent old Lucas Kranach, his painter and bum- ster or Westphalia, (1648,) had to succeed. ble friend, refusing to quit him, but stead- Shortly after Passau, Moritz, now on the fastly sharing the same; then quietly return. Kaiser's side, and clear for peace and subed (old Lucas still with him) to his true mission to said treaty, drew out against his loving-hearted wife, to the glad friends whose oldest comrade, Albert Hohenzollern of Ansfaith bad been tried in the fire. With such pach. “ Albert Alcibiades," as they call him, a wife waiting him, and such a Lucas attend that far-shining, too-impetuous failure of a ing him, a man had still something left, had Frederick the Great, drew out, I say, against his lands been all gone; which in Johann this Alcibiades, who would not accept the Frederick's case, they were still far from Treaty of Passau ; beat Alcibiades in the being. He settled at Weimar, having lost battle of Sievershausen, but lost his own life electoral Wittenburg and the inalienable prop- withal in it; no more, either of fighting or erties; he continued to do here, as formerly, diplomatizing, needed from him ; and thus, whatever wise and noble thing he could, after only some six years of Electorship, slept through the short remainder of his life : one with bis fathers, no Elector, but a clod of the wishes he had not founded all that imbroglio valley. of little dukes! But perhaps he could not His younger brother succeeded: from help it: law of primogeniture, except among whom, in a direct line, come all the subsethe Brandenburg Hohenzollerns, always a quent Saxon potentates; and the present wise, decisive, thrifty and growing race, who King of Saxony, with whom one has no achad the fine talent of " annihilating rubbish,” quaintance, nor much want lof any. All of was not yet known in those countries. Johann them are nephews, so to speak, of Elector Frederick felt, most likely, that he, for one, Moritz, grand-nephews of Duke George the in this aspect of the stars, was not founding dagger-bearded ("if it rained Duke Georges"). kingdoms! But indeed it was not he, it was Duke George is, as it were, the grand-uncle his successors, his grandson and great-grand of them all; as Albert, our little stolen boy, son chiefly, that made these multiplex divis- for whom Kunz von Kaufungen once gatherions and confusions on the face of the Ger-ed bilberries, is father of him and of them man mother-earth, and perplexed the human all. A goodly progeny, in point of numbers ; soul with this inextricable wilderness of little and handsomely equipped and decorated by a dukes. From him, however, they do all de- liberal world : most expensive people--in scend; this let the reader know, and let it be general not admirable otherwise. Of which some slight satisfaction to him to have got a multifarious progeny I will remember further historical double-girth tied round, them in only one, or at most two: having no esteem
for them myself, nor wish to encumber any. De Wette : Lebens-Geschichte der Herzoge zu
body's innocent memory with what perhaps Sachsen (Weimar, 1770), i. 39.
deserves oblivion better, and at all events is
rapidly on the way to get it, with or without | at last, at Warsaw (year 1733), of an “old my sanction. Here, however, is our third man's foot ;" highly composed, eupeptic to figure August the Strong.
the last; busy in scheming out a partition of Frederick August, the big King of Poland, Poland,—a thing more than once in men's called by some of his contemporaries August heads, but not to be completed just yet. the Great, which epithet they had to change Adieu to him for ever and a day. for August der Starke, August the Physic- One of his bastards was Rutowsky, long ally Strong: this August, of the three hun. conspicuous in poor Saxony as their chief dred and fifty-two bastards, who was able to military man ; whom the Prussians beat at break a horse shoe with his hands, and who Kesselsdorf, who was often beaten ; whom lived in this world regardless of expense, -, Frederick the Great at last shut up in Pirna. he is the individual of this junior-senior Al. Another was the Chevalier de Saxe, also a bertine Line, whom I wish to pause one mo- kind of general, good for very
little. But ment upon : merely with the remark, that if by far the notablest was he of Aurora von Moritz had any hand in making him the phe. Königsmark's producing, whom they called nomenon he was, Moritz may well be Comte de Sare in his own country, and wbo ashamed of his work. More transcendent afterwards in France became Maréchal de king of gluttonous flunkeys seldom trod this Saxe ; a man who made much noise in the lower earth. A miracle to his own century, world for a time. Of bim also let us say an
- to certain of the flunkey species a quasi- anecdotic word. Baron d'Espagnac and the celestial miracle, bright with diamonds, with biograghers had long been uncertain about endless mistresses, regardless of expense,- the date of his birth, date and place alike to other men a prodigy, portent and quasi- dubious. For whose sake, here at length, infernal miracle, awakening insoluble inqui: after a century of searching, is the extract ries : Whence this, ye righteous gods, and from the baptismal register, found by an above all, whither! Poor devil
, he was full inquiring man. Poor Aurora, it appears, of good humor, too, and had the best of had been sent to the Harz Mountains, in the stomachs. A man that had bis own troubles still autumn, in her interesting situation; withal. His miscellany of mistresses, very lodges in the ancient highland town of Gospretty some of them, but fools all, would lar, anonymously, very privately; and this have driven most men mad.
dis- | is what ihe books of the old marktkirche cern dimly in the flunkey histories, in bab- (market-church) in that remote little place bling Pöllnitz and others, what a set they still bear: were ; what a time he must have bad with
“Den acht-und-zwenzigsten October."-But their jealousies, their sick vapors, megrims, we must translate : "The twenty-eighth of angers, and infatuations ;-springing, on oc October, in the year Sixteen hundred and casion, out of bed in their shift, like wild ninety-six, in the evening, between seven and cats, at the throat of him, fixing their mad eighť o clock, there was born, by the high claws in him, when he merely enters to ask, Lady (von der vornehmen Frau) who lodges “How do you do, mon chou ?"* Some of in R. Heinrich Christoph Winkel's house, a them, it is confidently said, were bis own Son; which Son, on the 30th ejusdem, was children. The unspeakably unexemplary in the evening baptized, in M. S. Alb's mortal!
house, and, by the name Mauritius, incorHe got his skin well beaten,-cow-bided, porated to the Lord Jesus (dem Herrn Jesu as we may say,—by Charles XII., the rough einverleibt). Godfathers were Herr Dr. Swede, clad mostly in leather. He was Trumph, R. N. Dusings, and R. Heinrich coaxed and driven about by Peter the Great, Christoph Winkel.” Which ought to settle as Irish post-horses are --long miles, with a that small matter, at least. bundle of hay, never to be attained, stuck On the authority of Baron d'Espagnac, I upon the pole of the coach. He reduced mention one other thing of this Mauritius, himself to utter bankruptcy. He had got or Moritz, Maréchal de Saxe; who, like his the crown of Poland by pretending to adopt father, was an immensely strong man. WalkPapistry,—the apostate, and even pseudo-ing once in the streets of London, he came apostate ; and we may say he has made Pro. into collision with a dustman, bad words testant Saxony, and his own House first of with the dustman, who perhaps had splashed all, spiritually bankrupt ever since. He died him with his mud-shovel, or the like." Dust
* Pölnitzl: La Saxe Galante ; Memoires et Lettres &c.
Cramer: Aurora von Konigsmark (Leipzig, 1836) I. 126.
man would make no apology; willing to try | got to be August III., King of Poland ; spent a round of boxing instead. Moritz grasps his time in smoking tobacco; and had Brühl him suddenly by the back of the breeches; for minister,—Brühl of the three hundred whirls him aloft, in horizontal position ; and sixty-five suits of clothes, who brought pitches him into his own mud-cart, and Frederick of Prussia and the Seven years' walks on.* A man of much physical War into his country, and thereby, so to strength, till bis wild ways wasted it all. speak, quite broke the back of Saxony,-I
He was tall of stature, had black circular think we may close our excerpts from the eyebrows, black bright eyes,-brightness Albertine Line. Of the elder or Ernstine partly intellectual
, partly animal,—oftenest Line, in its disintegrated state, I will hastily with a smile in them. Undoubtedly a man subjoin yet a word, with the reader's leave, of unbounded dissoluteness ; of much energy, and then end. loose native ingenuity; and the worst speller probably ever known. Take this one speci- ErnstINE LINE (in the disintegrated state, men, the shortest I have, not otherwise the
or broken small). best ; specimen acbieved, when there had a Noble Johann Frederick, who lost the proposal risen in the obsequious Académie Electorale, and retired to Weimer, nobler
, Française to elect this Maréchal a member. for his losses, is not to be particularly blamed The Maréchal had the sense to decline. Ils for splitting his territory into pieces, and veule me fere de la Cadémie, writes he; sela founding that imbroglio of little dukedoms, miret com une bage a un chas; meaning prob. which run about, ever shifting, like a mass ably, Ils veuleni me faire de l'Académie ; of quicksilver cut into little separate pools cela m'iroit comme une bague à un chat : and drops; distractive to the human mind, “They would have me in the Academy; it in a geographical and in far deeper senses. would suit me as a ring would a cat,' or The case was not peculiar to Johann Fredersay, a pair of breeches a cock. Probably ick of the Ernstine Line ; but was common he had much skill in war; I cannot judge; to all German dukes and lines. The pious his victories were very pretty ; but it is to German mind grudges to lop anything away; be remembered, he gained them all over the holds by the palpably superfluous; and in Duke of Cuinberland; who was beaten by general “ cannot annihilate rubbish ;"every body that tried, and never beat any that is its inborn fault. Law of primogenithing, except once some starved Highland ture, for such small sovereignties and dukepeasants at Culloden.
doms, is hardly yet, as the general rule, To resume and conclude. August the above a century old in that country; which, Physically Strong, be it known in brief then, for sovereigns and for citizers, much more is great grandson of an Elector called Johann than for geographers, was certainly a strange George I., who behaved very ill in the Thirty- state of matters ! years' War; now joining with the great Gus- The Albertine Line, Electoral though it tavus, now deserting him ; and seeking now was, made apanages, subdivisions, uninmerely, in a poor tortuous way, little to the telligible little dukes and dukeries of a simihonor of German Protestantism in that lar kind, though perhaps a little more chaepoch, to save his own goods and skin; rily; almost within a century we can rememwherein, too, he did not even succeed : ber little sovereign dukes of that line. A August the Physically Strong, and Pseudo- Duke of Weissenfels, for instance, who had Papist apostate, is great grandson of that built the biggest bassoon ever heard of; poor man; who again is grand nephew of thirty feet high, or so; and was seen playthe worldly-wise Elector Moritz, Passau- ing on it from a trap-ladder ;* -poor soul, Treaty Moritz, questionable Protestant, ques-denied an employment in this world, and tionable friend and enemy of Charles V., obliged to fly to bassoons ! with “ No cage fit to hold so big a bird,”- Then, too, a Duke of Merseburg, who was and is therefore also great-grand-nephew of dining solemnly, when the "Old Dessauer”
" Luther's friend, “ If it rained duke Georges." (conqueror at Kesselsdorf afterwards, and a To his generation there are six from duke great rough Prussian son of Mars) broke in George's, five from elector Moritz's : that is upon him, in a friendly manner, half drunk, genealogy. And if I add that the son of | with ball-drunk grenadiers whom he had August the Physically Strong was he who been reviewing ; and reviewed and paraded
them again there within the sublime ducal * Espagnac : Vie du Maréchal de Saxe (ii. 274, of the German Translation).
* Pollnitz: Memoires et Lettres.
dining-room itself, and fired volleys there ing sadly the centuries with their stormful (to the ruin of mirrors and cut-glass); and opulences rush past you, century after cendanced with the princesses, bis officers and tury in vain ! he,--a princess in your left hand, a drawn But it is better we should close. Of the sword in your right ;--and drank and up. Ernestine Line, in its disintegrated state, let roared, in a Titanic manner, for about eight us mention only two names, in the briefest hours; making a sorcerer's sabbath of the manner, who are not quite without signifipoor duke's solemn dinner. * Sachsen
cance to men and Englishmen, and there with Weissenfels, Sachsen-Merseburg, Sachsen- really end. The first is Bernhard of Weimar; Zeitz:-there were many little dukes of the champion of Elizabeth Stuart, Ex-queen of Albertine Line, too, but happily they are Bohemia ; famed captain in the Thirty-years' now all dead, childless; and their apanages War; a really notable man. Whose Life have fallen home to the general mass, which Goethe once thought of writing ; but prudoes not henceforth make subdivisions of dently (right prudently, as I can now see) itself. The Ernstine Line was but like the drew out of it, and wrote nothing. Not so Albertine, and like all its neighbors, in that easy to dig out a Hero from the mountainrespect.
ous owl-droppings, deadening to the human So, too, it would be cruel to say of these nostril, which moulder in Record Offices and Ernstine little Dukes that they have no bis- Public Libraries ; patrolled over by mere tory; though it must be owned, in the mod- irrational monsters, of the gryphon and vulern state of the world, they are ever more, ture and chimaera species ! Easier, a good and have long been, almost in the impossi- deal, to versify the ideal a little, and stick bility of having any. To build big bassoons, by ballads and the legitimate drama. Bernand play on them from trap-ladders; to do hard was Johann Frederick the Magnanihunting, build opera-houses, give court-mous's great-grandson: that is his genealogy; shows; what else, if they do not care to great grandson of little stolen Ernst's grandserve in foreign armies, is well possible for son. He began in those Bohemian Camthem ? It is a fatal position; and they paigns (1621), a young lad of seventeen; really ought to be delivered from it. Per Rittmeister to one of his elder Brothers; haps then they might do better. Nay, per- some three of whom, in various capacities, haps already here and there they have more fought in the Protestant wars of their time. history than we are all aware of. The late Very ardent Protestants, they and he ; men Duke of Weimar was beneficent to men of let- of devout mind withal ; as generally their ters; had the altogether essential merit, too, whole Line, from Johann Frederick the Magwbich is a very singular one, of finding out, nanimous downwards, were distinguished by for that object, the real men of letters instead being. He had risen to be a famed captain, of the counterfeit. A Duke of Saschen- while still young; and, under and after tbe Gotha, of earlier date, went into the Grum- great Gustavus, he did exploits to make the bach'sche Hamdel (sad “ Grumbach Brab- whole world know him. He “was in twoble,” consisting of wild justice in high quar- and-thirty battles ;" gained, or helped to ters, by assassination or sudden homicide in gain, almost all of them; but unfortunately the street, with consequences ; of all which lost that of Nördlingen, which, next to Lütthe English reader happily knows nothing), zen, was the most important of all. He had went into it bravely, if rashly, in generous taken Breisach (in the Upper-Rbine country), pity for Grumbach, in high hope for himself thought to be inexpugnable; and was just withal; and got thrown into jail for life, poor in sight of immense ulterior achievements Duke! On the whole, I rather think they and advancements, when he died suddenly would still gladly have bistories if they (1639), still only in bis 35th year.
The could ; and am willing to regret that brave Richelieu French poisoned him (so ran and men and princes, descended presumably from runs the rumor); at least he died conveWitekind and the gods, certainly from John niently for Richelieu, for Germany most inconthe Steadfast and John Frederick the Mag. veniently; and was in truth a mighty kind nanimous, should be reduced to stand inert of man; distinguished much from the imin the wbirling arena of the world in that broglio of little Dukes : “ grandson's greatmanner, swathed in old wrappages and pack. grandson,” as I said, “of”. Or, alas, is thread meshes, into inability to move; watch it hopeless to charge a modern reader's mem* Des Weltberühmten Fürstens Leopoldi von
ory even with Bernhard ! Anhalt-Dessau Leben, &c., (Leipzig, 1742.) Pp.
Another individual of the Ernestine Line, 108-112.
surely notable to Englishmen, and much to be
distinguished amid that imbroglio of little l "1° Johann Ernst (1658–1729), youngest son Dukes, is the “ Prinz ALBRECHT Franz Au- of Ernst the Pious; got Saalfeld for his portion. gust Karl Emanuel von Sachsen- Coburg
The then Coburg Line died out in 1678, upon Gotha ;" whom we call, in briefer English, berit; arguings, bargainings; and, between Mein
which arose great arguings as to who should in-' Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg; actual Prince ungen and Saalfeld especially, a lawsuit in the Consort of these happy realms. He also is Reichshofrath (Imperial Aulic Council, as we call a late, very late, grandson of that little stolen it), which seemed as if it would never end. At Ernst. Concerning whom both English His.. length, in 1735, Saalfeld, ' after two hundred and tory and English Prophecy might say some
six Conclusa (Decrees),' in its favor, carried the thing,—but not conveniently in this place. point over Meinungen; got possession of Coburg By the generality of thinking English men he Town, and nearly all the Territory,' and holds it
ever since. Johann Ernst was dead in the inte. is regarded as a man of solid sense and rim; but had left his son, worth, seemingly of superior talent, placed “2° Franz Josias (born, 1697) Duke of Sachsenin circumstances beyond measure singular. Saalfeld, -who, as we see, in 1735, after these Very complicated circumstances; and which 206 Conclusa,' got Coburg too, and adopted that do not promise to grow less so, but the con
town as his Residenz ; Duke of Sachsen-Coburg
His son and successor trary: For the Horologe of Time goes inex. Saalfeld thenceforth. orably on; and the Sick Ages ripen (with
“3° Ernst FRIEDRICH 1724-1800);—and bis terrible rapidity at present) towards- 64° Franz Friedrich Anton (1750–1806). He Who will tell us what! The buman wisdom left three daughters, one of whom became Duchess of this Prince, whatever share of it he has, of Kent, and Mother of Queen Victoria : likewise may one day be unspeakably important to three sons; the youngest of whom is Leopold, mankind !—But enough, enough. We will now King of the Belgians; and the eldesi of
whom was here subjoin his Pedigree at least; which is
“5° Ernst Anton Karl Ludwig (1784—1844); a very innocent Document, riddled from the
to whom Sachsen-Gotha fell in 1824 ;-whose big Historical cinderheaps, and may be com
elder son is now reigning Duke of Sachsen-Cofortable to some persons :
burg-Saalfeld-Gotha (chief Residence Gotha) ;
and whose younger is “ Ernst the Pious, Duke of Sachsen-Gotha -“6o PRINCE ALBERT, whom we know."* (1601–1675), was one of Bernhard of Weimar's elder brothers; great-grandson of Johann Frederick the Magnanimous, who lost the Electorate. day (it is hoped, but not till after many
So that the young gentleman who will one Had been a soldier in his youth; succeeded to Gotha and the main part of the Territories ; and years) be King of England, is visibly, as we much distinguished himself there. A patron of count, Thirteenth in direct descent from that learning, among other good things; sei Secken- little boy Ernst whom Kunz von Kaufungen dorf on compiling the History of the Reformation. stole. Ernst's generation and Twelve others To all appearance, an excellent, prudent and really have blossomed
out and grown big, and have pious Governor of men. He left seven sons; who faded and been blown away; and in these at first lived together at Gotha, and governed 400 years, since Kunz did his feat, we have conjointly; but al length divided the Territories ;
arrived so far. And that is the last "pear), Frederick the eldest taking Gotha, where various other Fredericks succeeded him, and the line did or odd button,” we will string on that Transnot die out till 1824. The other six brothers action. likewise all founded Lines,' Coburg, Meinungen, Hildburghausen, &c., most of which soon • Hübner, Tab. 163 ; Oertel, Tab. 74 ; Michaelis, died out; but it is only the youngest brother, he of Chur- und Fürstlichen Häuser in Teutschland, i Saalfeld with his Line, that concerns us here. 511-25