after his re-committal to York, the following principle. It is well known, that there are passages occur :

hundreds of persons who are sane only so

long as they remain in a Lunatic Asylum ; “I am sorry to have to write to you from a they are detained, therefore, because, if let prison. This I must submit to, but God prepares | loose, they would cease to exercise a rational a worse prison for the impenitent. I am shut control over their actions. This principle out, it is true, from the wide prospect of nature, I might, indeed, be extended to a large class am rent from the bosom of my family; 1 no longer of our criminal population, who give themreap the gain, or mingle in the amusements of life. Sometimes I mourn in solitude, and some

selves up to the commission of crimes less times I am distressed by my companions. To be venial than that of drunkenness, but not more visited by a friend is a special favor; and as for mischievous. deliverance, I have no knowledge of the period when it is likely to arrive."

** Insanity may often be traced to a criminal in.

dulgence in depraved habits and vicious thoughts ; Let the reader place himself in this man's to reckless and unprincipled conduct ; to long-inposition, and then he will more readily under dulged self-will; to a censurable neglect of the stand the wrong done to him. In a fit of cultivation of habits of self-control; to an utter furious blind delirium, he has destroyed the and, above all, to a repudiation of the principles

disregard of all mental discipline and training; wife of his bosom; and, as if that were not of our holy and revered religion, and a total rejecmisery enough for a life, the reminiscence of tion of the great scheme of man's redemption."* which alone might excuse madness, he has to be separated from his children, and to herd

If it be found that, year after year, men, with felons.

thus acting and thus placed, continue to outThis man's mania and miseries were the rage the laws of their country; or that, so consequences of babits of intemperance : to long as they are under the salutary discipline the same source may be traced much of the of a prison, they are moral, orderly, indusinsanity in the pauper, and even in the better trious, but that, so soon as they are returned classes. In other words, it is self-creating to society, they again relapse into their folHow far a self-created lunatic should be con

lies and crimes, and re-appear in the criminal sidered as a fit and proper person for punish

court as “ ticket-of-leave men;" does it not ment, may admit of considerable discussion; appear to be a prudent and rational step to but there can be no doubt whatever, we place these men in a medium position between think, that if it can be conclusively shown

a prison and society ?–a position in which that a man is about to drink himself insane, they may be subjected to the humanizing inor that he insanely wastes his time and prop- fluences of social discipline, regulated labor, erty in drink, to the loss of his health, and and mental culture, and protected from those the starvation of his family,—if such can be temptations which (as reiterated experience conclusively proved to be the career of a proves) they cannot resist. man, then he is a fit and proper person to be * “ Journal of Psychological Medicine," vol. vii. detained and taken care of. This is no new

p. 624.

From the Westminster Review.


[The following article has an interest not only as | threads of that. Beating about in those disa curious episode of German history, but as the pro- | mal haunted wildernesses; painfully sorting duction of CARLYLE, whose pen has not been before traceable in the periodical literature for many a

and sifting in the historical lumber-rooms and year

. It has all his singular and attractive qualities their dusty fusty imbroglios, in quest of far -Ed.]

other objects, this is what we have picked

up on that accidental matter. To which the Over seas in Saxony, in the month of reader, if he can make any use of it, has our July, 1455, a notable thing befel; and this welcome and our blessing. in regard to two persons who have themselves, by accident, become notable. Con- The Wettin Line of Saxon Princes, the cerning which we are now to say something, same that get endures, known by sight to with the reader's permission. Unluckily, every English creature (for the high individfew English readers ever heard of the event; ual, Prince Albert, is of it), had been lucky and it is probable there is but one English enough to combine in itself, by inheritance, reader or writer (the present reviewer, for by good management, chiefly by inheritance, his sins) that was ever driven or led to in- and mere force of survival, all the Three quire into it, so that it is quite wild soil, very separate portions and divided dignities of rough for the ploughsbare; neither can the that country ; the Thüringen Landgraviate, barvest well be considerable. English the Meissen Markgraviate, and the ancient readers are so deeply ignorant of foreign Duchy and Electorate of Saxony; and to history, especially of German history !” ex- become very great among the princes of the claims a learned professor. Alas, yes ; EngGerman empire. It was in 1423 that Eleclish readers are dreadfully ignorant of many tor Frederick, named der Streitbare (the Fenthings, indeed of must things ;-which is a cible, or Prompt-to fight), one of the notables lamentable circumstance, and ought to be of this line, had got from Emperor Sigismund, amended by degrees.

for help rendered (of which poor Sigismund But, however all this may be, there is had always need, in all kinds), the vacant somewhat in relation to that Saxon business, Kur (Electorship) and Dukedom of Saxony; called the Prinzenraub, or Stealing of the after which accession, and through the earlier Princes, and to the other“ pearls of mem- portion of the fifteenth century, this Saxon ory” (do not call them old buttons of mem- House might fairly reckon itself the greatest ory !) which string themselves upon the in Germany, till Austria, till Brandenburg

gradually rose to overshadow it. Law of • 1. Schreiter's Geschichte des Prinzenraubs primogeniture could never be accepted in (Schreiters History of the Stealing of the Princes). that country; nothing but divisions, rediviLeipzig: 1804.

sions, coalescings, splittings, and never-end. 2. Johann Hübner's, Rectoris der Schule zu S. ing readjustments and collisions were preva. Johannis in Hamburg, Genealogische Tabellen (Ge; lent in consequence; to which cause, first of nealogical Tables : by Johann Hübner, Rector of St. Johu's School in Hamburg) 3 vols. oblong 4to. all, the loss of the race by Saxony may be Leipzig. 1725-1728.

ascribed. 3. Genealogische Tafeln zur Staatengeschichte der To enter into all that, be far from us. Germanischen und flawischen Völker im 191en Enough to say that this Streitbare, Frederick History of the Germanic and Slavic Nations in the the Fencible, left several sons, and none of them 19th century), By Dr. Friedrich Maximilian Oer- without some snack of principality taken from tel. 1 vol. oblong 12mu. Leipzig. 1846. the main lot: several sons, who, however, by

† The writer of this article heretically disregards death and bad behavior, pretty soon reduced the editorial plural. Our discerning readers will themselves to two : lst, the eldest, a Fredunderstand, even without the aid of his initial at the end, why we choose to let him have his way. erick, named the Placid, Peacable, or Pacific -Ev.

(Friederich der Sanftmüthige), who possessed

him pay

the electorate and indivisible, inalienable land tower called Kaufungen, the site of which thereto pertaining (Wittenberg, Torgau, &c.; old tower, if now no ruins of it, can be seen a certain "circle" or province in the Witten- near Penig, on the Mulde river, some two berg region; of which, as Prussia has now hours' ride southeast of Altenburg, in those got all or most of it, the exact boundaries are Thuringian or Upper Saxon regions-Kunz not known to me); and 2d, a Wilhelm, who had made himself a name in the world, in all the other territories "ruled conjointly” though unluckily be was short of property with Frederick.

otherwise at present. For one thing, Kunz Conjointly: were not such lands likely to had gained great renown by beating Albert be beautifully “ruled "? Like a carriage of Brandenburg, the Albert named Achilles, team with two drivers on the box! Freder- third Hohenzollern Elector of Brandenburg, ick, however, was Pacific; probably an ex- and the fiercest fighter of his day (a terrible cellent good-natured man; for I do not find hawk-nosed, square-jawed, lean, ancient man, that he wanted fire either, and conclude that ancestor of Frederick the Great); Kunz, I the friendly elements abounded in him. say, had beaten this potentate, being hired by Frederick was a man that could be lived the town of Nürnberg, Albert's rebellious with; and the conjoint government went on, town, to do it ; or if not beaten him (for Alwithout visible outbreak, between his brother bert prevailed in the end), bad at least taken Wilhelm and him, for a series of years. For him captive in some fight, and made him twelve years, better or worse;-much better a huge ransom. He had also been in the than our own red and white Roses here at Hussite wars, this Kunz, fighting up and home, which were fast budding into battles down: a German condottiere, I find, or of St. Albans, battles of Towton, and other Dugald Dalgetty of the epoch ; his last sad outcomes about that time! of which stroke of work had been this late engagetwelve years we accordingly say nothing. ment, under Frederick the Peaceable, to

But now, in the twelfth year, a foolish fight against brother Wilhelm and his Bosecond-cousin, a Friedrich the Silly (Einfäl. hemian allies. tige), at Weimar, died childless, A.D. 1440; In this last enterprise Kunz had prospered by which event extensive Thuringian possess- but indifferently. He had, indeed, gained ions fell into the main lot again; whereupon something they called the “ victory of Gera” the question arose, How to divide them? A -loud honor, I doubt not, and temporary question difficult to solve; which by-and-by possession of that little town of Gera; but, declared itself to be insoluble; and gave rise in return, had seen his own old tower of to open war between the brothers Frederick Kaufungen, and all his properties, wasted by Pacific and Wilhelm of Meissen. Frederick

ravages Nay, he had at length been proving stronger, Wilhelm called in the Bo taken captive by the Bohemians, and been hemians, - confused Hussite, Ziska-Podie-obliged to ransom himself by huge outlay of brad populations, bitter enemies of orthodox money–4,000 goldgulden, or about £2,000 Germany; against whom Frederick sent cele sterling; a crushing sum! With all which brated fighting captains, Kunz von Kaufun- losses, why did not Kunz lose his life too, as gen and others; who did no good on the he might easily have done? It would have Bohemians, but showed all men how dan been better for him. Not having lost his gerous a conflagration had arisen here in the life, he did of course, at the end of the war, heart of the country, and how needful to be claim and expect indemnity; but he could quenched without delay. Accordingly, the get none, or not any that was satisfactory to neighbors all ran up, Kaiser Frederick III. him. at the head of them (a cunning old Kaiser, Elector Frederick had had losses of his Max's father); and quenched it was, after own; was disposed to stick to the letter of four or five years' ruinous confusion, by the his contracts in reference to Kunz: not even treaty of Naumburg” in 1450—most ob- the 4,000 goldgulden of Bohemian ransom scure treaty, not necessary to be laid before would he consent to repay. Elector Freder. the reader;-whereby, if not joint govern- ick alleged that Kunz was not bis liegeman, ment, peaceable division and separation could whom he was bound to protect; but only his ensue.

soldier, hired to fight at so much per day, The conflagration was thus put out; but and stand the risks himself. In fine, he exvarious coals of it continued hot for a long asperated Kunz very much; and could be time-Kunz von Kaufungen above mentioned brought to nothing, except to agree that arthe hottest of all. Kunz or Conrad, born bitrators should be named, to settle what squire or ritter of a certain territory and old was really due from one to the other ;-a


of war.


course of little promise to indigent, indignant, left behind at Altenburg : whether any thing Kunz. The arbitrators did accordingly meet, could follow out of that? Most of the serand Kunz being summoned, made his appear- vants, Schwalbe added, were invited to a ance; but not liking the figure of the court, supper in the town, and would be absent went away again without waiting for the drinking. Absent drinking; princes left unverdict; which, accordingly, did fall out in- guarded ? Much can follow out of that! finitely short of bis wishes or expectations, Wait for an opportunity till doomsday, will and made the indigent man still more indig- there ever come a better ? Let this, in brief, nant. Violent speeches were heard from be the basis of our grand scheme; and let all him in consequence, and were officiously re- hands be busy upon it. Isenburg expects ported; nay, some say, were heard by the every man to do his duty !—Nor was IsenElector himself : for example, That a man burg disappointed. might have vengeance, if he could get nothing The venerable little Saxon town of Altenelse ; that an indigent, indignant fighting man, burg lies, among intricate woods and Metaldriven utterly desperate, would harry and Mountain wildernesses, a good day's riding destroy; would do this and also that, of a west from Isenburg : nevertheless, at the fit direful and dreadful nature. To which the date, Isenburg has done its duty; and in spite Elector answered: “Don't burn the fishes in of the intricacies and the hot weather, Kunz their ponds, at any rate!"-still further anger-is on the ground in full readiness. Towards ing Kunz. Kunz was then heard growling midnight, namely, on the 7th of July, 1455, about “vengeance not on this unjust Elec- Kunz, with a party of thirty men, his two tor's land and people, but on his flesh and Misnian squires among them, well-mounted blood;" in short, growing ever more intem- and armed, silently approaches the rendezperate, grim of humor, and violent of speech, vous under the Castle of Altenburg ; softly Kunz was at last banished the country ; or- announces himself, by whew of whistling, or dered flatly to go about his business, and some concerted signal, audible in the stillgrowl elsewhere. He went, with certain in- ness of the ambrosial night. Cook Schwalbe digent followers of his, across into Bohemia; is awake; Cook Schwalbe answers signal ; where, after groping about, he purchased an Alings him down a line, fixes his rope-ladders: old castle, Isenburg, the pame of it; castle Kunz, with his Misnian squires and a select hanging somewhere on the western slopes of few more, mounts aloft; leaving the rest bethe Erzgebirge (Metal Mountains, so-called), low, to be vigilant, to seize the doors especonvenient for the Saxon frontier, and to be cially, when once we are masters of them had cheap: this empty, damp old castle of from within. Isenburg, Kunz bought; and lived there in Kunz, who had once been head chambersuch humor as may be conceived. Revenge lain here, knows every room and passage of on this unjust Elector, and “not on his land this royal castle; probably bis Misnians also and people, but on his flesh and blood,” was know it, or a good deal of it, from of old. now the one thought of Kunz.

They first lock all the servants' doors; lock Two Misnian squires, Mosen and Schön- the Electress's door; walk then into the room berg, former subalterns of his, I suppose, where the two Princes sleep, in charge of and equally disaffected as bimself, were with their ancient governess, a feeble old lady, bim at Isenburg ; besides these, whose con- who can give no hinderance ;—they seize the nexions and followers could assist with bead two Princes, boys of twelve and fourteen; or hand, there was in correspondence with descend with them, by the great staircase, bim one Schwalbe, a Boliemian by birth, into the court of the Castle, successfully so officiating now as cook (cook or scullion, I far; or rather, not quite successfully, but am uncertain which) in the electoral Castle with a mistake to mend. They find, when itself at Altenburg; this Schwalbe, in the in the court of the Castle, that here, indeed, way of intelligence and help for plotting, was is Prince Ernst, the eldest boy, but that inof course the most important of all. Intelli- stead of Prince Albert we have brought his gence enough from Schwalbe and his con- bedfellow, a young count Barby, of use to sorts; and schemes grounded thereon; first This was Mosen the Misnian's mistake ; one scheme and then another, in that hungry stupid Mosen! Kunz himself runs aloft castle of Isenburg, we need not doubt. At again ; finds now the real Albert, who had length word came from Schwalbe, that on hid himself below the bed ; descends with the 7th of July (1455), the Elector was to the real Albert. “ To horse now, to horse, take a journey to Leipzig; Electress and two my men, without delay!" These noises had Princes (there were but iwo, still boys) to be awakened the Electress ; to what terrors and



emotions we can fancy. Finding her door solitudes. “How, what! Who is the young bolted, but learning gradually what is toward, gentleman? What are my Herren pleased she speaks or shrieks, from the window, a to be doing here ?" inquired the collier. passionate prayer, in the name of earth and "Pooh, a youth who has run away from his heaven, Not to take her children from her. relations; who has fallen thirsty: do you “Whatsoever your demands are, I will see know where bilberries are ? No. Then why them granted, only leave my children !" not walk on your way my grim one ?' The "Sorry we cannot, high Lady!” thought grim one has heard ringing of alarm- bells all Kunz, and rode rapidly away; for all the day; is not quite in haste to go: Kunz, Castle is now getting awake, and locks will not whirling round to make him go, is caught in long keep every one imprisoned in his room. the bushes by the spurs, and falls flat on bis

Kunz, forth again into the ambrosial night, face: the young Prince whispers eagerly, divides his party into two, one Prince with “I am Prince Albert, and am stolen !" each; Kunz himself leading the one, Mosen Whew-wew! One of the squires aims a to lead the other. They are to ride by two blow at the Prince, so it is said ; perhaps it different roads towards Bohemia, that if one was at the collier only: the collier wards misluck, there may still be another to make with his poking pole, strikes fiercely with terms. Kunz himself, with the little Albert his poking-pole, fells down the squires, behe has got on hand (no time to change labors Kurz himself. And, behold, the colprinces at present), takes the more northerly lier's wife comes running on the scene, and, road ; and both dive into the woods. Not a with her shrieks, brings a body of other colmoment to be lost; for already the alarm- liers upon it: Kunz is evidently done! He bell is out at Altenburg--some servant bav- surrenders, with his squires and Prince ; is ing burst bis door, and got clutch of it; the led, by this black bodyguard, armed with results of which will be manifold! Result axes, shovels, poking-poles, to the neighborfirst could not fail : The half-drunk sering monastery of Grünhain (Green Grove,) vants, who are out at supper, come tumbling and is there safe warded under lock and key. home; listen open-mouthed, then go tumbling The afternoon of July 8th, 1455; what a back into the little town, and awaken its day for him and for others! I remark, with alarm-bell ; which awakens, in the usual pro- certainty, that dusty riders, in rather unusual gression, all others whatsoever; so that numbers, and of miscellaneous equipment, Saxony at large, to the remotest village, are also entering London City, far away, this from all its belfries, big and little, is ringing very evening; a constitutional parliament madly; and all day Kunz, at every thin having to take seat at Westminister, toplace of the forest, hears a ding-dong of morrow, 9th July, 1455, of all days and doom pronounced against him, and plunges years, * to setile what the battle of St. deviously forward all the more intently. Albans, lately fought, will come to. For

A A hot day, and a dreadful ride through the rest, that the King of England has fallen boggy wastes and intricate mountain woods; imbecile, and his she-wolf of France is on with the alarm-bell, and the shadow of the flight; that probably York will be Protector gallows, dogging one all the way. Here, again (till he lose his head), and that the

,— however, we are now, within an hour of the troubles of mankind are not limited to Bohemian border;-cheerily,my men,through Saxony and its Metal Mountains, but that these wild hills! The young Prince, a boy the Devil every where is busy, as usual! of twelve, declares himself dying of thirsi. This consideration will serve at least to date Kunz, not without pity, not without anxiety the affair of Kunz for us, and shall therefore on that head, bids his men ride on; all but stand unerased. himself and two squires shall ride on, get From Grünbain Monastery the Electress, every thing ready at Isenburg, whither we gladdest of Saxon mothers, gets back her and his young Highness will soon follow. younger boy to Altenburg, with hope of the Kunz encourages the Prince ; dismounts, he ihe other : praised be heaven for ever for it. and his squires, to gather him some bilberries. “And


O Collier of a thousand! what is Kunz is busy in that search,—when a black your wish, what is your want: How dared figure staggers in upon the scene ; a grimy you beard such a lion as that Kunz, you with köhler, namely, (collier, charcoal-burner,)

your simple poking.pole, you Collier sent of with a long poking-pole (what he calls schür- heaven!" "Madam, I drilled him soundly baum) in bis band : grimy collier, just with my poking-pole (hab ihn weidlich getawakened from bis after-dinner nap; somewhat astonished to find company in these Henry's History of Britain, vi. 108.

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