mass of rock, and beheld the mutilated sap castles, in the same county, 10 belong to the pers crawling from beneath their shattered same category. protector, like so many pigs. But the chief The same characteristics do not so freof all besieging works was the movable quently occur in the southern English countower, brought up face to face with the ties, though there is Pevensey in Sussex, defenders, and containing battering-rams be- Goodrich in Herefordshire, and Cowling in low, with the various instruments already Kent, and there may be several other in. mentioned, employed in its several upper stances. They reappear on the Border, stories. To oppose such a formidable engine, where they were connected with the Scottish which could only be applied by some com- wars; the forms may be seen in Prudho, mander of vast resources, the flanking round Twizel, the outworks of Bamborough, and, in towers were of invaluable service, as the bas- a modernized shape, at Alnwick. tions and outworks are at the present day. Ireland is rich in these quadrilateral flanked The main difference in the projectile direc- edifices. There is Enniscorthy, guarding the tion of the operations in the two is, that bridge of the Slaney in Wexford, and Dunwhile the fire of a fort is chiefly horizontal, more in Meath, one of the most entire and the assaults made by the Norman keep were regular specimens, if we may judge by the vertical, and hence came the crest of machic- representation of Grose, who, to do him jusolations and turrets which has given so pic- tice, never idealizes.

It is one of the many turesque a character to a whole school, of castles attributed to De Lacey, the governor baronial architecture.

of Meath. Another of them, Kilkea, conThe instances of the Norman Castle, in its tinued long to raise its Banking round towers more persect shape, still existing, are very after it had laughed at the ferocious raids of interesting in a historical view. "It may be the O'Moors and O'Dempsies in the English observed, that in the settled districts of Eng-pale. Two of the best specimens, Lea, in land there are specimens of the older and Queen's county, and Ferns, in Wexford, were ruder style of Norman work; but that, in attacked and taken in the romantic inroad of the Edwardian conquests, the fully developed Edward Bruce, who thought that, as his form is the oldest of which vestiges are to brother had, by one gallant achievement, be found.

wrested a crown in Scotland from the enAberconway, or Snowdon Castle, in Car-croaching Norman, he might as well endeavor

, parvonshire, must have been one of the most to take one in Ireland. Grandison Castle, formidable specimens, from the great extent with two beautiful specimens of the bellof its curtain walls, and its numerous round shaped round tower, is attributed to the reign towers. It was built, say authorities on of James I.; but, though it is not the pecuwhich we place no reliance, except in so far liar defect of Irish antiquities to be post-dated, as they correspond with the character of the this portion must, we think, belong to the edifice, in 1281; it served the purpose for Norman period. There are fine specimens which the strongest fortresses are required of the round tower at Ballylachan and Ballythat of a frontier defence. In Flintshire nasad, whence the M'Donoughs were driven there are Hawarden and Rhudland. Beau- forth; and the utterly un-Norman names of maris, in Anglesea, has some fine diminishing these buildings do not exclude them from towers. Carew, in Pembrokeshire, has a identification as the work of the courtly insort of angular buttresses, instead of the vaders. In Ireland, however, this sort of graceful increment towards the base, in the work never ceased. There were round towers; but it is a luxuriant and noble O’Schauchnessies, O'Donahues, O'Rourkes, specimen; and though Welsh tradition says or O'Dempsies, keeping the Norman and the it belonged to the princes of South Wales- Saxon at work in making fortresses; and no man can tell how many hundreds of years perhaps the latest specimen of it is a relic of before William or Rollo either -- and was the '48, which we saw the other day in an given by Rhys ap Theodore, with bis daugh- antiquarian rummage in ancient and ruiniferter Nest, as a marriage portion to Gerrald ous Cashel, being a large iron box with de Carrio, yet we take the liberty of holding loopholes projecting out from the barrack that it as clearly bears the mark of the in- where it was placed, to rake the street into vader of Wales, as any government- house in which it projected, with musketry from the Canada or New Zealand bears evidence that loopholes. it is not the work of the natives. We take In Scotland, the Anglo-Norman origin of Cilgarron, Haverford-west, and Mannorbeer the earliest true baronial fortresses is attested



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with remarkable precision. In the first place, system, it appears, is now on trial. The there is not a vestige in Scotland of the charge against it is, that every addition made earlier kind of square keep, such as might to it in the way of protecting works, only have been raised in the days of the Con- renders a fort the more certain of ultimate queror, or of William Rufus, with its semi-capture, since these protecting works are circular arches and dogtoothed decorations. themselves easily taken. It is said that they The pointed architecture, and the Edwardian save the main work from a general escalade, baronial, had come into use ere any of the which is never likely to be attempted, but fortresses of which we possess remains were facilitate a deliberate siege, which is the erected. Hence, the oldest of the Scottish proper method of taking fortified places. It castles were evidently built by Edward to is said that in fortification we must, as in secure his conquest. They may be enumer- other matters of war, recur to the first prinated as those of Caerlaverock, Bothwell, ciple, that the best way to protect ourselves Dirleton, Kildrummie, and Lochindorb. These is to kill our enemy. Of old, the main denames at once excite recollections of the war fences of a vessel were to protect the deck of independence, when these castles were by castles stem and stern from a boarding taken and retaken, and were surrounded by enemy; now, the arrangement is directed to the most interesting and enduring associations the destruction of the enemy before he can of that majestic conflict.

board. Our old knights in armor were a The architectural progeny which this style sort of moving fortresses made more for proof building left in Scotland, is very different, tection than destruction. In Italy, the steel from its growth into the bastioned fortifica- incasement was brought to such perfection, tions of other countries. The Scottish laird, that at the battle of Tornoue, under Charles or chief, when he made his house a fortress, VIII., we are told by Father Daniel that a as he had imminent necessity for doing, number of Italian knights were overthrown, could not afford to erect the great flanking but could not be killed until the country towers of the Normans; but he stuck little people brought huge stones and sledge-hamturrets on the corners of his block - house, mers, and broke their shells, like those of so which served his purpose admirably; and many lobsters. It sounds like an odd accomthere are no better flanked fortresses, con- paniment of civilization that she should make sidered with a view to the form of attack to the external form of warfare more destrucwhich they were subjected, than our peel- tive and less defensive--but so it is; and a houses.

reform in fortifications is proposed, which, by On the other hand, in the Continental | the abandonment of the flanking system, and castles of the fifteenth and sixteenth centu- something like a restoration of the primitive ries, as Heidelberg, Perronne, and Plessis la form, is to make the fort more terrible to the Tour, as the old representations give it, we invader, as a means of making it a more see the flanking system extending itself later-effective defence. ally, until it forms something between the We profess not to enter on so great a Norman keep and the modern fortress. · It question. Mere theories we have herein was on Plessis that Philip de Comines moral offered to our reader; and as they are given izes, as a large prison into which the great in all innocence and good-humor, all we pray King Louis had virtually immured bimself, is, that he will not, if they differ from his becoming, by his own exertions for the en- own, condemn us to some dire mysterious largement of his power, and his protection fate. Let him, if we displease him, simply from secret enemies, nothing better than the content himself with the old established hapless immured prisoner, whose lot be remedy, and mutter to himself, “Pooh! forced upon so many others.

humbug !"

And we, on our part, engage The one great leading step which modern that we shall live in all charity with all men fortification took, beyond the mere flanking who accept not our theory; and will by no system, is the discovery of the glacis for means endeavor to prove that they are sen. covering the stone-work, and protecting it sual, lewd, dishonorable people, deserving of from the attacks of cannon. The whole 'some dire punishment.

From Tait's Mag a zine.


Within the compass of 278 pages, fools

comes stagnant; when its priests become cap octavo, Mr. Wilks has given us an

unfaithful to the sanctities of their office, and outline of the life, and an epitome of the its people sink into unhealthy lethargy; productions, of this extraordinary man. Ded-when corruptions in its discipline provoke no icated to Thomas Carlyle, and to the Rev. remonstrance, and death-like repose in its F. D. Maurice, it will be supposed that the worship occasions no solicitude, a lion-heartauthor writes from a friendly, though not ed, God-fearing, man-loving, apostolic adprejudiced, stand-point. He is a discrimi. venturer is a benefactor and a blessing--he nating admirer, not a blind follower of his repeats within limits the unlimited work of hero. We find it difficult to understand how Christ-he redeems the people of God. he can be a common disciple of Carlyle, There is Divine power in his strange, strong, Maurice, and Irving. For perhaps it would unfettered, and undismayed humanity. His be difficult to name three teachers, the holy indignation, awakened by ostentatious methods and tendencies of whose minds abuses; his fervent prayers, inspired by more vary.

But Mr. Wilks is catholic in dread of prevailing impiety, and by unwonted his reading, and catholic in his sympathies ; devotion to the Most High; his appeals, and he has brought to his present task a which august conventionalisms cannot silence, pains-taking reverence, and an honest wisdom, and his rebukes, which no sense of earthly which we may without scruple praise. A interests can restrain; bis prophetic glances, sectarian, whatever his school, could not un- of which piety, poetry, and love (the three derstand Irving; and should not do his life. elemental attributes of one beautiful flame) Mr. Wilks does understand; and, though he are the illumination ; his outbursts of deep has left much to be written and said, what lamentation ; his grand and sacred scorn of he has done, he has done well. The aim of all affectations, and unseemly, unnatural the book does not appear to be very high; courtesies ; his defiance of enthroned eccleand, though the tone of its author is occa- siastical potentates; his faith, warm as his sionally above the manner and the matter of heart, and solid as his instincts; bis eloquence, his work, both in matter and in manner the which rolls with mysterious majesty, as work is to the author's credit.

though it were the echo of speeches adWe therefore thank Mr. Wilks for reviving dressed by God to the nations ; his absorpa name the world should not forget. He tion in the infinite, eternal, and almighty who stirs the Church, whether to new

wonders of that Gospel which is at once the thought, or to new zeal, augments the moral theme of his ministry, the plea of his assumpresources, and stimulates the moral energies tions, and the law of his heart; the tenderof the whole community. Not in the estab- ness of his many tears, shed over the obsti. lishment of new secis, nor in the mere sus- nacy of the wicked, and the cruelty of tenance of religious agitation, does the value unfaithful friends; the yearnings of his of religious reforms and religious revivals broken soul; in short, the magic fervor of mainly consist. These may, and, in most his whole address—these, as they are so cases, naturally will, be the accompaniments many embodiments and utterances of a reor the consequences of such a movement; ligiousness uncommon in his day, become the but they do not comprehend its full virtue, I creative agents of new light and new life to nor its essential glory. When the religious | all who come within the range of their inlife of a great nation, or of a great sect, be- fluence. Words thus spoken are pregnant

with sublime spiritual power. The man thus

constituted wears the commanding dignity * Edward Irving: an Ecclesiastical and Literary of a king, whilst he exercises the functions History of the Half-century,” etc. London: Wil- of a prophet. Among the saints he restores liam Freeman, 69 Fleet-street.

new sanctity. The minister of remorse, he

is truly the minister of salvation. To none | the gratitude of the Church, and the respect should the Church or the world be more of history, are abundantly due ! grateful than to such a man; for from none Edward Irving was born in the little town do richer blessings proceed.

of Annan--a place of some other interesting It is not too much to say that, in very associations on the 15th of August, 1792. many respects, Edward Irving was preëmi- His father was descended from a French nently a man of this order. He was con- family ; bis mother was supposed to bave nected with a branch of the Christian king. come from the family of which Martin Ludom where spiritual flatness and inactivity ther was an illustrious member. His parents bad been fostered by events and by leading were in comfortable circumstances; and, men for some generations. He came upon though Edward was one of eight children, an age when a few others, equally with him- bis education was not neglected. His first self, felt the necessity of renewed enterprise instructress was Margret Paine---an aunt, and restored faith. To the restoration of and the reputed teacher, of the author of the faith and the renewal of enterprise he hon- famous “Rights of Man,” and “The Age of estly-with all the ardor of impulse, com- Reason.” The youth was given to the more bined with all the solemn sobriety of con- exuberant and healthy amusements of his scientiousness—dedicated his life. In the age-devoted to athletic sports, and long face of innumerable obstacles he persevered, rambles on the shores, or rowings on the even unto death. Independent in the appli- waters of the beautiful Solway Frith,—but cation of his reasoning powers to the great he attended, notwithstanding, with some sucproblems of Revelation, and of religious cess, to the severer occupations of the school, truth, he met the charge of beresy with where he especially distinguished bimself as calm self-reliance and holy appeals to God. an arithmetician. The promise thus given Working in spheres that had been long was fulfilled at the University of Edinburgh, neglected, and with an enthusiasm to which to which seminary he was in due course sent. his contemporaries were utter strangers, he He made such proficiency in mathematics, sustained the criticisms of the captious, the that, on the recommendation of Professor exclamations of the astonished, and the jeers Leslie, he was, as early as his seventeenth of the envious, with that equanimity which is year, appointed teacher of mathematics in an an attribute only of true greatness. Flat- academy at Haddington. He had already tered by a popularity that had never been taken the degree of “A. M.”. In about surpassed, he yielded to none of its seduc- twelve months, he was promoted to the rections. Royal smiles, and the blaze of aris- torship of an academy at Kirkaldy. It was tocratic beauty, never put him off his guard. here that he completed the probation rePrinces heard his faithful warnings; and the quired of him by the Church of Scotland, as splendor and the wealth of the metropolis a candidate for its ministry. He was well trembled beneath the weight of his rebukes. versed in classics, modern languages, and The patronage of the exalted could not be ancient and modern standard literature; and tray, the persecution of the mighty could he had studied natural philosophy and the not overcome; the sneers of the ignorant, the more practical sciences to considerable purfactious, and the profane, could not disturb pose. Thus equipped, he awaited a “call"

” the resolutions of his piety, or the fidelity of to the office for which he had diligently and his services. He was God's own; and he solemnly prepared himself. Long he had to was true. To this, rather than to any pecu- wait. By his occasional sermons he had liarities of opinion, must be attributed his rendered himself rather notorious than popusuccess. For he was successful. Commu- lar, and, wherever he went, excited rather the nities with which he was never associated, felt curiosity of the few than the admiration of the force and the value of his zeal. The the many. Without conforming to the estabcommunity from which he was cast out had lished conventionalities of the pulpit, either been enriched by bis labors, and was re- in the courses of his thinking or the style of proached by his excommunication. And bis address, there was a wayward earnestanother community, respectable for the char-ness, and a deep-seated originality, which aracter and the numbers of its adherents, and rested attertion, but failed to establish power. noteworthy for the comprehensiveness of its Growing weary of delay, and anxious to be basis and the magnificence of its worship, is | diligently and regularly employed for God, for ever identified with his life, though not | he had made up his mind, at the age of known by his name. Surely, to such a man | twenty-seven, to devote himself to missionary

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powers and

adventures. His intention was not to com- when he acquired a quite unprecedented popmit himself to the control and the protection ularity. Members of the Royal family, of any existing religious corporation ; but, leading statesmen of all parties, noblemen of with apostolic simplicity and apostolic faith, every grade, the representatives of the public to go forth under the guidance of Provi-press, might be regularly seen among the dence alone, “ without purse or scrip"—thus crowds who thronged to hear the wonderful leaving the sinister interests of life to the preacher. At length, seat-holders were care of Him to whose glory his spiritual obliged to be admitted by a side door, and energies were to be so unreservedly and those who came from curiosity could only chivalrously consecrated. He was destined, gain admission by ticket. The earnestness, however, to a less hazardous, though, per originality, and true Christian boldness of haps, a not less troubled and laborious career. the man, commanded, as they were entitled On Saturday afternoon he received a mes- to, this eminence. Nor were the critics sisage inviting him to preach on the following lent. From the Times newspaper to the day for Dr. Andrew Thompson, of Edin- smallest penny journal--from the Quarterly burgh; an intimation being given that Dr. Reviews to the petty organs of denominaChalmers, who was at that time seeking an tional progress-the journals of the day reassistant minister, would be one of the con- corded his fame and canvassed his powers. gregation. A few days baving passed without This unrivalled notoriety neither betrayed bringing him any communication, his old res- his meekness, nor modified the practical olution came back to his heart with aug. fidelity which was, from the beginning, one of mented force, and he actually packed up his the most obvious characteristics of his minbooks, despatched them to Annan, and pro-istry. He was not abashed by the presceeded on a farewell journey round the coast ence of kings; nor did the of Ayrshire. By a strange whim, he extended potentates of iniquity effect any restraint his ramble to Ireland : and when he arrived of his sacred denunciations. At the same at Coleraine, he found a letter from his fa- time, he continued his independent pur. ther awaiting him, in which was inclosed a suit of truth; and, when invited to preach a coinmunication from Dr. Chalmers, soliciting sermon on behalf of the London Missionhis immediate presence in Glasgow. The ary Society, he was not afraid to avow the Doctor informed him that he wished bim belief on which he had himself been once to become his assistant. Irving would only ready to act, that those who went far and consent on the condition that the people wide with the Gospel, should trust, as did should first hear him preach. He preached the first missionaries, to the hospitality of before them, and was forth with installed in those on whom they might call, for their supthe office of assistant minister of St. John's, port. The publication of this discourse Glasgow. This engagement lasted only three brought upon him some bitter animadveryears-time long enough for the earnest sions from those more immediately connected young man to discover that honesty, origin with the administration of the Society at ality, and naturalness in the pulpit were not whose request it had been delivered. This the best securities of public and official ap- was the small beginning of strife. Before probation. Again without satisfactory occu- long, the preacher got involved in the meshes pation, the mind of this brave servant of of prophetical interpretation. Like some God resorts once more to its favorite dream good people in all ages, he wished to know of missionary enterprise-a dream which is the times and the seasons of coming events. again interrupted by an incident from which In this fruitless work he soon got quite abmay be dated the origin of Mr. Irving's pe sorbed. He now, also, began to teach, reculiar position and influence in the Christian specting the sacraments, that they were more Church. The Caledonian Church (of Scot-than appropriate ceremonies, they were sacred land) in Cross-street, Hatton-garden, Lon- symbols: they were not mere barren signs, don, was at this period in a very dejected but operative and vita) mysteries. For inand low condition. Anappeal was conveyed stance, he went so far as to say, “ No man to Mr. Irving, through Dr. Chalmers (who can take upon him to separate the effectual through life remained his friend), that he working of the Holy Spirit from baptism, would take the ruins under his care. He without making void all the ordinances of the consented, and immediately removed to the visible Church,” &c. Notwithstanding his metropolis, after having submitted to the rite largeness of soul, and his generally very libof ordination in his native parish. He bad eral notions on questions of civil and religious not occupied his new pulpit many months liberty, and notwithstanding these approaches

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