after his re-committal to York, the following principle. It is well known, that there are passages occur :

hundreds of persons who are sane only so long as they remain in a Lunatic Asylum; they are detained, therefore, because, if let loose, they would cease to exercise a rational control over their actions. This principle might, indeed, be extended to a large class of our criminal population, who give themselves up to the commission of crimes less venial than that of drunkenness, but not more mischievous.

"I am sorry to have to write to you from a prison. This I must submit to, but God prepares a worse prison for the impenitent. I am shut out, it is true, from the wide prospect of nature, I am rent from the bosom of my family; I no longer reap the gain, or mingle in the amusements of life. Sometimes I mourn in solitude, and sometimes I am distressed by my companions. To be visited by a friend is a special favor; and as for deliverance, I have no knowledge of the period when it is likely to arrive."

Let the reader place himself in this man's position, and then he will more readily understand the wrong done to him. In a fit of furious blind delirium, he has destroyed the wife of his bosom; and, as if that were not misery enough for a life, the reminiscence of which alone might excuse madness, he has to be separated from his children, and to herd with felons.

This man's mania and miseries were the consequences of habits of intemperance: to the same source may be traced much of the insanity in the pauper, and even in the better classes. In other words, it is self-creating.

How far a self-created lunatic should be con

sidered as a fit and proper person for punish-
ment, may admit of considerable discussion;
but there can be no doubt whatever, we
think, that if it can be conclusively shown
that a man is about to drink himself insane,
or that he insanely wastes his time and
erty in drink, to the loss of his health, and
the starvation of his family,—if such can be
conclusively proved to be the career of a
man, then he is a fit and proper person to be
detained and taken care of. This is no new


"Insanity may often be traced to a criminal indulgence in depraved habits and vicious thoughts; to reckless and unprincipled conduct; to long-indulged self-will; to a censurable neglect of the cultivation of habits of self-control; to an utter and, above all, to a repudiation of the principles disregard of all mental discipline and training; of our holy and revered religion, and a total rejection of the great scheme of man's redemption."*

If it be found that, year after year, men, thus acting and thus placed, continue to outrage the laws of their country; or that, so long as they are under the salutary discipline of a prison, they are moral, orderly, industrious, but that, so soon as they are returned to society, they again relapse into their follies and crimes, and re-appear in the criminal court as "ticket-of-leave men;" does it not appear to be a prudent and rational step to place these men in a medium position between a prison and society ?-a position in which they may be subjected to the humanizing influences of social discipline, regulated labor, and mental culture, and protected from those temptations which (as reiterated experience proves) they cannot resist.

Journal of Psychological Medicine,” vol. vii.


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p. 624.

From the Westminster Review.


[The following article has an interest not only as a curious episode of German history, but as the production of CARLYLE, whose pen has not been before traceable in the periodical literature for many a year. It has all his singular and attractive qualities. -ED.]

OVER seas in Saxony, in the month of July, 1455, a notable thing befel; and this in regard to two persons who have themselves, by accident, become notable. Concerning which we are now to say something, with the reader's permission. Unluckily, few English readers ever heard of the event; and it is probable there is but one English reader or writer (the present reviewer,t for his sins) that was ever driven or led to inquire into it, so that it is quite wild soil, very rough for the ploughshare; neither can the harvest well be considerable. English readers are so deeply ignorant of foreign history, especially of German history!" exclaims a learned professor. Alas, yes; Eng. lish readers are dreadfully ignorant of many things, indeed of most things;-which is a lamentable circumstance, and ought to be amended by degrees.


But, however all this may be, there is somewhat in relation to that Saxon business, called the Prinzenraub, or Stealing of the Princes, and to the other "pearls of memory" (do not call them old buttons of memory!) which string themselves upon the

1. Schreiter's Geschichte des Prinzenraubs (Schreiter's History of the Stealing of the Princes). Leipzig: 1804.

2. Johann Hübner's, Rectoris der Schule zu S. Johannis in Hamburg, Genealogische Tabellen (Genealogical Tables: by Johann Hübner, Rector of St. John's School in Hamburg) 3 vols. oblong 4to. Leipzig. 1725-1728.

3. Genealogische Tafeln zur Staatengeschichte der Germanischen und Slawischen Völker im 19ten Jahrhundert (Genealogical Tables for the State History of the Germanic and Slavic Nations in the 19th century). By Dr. Friedrich Maximilian Oertel. 1 vol. oblong 12mo. Leipzig. 1846.

The writer of this article heretically disregards the editorial plural. Our discerning readers will understand, even without the aid of his initial at

the end, why we choose to let him have his way.


threads of that. Beating about in those dismal haunted wildernesses; painfully sorting and sifting in the historical lumber-rooms and their dusty fusty imbroglios, in quest of far other objects, this is what we have picked up on that accidental matter. To which the reader, if he can make any use of it, has our welcome and our blessing.

The Wettin Line of Saxon Princes, the same that yet endures, known by sight to every English creature (for the high individual, Prince Albert, is of it), had been lucky enough to combine in itself, by inheritance, by good management, chiefly by inheritance, and mere force of survival, all the Three separate portions and divided dignities of that country; the Thüringen Landgraviate, the Meissen Markgraviate, and the ancient Duchy and Electorate of Saxony; and to become very great among the princes of the German empire. It was in 1423 that Elector Frederick, named der Streitbare (the Fencible, or Prompt-to-fight), one of the notables of this line, had got from Emperor Sigismund, for help rendered (of which poor Sigismund had always need, in all kinds), the vacant Kur (Electorship) and Dukedom of Saxony; after which accession, and through the earlier portion of the fifteenth century, this Saxon House might fairly reckon itself the greatest in Germany, till Austria, till Brandenburg gradually rose to overshadow it. Law of primogeniture could never be accepted in that country; nothing but divisions, redivisions, coalescings, splittings, and never-ending readjustments and collisions were prevalent in consequence; to which cause, first of all, the loss of the race by Saxony may be


To enter into all that, be far from us. Enough to say that this Streitbare, Frederick the Fencible, left several sons, and none of them without some snack of principality taken from the main lot: several sons, who, however, by death and bad behavior, pretty soon reduced themselves to two: 1st, the eldest, a Frederick, named the Placid, Peacable, or Pacific (Friederich der Sanftmüthige), who possessed

the electorate and indivisible, inalienable land |
thereto pertaining (Wittenberg, Torgau, &c.;
a certain "circle" or province in the Witten-
berg region; of which, as Prussia has now
got all or most of it, the exact boundaries are
not known to me); and 2d, a Wilhelm, who
in all the other territories "ruled conjointly"
with Frederick.


Conjointly were not such lands likely to be beautifully "ruled "? Like a carriageteam with two drivers on the box! Frederick, however, was Pacific; probably an excellent good-natured man; for I do not find that he wanted fire either, and conclude that the friendly elements abounded in him. Frederick was a man that could be lived with; and the conjoint government went on, without visible outbreak, between his brotherbert prevailed in the end), had at least taken Wilhelm and him, for a series of years. For him captive in some fight, and made him pay twelve years, better or worse;-much better a huge ransom. He had also been in the than our own red and white Roses here at Hussite wars, this Kunz, fighting up and home, which were fast budding into battles down: a German condottiere, I find, or of St. Albans, battles of Towton, and other Dugald Dalgetty of the epoch; his last sad outcomes about that time! Of which stroke of work had been this late engagetwelve years we accordingly say nothing. ment, under Frederick the Peaceable, to fight against brother Wilhelm and his Bo

tower called Kaufungen, the site of which old tower, if now no ruins of it, can be seen near Penig, on the Mulde river, some two hours' ride southeast of Altenburg, in those Thuringian or Upper Saxon regions-Kunz had made himself a name in the world, though unluckily he was short of property otherwise at present. For one thing, Kunz had gained great renown by beating Albert of Brandenburg, the Albert named Achilles, third Hohenzollern Elector of Brandenburg, and the fiercest fighter of his day (a terrible hawk-nosed, square-jawed, lean, ancient man, ancestor of Frederick the Great); Kunz, I say, had beaten this potentate, being hired by the town of Nürnberg, Albert's rebellious town, to do it; or if not beaten him (for Al

But now, in the twelfth year, a foolish second-cousin, a Friedrich the Silly (Einfälhemian allies. tige), at Weimar, died childless, A.D. 1440; by which event extensive Thuringian possessions fell into the main lot again; whereupon the question arose, How to divide them? question difficult to solve; which by-and-by declared itself to be insoluble; and gave rise to open war between the brothers Frederick Pacific and Wilhelm of Meissen. Frederick proving stronger, Wilhelm called in the Bohemians, confused Hussite, Ziska-Podiebrad populations, bitter enemies of orthodox Germany; against whom Frederick sent celebrated fighting captains, Kunz von Kaufungen and others; who did no good on the Bohemians, but showed all men how dangerous a conflagration had arisen here in the heart of the country, and how needful to be quenched without delay. Accordingly, the neighbors all ran up, Kaiser Frederick III. at the head of them (a cunning old Kaiser, Max's father); and quenched it was, after four or five years' ruinous confusion, by the treaty of Naumburg" in 1450-most obscure treaty, not necessary to be laid before the reader; whereby, if not joint government, peaceable division and separation could



In this last enterprise Kunz had prospered but indifferently. He had, indeed, gained something they called the "victory of Gera" Aloud honor, I doubt not, and temporary possession of that little town of Gera; but, in return, had seen his own old tower of Kaufungen, and all his properties, wasted by ravages of war. Nay, he had at length been taken captive by the Bohemians, and been obliged to ransom himself by huge outlay of money-4,000 goldgulden, or about £2,000 sterling; a crushing sum! With all which losses, why did not Kunz lose his life too, as he might easily have done? It would have been better for him. Not having lost his life, he did of course, at the end of the war, claim and expect indemnity; but he could get none, or not any that was satisfactory to him.

The conflagration was thus put out; but various coals of it continued hot for a long time-Kunz von Kaufungen above mentioned the hottest of all. Kunz or Conrad, born squire or ritter of a certain territory and old VOL. XXXIV.—NO. III.

Elector Frederick had had losses of his own; was disposed to stick to the letter of his contracts in reference to Kunz: not even the 4,000 goldgulden of Bohemian ransom would he consent to repay. Elector Freder. ick alleged that Kunz was not his liegeman, whom he was bound to protect; but only his soldier, hired to fight at so much per day, and stand the risks himself. In fine, he exasperated Kunz very much; and could be brought to nothing, except to agree that arbitrators should be named, to settle what was really due from one to the other;-a


left behind at Altenburg: whether any thing could follow out of that? Most of the servants, Schwalbe added, were invited to a supper in the town, and would be absent drinking. Absent drinking; princes left unguarded? Much can follow out of that! Wait for an opportunity till doomsday, will there ever come a better? Let this, in brief, be the basis of our grand scheme; and let all hands be busy upon it. Isenburg expects every man to do his duty!-Nor was isenburg disappointed.

The venerable little Saxon town of Altenburg lies, among intricate woods and MetalMountain wildernesses, a good day's riding west from Isenburg: nevertheless, at the fit date, Isenburg has done its duty; and in spite of the intricacies and the hot weather, Kunz is on the ground in full readiness. Towards midnight, namely, on the 7th of July, 1455, Kunz, with a party of thirty men, his two Misnian squires among them, well-mounted and armed, silently approaches the rendezvous under the Castle of Altenburg; softly announces himself, by whew of whistling, or some concerted signal, audible in the still

course of little promise to indigent, indignant Kunz. The arbitrators did accordingly meet, and Kunz being summoned, made his appearance; but not liking the figure of the court, went away again without waiting for the verdict; which, accordingly, did fall out infinitely short of his wishes or expectations, and made the indigent man still more indignant. Violent speeches were heard from him in consequence, and were officiously reported; nay, some say, were heard by the Elector himself: for example, That a man might have vengeance, if he could get nothing else; that an indigent, indignant fighting man, driven utterly desperate, would harry and destroy; would do this and also that, of a direful and dreadful nature. To which the Elector answered: "Don't burn the fishes in their ponds, at any rate!"-still further angering Kunz. Kunz was then heard growling about "vengeance not on this unjust Elector's land and people, but on his flesh and blood;" in short, growing ever more intemperate, grim of humor, and violent of speech, Kunz was at last banished the country; ordered flatly to go about his business, and growl elsewhere. He went, with certain in-ness of the ambrosial night. Cook Schwalbe digent followers of his, across into Bohemia; is awake; Cook Schwalbe answers signal; where, after groping about, he purchased an flings him down a line, fixes his rope-ladders : old castle, Isenburg, the name of it; castle Kunz, with his Misnian squires and a select hanging somewhere on the western slopes of few more, mounts aloft; leaving the rest bethe Erzgebirge (Metal Mountains, so-called), low, to be vigilant, to seize the doors especonvenient for the Saxon frontier, and to be cially, when once we are masters of them had cheap this empty, damp old castle of from within. Isenburg, Kunz bought; and lived there in such humor as may be conceived. Revenge on this unjust Elector, and "not on his land and people, but on his flesh and blood," was now the one thought of Kunz.

Two Misnian squires, Mosen and Schönberg, former subalterns of his, I suppose, and equally disaffected as himself, were with him at Isenburg; besides these, whose connexions and followers could assist with head or hand, there was in correspondence with him one Schwalbe, a Bohemian by birth, officiating now as cook (cook or scullion, I am uncertain which) in the electoral Castle itself at Altenburg; this Schwalbe, in the way of intelligence and help for plotting, was of course the most important of all. Intelligence enough from Schwalbe and his consorts; and schemes grounded thereon; first one scheme and then another, in that hungry castle of Isenburg, we need not doubt. At length word came from Schwalbe, that on the 7th of July (1455), the Elector was to take a journey to Leipzig; Electress and two Princes (there were but two, still boys) to be

Kunz, who had once been head chamberlain here, knows every room and passage of this royal castle; probably his Misnians also know it, or a good deal of it, from of old. They first lock all the servants' doors; lock the Electress's door; walk then into the room where the two Princes sleep, in charge of their ancient governess, a feeble old lady, who can give no hinderance ;-they seize the two Princes, boys of twelve and fourteen; descend with them, by the great staircase, into the court of the Castle, successfully so far; or rather, not quite successfully, but with a mistake to mend. They find, when in the court of the Castle, that here, indeed, is Prince Ernst, the eldest boy, but that instead of Prince Albert we have brought his bedfellow, a young count Barby, of use to


This was Mosen the Misnian's mistake; stupid Mosen! Kunz himself runs aloft again; finds now the real Albert, who had hid himself below the bed; descends with the real Albert. "To horse now, to horse, my men, without delay!" These noises had awakened the Electress; to what terrors and

emotions we can fancy. Finding her door | solitudes. "How, what! Who is the young bolted, but learning gradually what is toward, gentleman? What are my Herren pleased she speaks or shrieks, from the window, a to be doing here?" inquired the collier. passionate prayer, in the name of earth and "Pooh, a youth who has run away from his heaven, Not to take her children from her. relations; who has fallen thirsty: do you "Whatsoever your demands are, I will see know where bilberries are? No. Then why them granted, only leave my children!" not walk on your way my grim one?" The "Sorry we cannot, high Lady!" thought grim one has heard ringing of alarm bells all Kunz, and rode rapidly away; for all the day; is not quite in haste to go: Kunz, Castle is now getting awake, and locks will not whirling round to make him go, is caught in long keep every one imprisoned in his room. the bushes by the spurs, and falls flat on his Kunz, forth again into the ambrosial night, face: the young Prince whispers eagerly, divides his party into two, one Prince with "I am Prince Albert, and am stolen!" each; Kunz himself leading the one, Mosen Whew-wew! One of the squires aims a to lead the other. They are to ride by two blow at the Prince, so it is said; perhaps it different roads towards Bohemia, that if one was at the collier only: the collier wards misluck, there may still be another to make with his poking pole, strikes fiercely with terms. Kunz himself, with the little Albert his poking-pole, fells down the squires, behe has got on hand (no time to change labors Kurz himself. And, behold, the colprinces at present), takes the more northerly lier's wife comes running on the scene, and, road; and both dive into the woods. Not a with her shrieks, brings a body of other colmoment to be lost; for already the alarm- liers upon it: Kunz is evidently done! He bell is out at Altenburg-some servant hav- surrenders, with his squires and Prince; is ing burst his door, and got clutch of it; the led, by this black bodyguard, armed with results of which will be manifold! Result axes, shovels, poking-poles, to the neighborfirst could not fail: The half-drunk ser- ing monastery of Grünhain (Green Grove,) vants, who are out at supper, come tumbling and is there safe warded under lock and key. home; listen open-mouthed, then go tumbling The afternoon of July 8th, 1455; what a back into the little town, and awaken its day for him and for others! I remark, with alarm-bell; which awakens, in the usual pro- certainty, that dusty riders, in rather unusual gression, all others whatsoever; so that numbers, and of miscellaneous equipment, Saxony at large, to the remotest village, are also entering London City, far away, this from all its belfries, big and little, is ringing very evening; a constitutional parliament madly; and all day Kunz, at every thin having to take seat at Westminister, toplace of the forest, hears a ding-dong of morrow, 9th July, 1455, of all days and doom pronounced against him, and plunges years, to settle what the battle of St. deviously forward all the more intently. Albans, lately fought, will come to. For the rest, that the King of England has fallen imbecile, and his she-wolf of France is on flight; that probably York will be Protector again (till he lose his head), and that the troubles of mankind are not limited to Saxony and its Metal Mountains, but that the Devil every where is busy, as usual! This consideration will serve at least to date the affair of Kunz for us, and shall therefore stand unerased.


A hot day, and a dreadful ride through boggy wastes and intricate mountain woods; with the alarm-bell, and the shadow of the gallows, dogging one all the way. Here, however, we are now, within an hour of the Bohemian border;-cheerily,my men, through these wild hills! The young Prince, a boy of twelve, declares himself dying of thirst. Kunz, not without pity, not without anxiety on that head, bids his men ride on; all but himself and two squires shall ride on, get every thing ready at Isenburg, whither we and his young Highness will soon follow. Kunz encourages the Prince; dismounts, he and his squires, to gather him some bilberries. Kunz is busy in that search,-when a black figure staggers in upon the scene; a grimy köhler, namely, (collier, charcoal-burner,) with a long poking-pole (what he calls schürbaum) in his hand: grimy collier, just awakened from his after-dinner nap; somewhat astonished to find company in these

From Grünhain Monastery the Electress, gladdest of Saxon mothers, gets back her younger boy to Altenburg, with hope of the the other: praised be heaven for ever for it. "And you, O Collier of a thousand! what is your wish, what is your want: How dared you beard such a lion as that Kunz, you with your simple poking-pole, you Collier sent of heaven!" "Madam, I drilled him soundly with my poking-pole (hab ihn weidlich get

Henry's History of Britain, vi. 108.


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