rilli);" at which they all laughed, and called his head on the block at Freyberg: some the collier der Triller, the Driller.

say, pardon had been got for him from the Meanwhile, Mosen the Misnian is also far- 1 joyful Serene Highnesses, but came an hour ing ill; with the alarm-bells all awake about too late. This seems uncertain, seems imhim, and the country risen in hot chase. Six probable : at least poor Dietrich of Kaufenof his men bave been caught; the rest are gen,


younger brother, was done to death diving ever deeper into the thickets. In the at Altenburg itself some time after, for “inend, they seek shelter in a cavern, stay there considerate words” uttered by him feelings perdue for three days, not far from the castle not sufficiently under one's control. That of Steina, still within the Saxon border. Three Schwalbe, the Bohemian Cook, was torn with days,--while the debate of Westminster is “ red-hot pincers," and otherwise mercilessly prosperously proceeding, and imbecile Henry mangled and strangled, need not be stated. the Sixth takes his ease at Windsor,—these He and one or two others, supposed to be poor fellows lie quaking, hungry, in their concerned in his peculiar treason, were treatcave; and dare not debate, except in whis- ed so; and with this the gallows part of the pers; very uncertain what the issue will be. transaction ended. The third day they hear from colliers or As to the Driller himself, when asked what wandering woodmen, accidentally talking his wish was, it turned out to be modest together in their neighborhood, that Kunz is in the extreme: Only liberty to cut of taken, tried, and most probably beheaded. scrags and waste wood, what would suffice Well-a-day! Well-a-day! Hereupon they for his charming purposes, in those wild open a correspondence with the nearest forests. This was granted to the man and Amtmann, him of Zwickau: to the effect, his posterity : made sure to bim and them by That if free pardon is granted, they will at legal deed, and to this was added, So many once restore Prince Ernst; if not, they will yearly bushels of corn from the electoral at once kill him. The Amtmann of Zwickau stockbarns, and a handsome little farm of is thrown into excitement, it may well be land, to grow cole and sauerkraut, and supsupposed; but what can the Amtmann or port what cows and sheep, for domestic milk any other official person do? Accede to and wool, were necessary to the good man their terms, since, as desperate men, they and his successors. " Which properties," I have the power of enforcing them. It is am vaguely told, but would go to see it with thought, had they even demanded Kunz's my eyes, were I touring in those parts, pardon, it must have been granted; but they 'they enjoy to this day.” Perhaps it was fancied Kunz already ended, and did not insist a bit of learned jocularity on the part of the on this. Enough, on the 11th of the month, old conveyancers, perhaps in their high chanfourth day since the flight, third day in this cery at Altenburg they did not know the hunger-cave of Steina, Prince Ernst was given man's real name, or perhaps he had no very up; and Mosen, Schönfels, and Co., refreshed fixed one; at any rate, they called bim with food, fled swiftly unbarmed, and “were merely Triller (Driller), in these important never heard of more," say my authorities. documents ; which courtly nickname he or his

Prince Ernst was received by bis glad sons adopted as a surname that would do very father at Chemnitz; soon carried to bis glad well; suiname born by them accordingly mother and brother at Altenburg: upon ever since, and concerning which there have which the whole court, with trembling joy, been treatises written.* made a pilgrimage to Ebersdorf, a monastery

This is the tale of Kunz of Kaufungen: and a shrine in those parts. They gave this is that adventure of the Prinzenraub pious thanks there, one and all: the mother (Stealing of the Princes), much wondered at, giving suitable donation furthermore; and, and talked of, by all princes and all courtiers what is notable, banging up among her other in its own day, and never quite forgotten volive gifts two coats: the coat of Kunz, since; being indeed apt for remembrance, leather buff, I suppose, and the coat of The and worthy of it, more or less. For it Driller, Triller, as we call that heaven-sent actually occurred in God's Creation, and was collier, coat grimy black, and made of what stuff I know not. Which coats were still

Groshupf's Oratio de gentis Trillerianae ortu shown in the present generation ; nay, per- cited in Michaelis Geschichte der Chur- und Fürsthaps are still to be shown to this day, if a

lichen Häuser in Teutschland, i. 459) is one, See,

for the rest, Schurzfleisch, Dissertatio de Conrado judicious tourist made inquiry for them. On the 14th, and not till then, Kuns of 1700); Rechenberg, De Ruptu Ernesti et Alberti ;

Kaufungo (Wittenberg, 1720); Teozel (Gotha. Kaufungen, tried and doomed before, laid Sagittarius, Fabricius, &o, &c.


a fact, four hundred years ago ; and also is, ing insignificant little territories, names, reand will for ever continue one,-ever-enduring lationships and titles ; inextricably indecipherpart and parcel of the Sum of Things, I able, and not worth deciphering ; which only whether remembered or not. In virtue of the eye of the Old Serpent could or would which peculiarity it is much distinguished decipher! Let us leave them there; and from innumerable other tales of adventures remark that they are all divided, after our which did not occur in God's Creation, but little stolen Ernst and Albert, into two main only in the waste chambers (to be let un- streams or lines, the Ernst, or Ernestine furnished) of certain human heads, and Line, and the Albert or Albertine Line; in which are part and parcel only of the Sum which two grand divisions they flow on, each of No-things: which, nevertheless, obtain of them many-branched, through the wildersome temporary remembrance, and lodge ness of Time ever since. Many-branched extensively, at this epoch of the world, in each of the two, but conspicuously separate similar still more unfurnished chambers. In each from the other, they flow on; and give comparison, I thought this business worth a us the comfort of their company, in great few words to the ingenuous English reader, numbers, at this very day. We will note a who may still have rooms to let, in that few of the main plenomena in these two sense. Not only so; but it seemed to de- Saxon lines,-higher trees that have caught serve a little nook in modern memory for our eye, in that sad wilderness of princely other peculiar reasons,—which shall now be shrubbery unsurvey able otherwise. stated with extreme brevity.

The two boys, Ernst and Albert, who, at the time of their being stolen, were fourteen Ernst, the elder of those two stolen boys, and twelve years old respectively, and had became Kurfürst (Elector); and got for inFrederick the Peaceable, the Placid or Pacific, heritance, besides the “inalienable properfor father, came safe to manhood. They ties” which lie round Wittenberg, as we have got, by lucky survivorship, all these inextri- said, the better or Thuringian side of the cable Saxon territories combined into two Saxon country—that is, the Weimar, Gotha, round lots :did not, unfortunately, keep Altenburg, &c., Principalities :-while the them so; but split them again into new other youth, Albert, had to take the "Osterdivisions,—for new despair of the historical land (Easternland), with part of Meissen," student, among others !—and have at this what we may in general imagine to be, (for day, extensive posterity, of thrice.complex no German Dryasdust will do you the kindrelationship, of unintelligible names, still ness to say precisely) the eastern region of extant in the high places of the world. Un-what is Saxony in our day. These Albertintelligible names, we may well say ; eachines, with an inferior territory, had, as their person having probably from ten to twenty main towns, Leipzig and Dresden ; a Resinames : not John or Tom; but Joachim John denz-Schloss (or sublime enough Ducal Ferdinand Ernst Albrecht; Theodor Tom Palace) in each city, Leipzig as yet the Carl Friedrich Kunz:—as if we should say, grander and more common one. There, at Bill Walter Kit, all as one name; every one Leipzig chiefly, I say, lived the august of which is good, could you but omit the younger or Albertine line; especially there others ! Posterity of unintelligible names, lived Prince Albert bimself, a wealthy and tbrice complex relationship;-and in fine, of potent man, though younger. But it is with titles, qualities, and territories, that will re- Ernst that we are at present concerned. main for ever unknown to man.

Most singu

As for Ernst, the elder, he and his lived lar princely nomenclature, which has often chiefly at Wittenberg, as I perceive; there and filled me with amazement. Designations in the neighborhood, was their high Schloss ; worse than those of the Naples Lazzaroni; distinguished among palaces. But they had who indeed “have no names," but are, I con- Weimar,they had Altenburg, Gotha, Coburg-clude, distinguished by numbers, No. 1, No. above all, they had the Wartburg, one of the 2, and can be known when mentioned in most distinguished Strong Houses any

Duke human speech! Names, designations, which could live in, if he were of frugal and heroic are too much for the human mind:-which turn. Wartburg, built by fabulous Ludwig are intricate, long-winded; abstruse as the the Springer, which grandly overhangs the Sybil's oracles ; and flying about, too, like town of Eisenach, grandly the general Thuber leaves, with every new accident, every ringian forest; it is now,- Magician Klingnew puff of wind. Ever fluctuating, ever sohr having sung there, St. Elizabeth having splitting, coalescing, re-spliting, re-combin. I lived there and done conscious miracles, Martin Luther having lived there and done | have young Charles V., Max's grandson, unconscious ditto, – the most interesting elected to it. Whereby it came that the Residenz, or old grim shell of a mountain grand Reformation Cause, at once the grandCastle turned into a tavern, now to be found i est blessing and the grandest difficulty, fell in Germany, or perhaps readily in the world. to the guidance, not of noble German veracity One feels,-standing in Luther's room, with and pious wisdom, but of longheaded obstiLuther's poor old oaken table, oaken ink. nate Flemish cunning; and Elector Frederick bolder still there, and his mark on the wall indeed had an easier life, but Ġermany has which the Devil has not yet forgotten,-as ever since had a much harder one! Two if here once more, with mere heaven and the portraits of this wise Frederick, one by silent Thuringian Hills looking on, a grand Albert Dürer, and another of inferior quality and grandest battle of “One man versus the by Lucas Kranach, which represented to us Devil and all men” was fought, and the an excellent rather corpulent elderly gentlelatest prophecy of the Eternal was made to man, looking out from under his electoral these sad ages that yet run; as if bere, in cap, with a fine placid, honest, and yet vigifact, of all places that the sun now looks lant and sagacious aspect, are well known to upon, were the holiest for a modern man. print-collectors; but his history, the practiTo me, at least, in my poor thoughts, there cal physiognomy of his life and procedure seemed something of authentically divine in in this world, is less known to hereditary this locality; as if immortal remembrances, governing persons, and others, than it ought and sacred influences and monitions were to be,—if there were any chance of their hovering over it: speaking sad, and grand, taking pattern by him!' He was twenty and valiant things to the hearts of men. A

years Luther's senior ; they never met perdistinguished person, whom I had the honor sonally, much as they corresponded together, of attending on that occasion, actually during the next four years, both living oftenstooped down, when he thought my eye was est in the same town. He died in 1525, and off him; kissed the old oaken table, though one was succeeded by his brother, John the of the grimest men now living; and looked | Steadfast, (Johann der Beständige.) like lightning and rain all morning after, with This brother, Johann der Beständige, was a visible moisture in those sun-eyes of his, and four years younger; he also was a wise and not a word to be drawn from him. Sure eminently Protestant man. He struggled enough, Ernst and his line are not at a loss for very faithfully for the good cause, during residences, whatever else he and they may his term of sovereignty ; died in 1532 (fourwant.

teen years before Luther), having held the Ernst's son was Frederick the Wise, suc- Electorate only seven years. Excellent man, cessor in the Kur (Electorship) and paternal though dreadfully fat; so that they had to lands; which, as Frederick did not marry, screw him up by machinery when he wished and there was only one other brother, were to mount on horseback, in his old days. His not further divided on this occasion. Freder. son was Johann Friedrich, the Magnanimous ick the Wise, born in 1463, was that ever- by epithet (der Grossmüthige), under whom memorable Kurfürst, who saved Luther from the Line underwent sad destinies ; lost the the Diet of Worms in 1521. A pious Electorship, lost much; and split itself after Catholic, with due horror of heresy up to him, into innumerable branches, who are al} that time, he listened with all his faculties to of a small type ever since; and whom we the poor Monk's earnest speech of four hours; shall leave for a little, till we have brought knew not entirely what to think of it; forward the Albertine Line. thought at least, “ We will hear this man further, we will not burn this man just yet !”—

ALBERTINE LINE. and snatched him up accordingly, and stuck Albert the Courageous (der Beherzte) was bim safe into the Wartburg for a year. Honor the name this little stolen boy attained among to such a Kurfürst :-and what à luck to him mankind, when he grew to maturity and came and us that he was there to do so ever- to his properties in Meissen and the Ostermemorable a thing, just in the nick of time! land. What he did to merit such bigh title A Kurfürst really memorable and honorable, might, at this date, in this place, be difficult by that and by many other acts of wisdom, to say. I find he was useful in the Netherpiety, and prudent magnanimity; in which lands, assisting Kaiser Max (or rather young qualities history testifies that he shone. He Prince Max, Kaiser indeed, and Charles V.'s could have had the Kaisership, on Max's grandfather, in time coming) when the said death, some years before, but preferred to young Max wedded the beautiful young Mary of Burgundy, the great heiress in those parts. | Pack, whose "revelations” gave rise to the Max got the Netherlands by this fine match, i Schmalkaldic League, and to the first Proand came into properties enough ; and soon testant War, had been his secretary. Pack into endless troubles and sorrows thereby; in ran off from him ; made said “revelations," all which, and in others that superadded them. That there was a private bargain, between selves, Albert the Courageous was helpful Duke George and others, headed by the Kaiaccording to ability ; distinguishing him- i ser, to cut off and forfeit Philipp of Hesse, the self indeed throughout by loyalty to his Kai- chief Protestant, that &c., &c.: whereby, in ser; and in general, I think, being rather of the first placc, poor Pack lost his head ; and a conservative turn. The rest of his merit in the second place, poor Duke George's in History-we conclude, it was work that troubles were increased fourfold and tenfold. bad mainly a Saxon, or at most a German Poor soul, he had lost most of his ten fame, and did not reach the ear of the gen. children, some of them in infancy, others in eral world. However, sure enough it all lies maturity and middle age, by death ; was now safely funded in Saxon and German Life to himself getting old, within a year or two of this hour, Saxony reaping the full benefit of seventy: and his troubles not in the least it (if any); and it shall not concern us bere. diminishing. At length he lost his wife; the Only on three figures of the posterity begot- good old dame, a princess of Bohemia, who ten by him shall we pause a little, then leave had been his stay in all sorrows, she too was him to his fate. Elector Moritz, Duke called away from him. Protestantism spreadGeorge, August the Strong : on these three ing, the Devil broken loose, all was against we will glance for one moment; the rest, in Duke George; and he felt that his own time mute endless procession, shall rustle past un- must now be nigh. His very brother, now seen by us.

beir apparent, by the death of all the young Albert's eldest son, then, and successor in men, was of declared Protestant tendencies. the eastern properties and residences, was George wrote to his brother, who, for the Duke George of Saxony-called “of Saxony," present, was very poor, offering to give him as all those Dukes, big and little, were and up the government and territories at once, on still are,Herzoz Georg von Sachsen: of condition that the Catholic religion should be whom, to make bim memorable, it is enough maintained intact : Brother respectfully reto say that he was Luther's Duke George! fused. Duke George then made a will, to Yes, this is he with whom Luther had such the like effect ; summoned his Estates to wrangling and jangling. Here, for the first sanction it; Estates would not sanction : time, English country gentlemen may discern Duke George was seized with dreadful bowel “Duke George" as a fact, though a dark disorders, and lay down to die. Sorrow on one, in this world ; see dimly who begat him, it! Alas, alas ! where he lived, how he actually was (pre- There is one memorability of his sad last sumably) a human creature, and not a mere moments : A reverend Pater was endeavoring rumor of a name. “ Fear of Duke George ?" to strengthen him by assurances about his said Luther: “No, not that. I have seen own good works, about the favor of the the King of Chaos in my time, Sathanas him. Saints and such like, when Dr. Rothe, the self, and thrown my inkbottle at him. Duke Crypto-Protestant medical gentleman, venGeorge! Had I had business in Leipzig, I tured to suggest in the extreme moment, should have gone thither, if it had rained Gnädiger Herr, you were often wont to Duke Georges for three days running !" Well, say, Straightforward is the best runner! Do reader, this is he: George the Rich, called that yourself; go straight to the blessed also the Barbatus (Beardy), likewise the Saviour and eternal Son of God, who bore Learned: a very magnificent Herr; learned, our sins ; and leave the dead Saints alone !" bearded, gilded, to a notable degree; and “Ey, then-help me, then," George groanmuch reverenced by many, though Luther ed out in low sad murmur, true Saviour, thought so little of him.

Jesus Christ ; take pity on me, and save me He was strong for the old religion, while by thy bitter sorrows and death !" and yieldhis cousins went so valiantly ahead for the ed up his soul in this manner. A much new. He attended at Diets, argued, negotiat- afflicted, hard-struggling, and not very useful ed; offered to risk life and fortune, in some He was so learned, that he had writdiplomatic degree, but was happily never ten bis father Albert's exploits in Latin ; of called to do it. His brother, and most of his wbich respectable “Monograph," Fabricius, people, gradually became Protestants, which in bis Chronicle, has made use. Fabricius ; much grieved him. Pack, unfortunate Herr not that big Hamburg Fabricius of the Bib

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liothecas ; but an earlier minor one, Georg | terous management, Duke Moritz got the Goldschmied his vernacular name, who was Electorship transferred to himself; Elector"crowned poet by Kaiser Max," became head ship, with Wittenberg and the "inalienable schoolmaster in Meissen, and wrote meritori.lands and dignities;" his poor cousin sitting ous chronicles, indifferently exact, Rerum prisoner the while, in imminent danger of his Visnicarum, and such like; he is the Fabri- life; not getting loose for five years, but fol. cius to whom the respectable Monograph fell. lowing the Kaiser like condemned luggage, Of this poor Duke's palaces and riches, at up and down, in a very perilous and uncomLeipzig and elsewhere, I say nothing, except fortable manner! This from Moritz, wbo that they were very grand. He wore a mag- was himself a Protestant, only better skilled nificent beard, too, dagger-shaped and very in jockeyship, was not thought handsome long; was of heroic stature and carriage; conduct--nor could it be. truly a respectable looking man. I will re- However, he made it good ; succeeded in member nothing more of him, except that he it—what is called succeeding. Neither is the was withal an ancestor of Frederick the game yet played out, nor Moritz publicly deGreat; no doubt of that small interesting clared (what he fully surely is, and can by fact. One of his daughters was married to discerning eyes be seen to be) the loser. MorPhilip the Magnanimous of Hesse; wife in- itz kept bis Electorship, and, by cunning sufficient for magnanimous Philip, wherefore jockeying, his Protestantism too; got his he was obliged to marry a second, or sup- Albertine or junior Line pushed into the place plement to her, which is a known story! But of the Ernestine or first; in which dishonoranother of Duke George's daughters, who ably-acquired position it continues to this alone concerns us here, was spouse to Joa- day ; performing ever since the chief part in chim II., sixth Kurfürst of Brandenburg, who Saxony, as Electors, and now as Kings of bore him Johann George, seventh ditto, in Saxony--which seems to make him out rather lawful wedlock; and so was Frederick the as wioner in the game. For the Ernestine, Unique's great-grandfather's great-grand- or honorable Protestant Line is ever since in mother, that is to say, lineal ancestress in the a secondary, diminished, and as it were disseventh generation. If it rained Duke Georges integrated state, a Line brokem small; nothing for eight days running, I would say no more now but a series of small Dukes, Weimar, about them.

Gotha, Coburg, and the like, in the ThurinWe come now to Elector Moritz, our sec- gian region, who, on mere genealogical ond figure. George's brother, Henry, suc- grounds, put Sachsen to their name; Sachsenceeded ; lived only for two years; in which Coburg, Sachsen-Weimar, &c.; and do not time all went to Protestantism in the eastern look like winners. Nor perhaps are theyparts of Saxony, as in the western. This if they also have played too ill! Perhaps Henry's eldest son, and first successor, was neither of the two is winner; for there are Moritz, the “Maurice” known in English many other hands in the game withal ; sure Protestant books; who, in the Schmalkaldic I am only that Moritz has lost, and never League and War, played such a questionable could win! As perhaps may appear yet, bygame with his Protestant cousin, of the elder and-by. or Ernestine Line-quite ousting said cousin, But however that may be, the Ernestine by superior jockeyship, and reducing his line Line has clearly got disintegrated, broken and him to the second rank ever since. This small

, and is not in a culminating condition. cousin was Johann Friedrich the Magnani. These, I say, are the Dukes who in the presmous, of the Ernestine Line; whom we left ent day put Sachsen to their names : sons above waiting for that catastrophe; and it of Ernst, sons of Johann Friedrich the Magcame about in this manner.

nanimous, all now in a reduced condition : Duke Moritz, refused, namely, to join his while the sons of Albert, nephews of George poor cousin and other fellow Protestants in the dagger-bearded (“if it rained Duke the Schmalkaldic League or War, in spite of Georges”), are Kings of Saxony, so called Secretary Pack’s denunciations, and the evi- Kings. No matter : nay, who knows whether dence of facts. Duke Moritz waited till the it is not perhaps even less than nothing to Kaiser (Charles V., year 1547), and their them, this grand dignity of theirs ? Whether, own ill-guidance, had beaten to pieces and in very truth, if we look at substance and ruined said League and War; till the Kaiser not semblance, the Albertine Line has risen had captured Johann Frederick the Magnan. since Moritz's time; or in spite of all these imous in person, and was about to kill him. crowns and appearances,

sublime to the And then, at this point of the game, by dex- I valet judgment, has fallen and is still falling ?

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