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pleasure. Happily, however and we use paper proprietor van enlist for the advocacy ihe adverb in a strong conviction of its truth or denunciation of any particular views, is -happily, we say, there never has been, and regulated inexorably by that of the money never can be, in an age of rational freedom, which he is prepared to pay for it. such a thing as a united or unanimous news- These very characteristics are amongst the paper press. Discussion-discord if you will circumstances which impart to the power —is the food on which it thrives. Potent as exercised by the press, a greater degree of is the engine of newspaper advocacy, it is an safety than could accompany the working of engine which, more certainly than almost any other engine of equal aggregate force. any other, is always to be created, purchased, It is a system of balance and counterbalance, and commanded by talent and capital; so in which the effect of irregularities and vagathat different principles, and parties, and ries is, in the long run, controlled and modeopinions, will always have their representa- rated as certainly as the mobility of water tives in the press.
tends to a quiet level, or as the exceptions in To say this, is not to impute corruption or a mortality table are brought into harmony dishonesty to the writers of newspapers, any with whole results by the infallible operation more than to run into the fulsome cant of of the general law of averages. The empire ascribing to them any peculiar degree of mag; of the press will ever be a divided empire nanimity and purity greater than is possessed an empire of rival and vigilant interests ; and by other people. There is no reason to sup- in such rivalry and mutual watchfulness lies pose that newspaper
conductors are more or a well-proved guarantee of its working on the less anxious than their neighbors of other whole for good. callings to make the most of their opportu- For the present, we conclude our notes on nities of self-advancement and aggrandize the newspaper press. This article might be ment; there is no reason to think that in this extended by a vast variety of interesting inrespect they are more or less scrupulous than formation, which would refer, amongst other others. The rational probability is, that with subjects, to many of the most celebrated respect to their political course, they find journalists who have occupied in their day a themselves as individuals generally arrayed prominent place in the public attention ; but on the side which their sincere predilections we have already somewhat exceeded our would induce them to take, though there prescribed limits. These personal anecdotes are signal instances on record in which it and sketches, as well as certain illustrations requires a liberal expenditure of charity to of the causes which have led to the recent admit that this could have been the case. enormous impulse to the circulation of news
In fine, nothing in the world is a more set- papers, including that powerful and talented tled law of cause and effect than the truism, body, the “weeklies,” must be reserved for that the amount of talent” which a news- a future opportunity.
BRITISH INMATES OF LUNATIC ASYLUMS.- with interest. It will be seen that the educat. At the period of the Census, there were ined and professional classes furnish many cases the various lunatic asylums and other insti- of insanity : of clergymen and ministers, 84 tutions for the reception of the insane in are returned; barristers and solicitors, 88; Great Britain, 18,803 persons ; 8999 males, physicians and surgeons, 108; officers of the and 9804 females. The proportion which army and navy, 95; the East India serthe lunatics in asylums bears to the general vice, 118; schoolmasters and teachers, 258. population, is 1 in every 1115 inhabitants in Amongst the largest items are, laborers, Great Britain. To every 100,000 males and 1794 ; female domestic servants, 1763 ; 100,000 females living, there were 88 males shoemakers, 364; weavers, 240; and tailors, and 91 females in these institutions. The for- 224.–Census Report. mer occupations of lunatics will be examined
the Dublin University Mag a zine.
ANNE OF AUSTRIA, AND VOLTAIRE.
ANNE OF Austria, eldest daughter of said himself, covered all scruples of conPhilip III. of Spain, and Queen of Louis science with his cardinal's robe-fell in love XIII. of France, appears to have been a with the Queen, and committed himself so very ambiguous character. Some historians far as unequivocally to declare his passion. contend for her immaculate virtue, while Anne appeared to encourage his hopes, others speak freely of her to an opposite ex- merely to turn him into ridicule. Such was treme. Perhaps, as in many other cases, her ascendency over that strong mind, and the truth lies in a medium. Born in 1601, the influence of the passion which he suffershe was married at fifteen, to a spouse five ed to obscure his reason, that he was perdays younger than herself—a precocious suaded to appear in the presence of her union, in which all thought of mutual liking majesty, and dance a saraband in the coswas more completely set aside than is usual, tume of Scaramouch. At the appointed even in royal alliances.
The natural conse- time, he caused himself to be conveyed quence was, that they led an unhappy life, secretly to the palace in a sedań-chair, and in a short time seldom met, except upon masked, and enveloped in a large cloak. public occasions. When, after a nominal The exhibition was to be perfectly private, union of twenty-three years, Louis XIV. and the Queen the only spectator; but when was born, the event was so extraordinary the infatuated politician was executing one and unlooked for, that the ready tongue of of his happiest pirouettes, and the Queen scandal whispered more than doubts of the imperfectly endeavored to suppress her royal infant's legitimacy. The Queen was laughter, his quick ears caught an accomsuspected of an undue partiality for Gaston | panying titter, which proceeded from the of Orleans, her husband's brother; but no ladies in waiting and maids of honor, conevidence was ever produced beyond her cealed purposely behind the arras.
He saw affable demeanor. This of itself was suffi- at once that he had been made a dupe and cient to rouse the King's jealousy, which he
a victim. With unutterable vexation at his thought became his dignity, although his heart, and a deep scowl of malignity on bis heart had no interest in the matter. There countenance, he rushed from the apartment was reasonable color for the suspicion, not- to concoct plans of vengeance, from which withstanding, for when the King fell dan he never afterwards relented for a moment. gerously ill in 1630, and his life was despair. Thenceforward the unhappy Queen was coned of, a marriage by mutual consent was stantly exposed to visits of scrutiny from talked of between the widow expectant and the chancellor, and examinations before the the heir presumptive. Cardinal Richelieu presidents of the Parliament, on the pretence hated the Queen, did all in his power to of being concerned in Spanish plots against ruin her, and for a series of years subjected the existing administration. These inflictions her to a harassing and unmanly persecution. were enforced with personal rudeness, under If we could believe secret anecdotes, and the the alleged sanction of the King's authority. court gossip of the day, he had been treat. Her strong box was broken open;
presses ed with contempt, and exposed to ridicule forced and searched ; the daring insolence in a manner which a haughty and vindictive spirit, such as he possessed, was not likely * So called from Sedan on the Meuse, in France, to forgive. Whatever might be her imper- where they were originally fabricated. The Duke fections or weaknesses, the Queen was en- of Buckingham imported the first to England in dowed with beauty, grace, gentleness of the reign of James I. His appearance in it created manner, a sweet temper, and an amiable great indignation amongst the lower orders,
who exclaimed that he was employing his fellowdisposition. The king-minister-who, as he creatures to do the service of beasts. VOL. XXXIV.-NO. II.
was even carried so far as to ransack her | kill hiin. He laughed, and disregarded the pockets, and to look under her neckhand intelligence, as Cæsar neglected the augury kerchief. The most faithful domestics were respecting the ides of March. His nephew, torn away from her, some immured in dun- Lord Fielding, riding in company with him, geons, and others treated with savage bar- desired him to exchange doublets, and to let barity. On one of these trying occasions, him have his blue ribbon ; and undertook when Richelieu himself superintended the to muffle himself up in such a manner that proceedings, she lost her habitual self-com- he should be mistaken for the Duke. The mand, and, bursting into an ecstasy of tears, Duke immediately caught him in his arms, exclaimed, “ Monseigneur le Cardinal, Dieu saying that he could not accept of such an ne paye pas toutes les semaines, mais enfin il offer from a nephew whose life he valued as paye.” (“My Lord Cardinal, God does not highly as his own. Yet the unbridled passettle his accounts with mankind every sions of Buckingliam involved two great week, but at last he winds them up effectual- | nations in war, and occasioned the loss of ly.") Yet this princess, in spite of the cruel many thousand lives. Being sent to Paris trealment she received from Richelieu, was with a complimentary embassy on the occastill so conscious of his great talents for sion of his master's mari ge with Henrietta legislation, that, on seeing a picture of him Maria, and to conduct the bride elect to soon after she became regent of France, she England, he was bold enough to fall in love remarked, “ If Richelieu had lived till this with the Queen of Louis XIII., and had time, he would have been more powerful than the hardihood to declare bimself, plainly, in ever.”
an interview which he obtained by artifice. Nothing is more certain than that Anne The Marchioness de Senecy, lady of honor, of Austria treated the overtures of Richelieu who was present, thinking the conversation with contempt and derision. It is not so too long, placed herself in the Queen's armclear that she was equally deaf to George chair, who that day was in bed, only with a Villiers, the first Duke of Buckingham, who, view of preventing the Duke from approachby bis influence with two successive mon- ing too closely; and when she saw that he archs - James and Charles,--ruled over had entirely lost all self-command, and Great Britain as despotically as the Cardinal burst forth into the rhapsodies of a passiongoverned France. We are so accustomed ate lover, she interrupted him with a severe to associate with this celebrated favorite the look, saying, “ Hold your tongue, sir, and idea of a worthless court-minion, swayed by remember that a Queen of France is not to caprice and evil passions, caring for nothing be spoken to in that strain.” This fact, but his own selfish pleasures, and regardless which seems somewhat romantic, is attested of the public interest, that we are scarcely by Giovanni Battista Nani, an Italian hisprepared for the eulogium pronounced on torian of good repute, who distinguished himhis character by a grave and conscientious self in an important mission from the Repubhistorian, Lord Clarendon, who, in a com- lic of Venice to the French Court. Madame parison between this nobleman and the Earl de Motteville seems to confirm it in her of Essex, observes, after praising the Duke's Memoirs, for she says, that when the court extreme affability and gentleness to all men, went as far as Amiens, to accompany Ma“ He had, besides, such a tenderness and dame Henrietta Maria, who was going to compassion in his nature, that such as think marry the King of England, the Duke of the laws dead if they are not severely ex- Buckingham found an opportunity to obtain ecuted, censured him for being too merci- a moment's private conversation with the ful; but his charity was grounded upon a Queen, during which that princess was wiser maxim of state : Non minus turpé obliged to exclaim and call for her equerry. principi multa supplicia, quam medico mulla She adds, also, that when the audacious funera. He believed, doubtless, that hang- envoy took leave of the Queen, he kissed her ing was the worst use man could be put gown, and let fall some tears. According to to.' Buckingham, on his last fatal jour- this retailer of court gossip, it was Madame ney to Portsmouth, was intercepted on the de Launay, and not the Marchioness de road by an old woman, who told him she Senecy, who was seated near the Queen's had heard some desperate persons vow to bed, when the Duke, transported beyond
reason with his passion, having left Henrietta * This saying has been borrowed from Clarendon Maria at Boulogne, came back under preby recent penmen of note, without acknowledg- tence of some forgotten affairs, but in reality
to see her majesty. Other authorities say
that the King, who, when the royal cortège of the frivolous gallantries of a favorite, and returned from the journey, was informed of of his childish caprices." every minute transaction that had taken Soon after this, Richelieu laid siege to place, and a great deal more which never Rochelle. The beleagured Huguenots sent occurred, discharged several of the Queen's to England, imploring fresh assistance. Buckservants, including her equerry, physician, jingham, animated by the keenest stimulants and secretary, Laporte, who has also contri- - love and jealousy, and even more by the buted some curious memoirs.
ambition of repairing his recent defeat, preRichelieu, who received intelligence of all pared quickly a considerable fleet, which, that happened within the court circle sooner bad it been despatched at once, might have than the King himself, conceived an inordi- destroyed the Cardinal's schemes, overnate jealousy of the pretensions of Bucking thrown his great enterprise, and ruined his ham, and before long made his rival feel the fortune. In this crisis, the Queen was comweight of his power. The Duke having pelled to use her individual influence, and to shortly after got himself named to a second write to the Duke, begging of him to susembassy for France, merely to have an op- pend his armament. He received the misportunity of again pressing his suit to the sive with the obedience of a lover, counterQueen, he was peremptorily forbidden to set manded the sailing of the ships, and suffered his foot within the kingdom. Hence the the glory of his antagonist to be consumsuccors granted by the English to the Hugue- mated by the conquest of Rochelle. Anne nots of Rochelle. Nani, mentioned above, of Austria must have given some tokens that says of this fact, " Richelieu and Bucking the gallantry of Buckingham was not offenham were appointed one against the other, sive to her, or Voiture* would hardly have barefacedly, for reasons kept so much more dared to allude to the subject in an imunder secret as they were rash in themselves; promptu which he addressed to her when, and afterwards the people had to pay out one day, seeing him walking alone in a galof their pockets for the follies and quarrels lery of the palace, she asked him of what of these two rivals.” Hume, without hesi- be was thinking. The rhyming wit answertation, ascribes the rupture between Eng- ed, without hesitation :land and France to the personal rivalship
“ Je pensois (car nous autres poetes of the two ministers. The jealousy of the
Nous pensons extravagamment), Cardinal became the more inflamed as he Ce que, dans l'humeur ou vous etes, koew the Duke bad been seen and received
Vous fieriez, si dans ce moment with favorable eyes. Our English historian
Vous avisiez en cette place maintains that the apparent merit of Buck
Venir le Duc de Buckingham; ingham made some impression on the Queer,
Et lequel seroit en disgrace,
De lui, ou du Pere Vincent.”+ and created “that attachment of the soul which conceals so many dangers under a
Wherever Anne of Austria inspired love, delicious surface.” The list is almost endless, she was so unfortunate as to bring disaster of public calamities emanating from private also, as in the earlier case of Mary of Scotjealousy, where women are concerned, and land. The Marquis de Jarsay, who united passion is seconded by power. The next
with his personal graces all the talents and - compiler should remember to include this ornaments of the most accomplished mind, memorable instance in the amended catalogue. and was, besides, a favorite of the great
Buckingham “swore a great oatlı” ihat Condé, was imprudent enough to suffer himhe would see the Queen, in spite of all the self to be seized with a foolish penchant for power of France. Accordingly, he excited a the Queen, and had the additional fatuity to war, very much against the wishes of the persuade himself that she looked upon him nation, the consequences of which neither with a partial eye. He was bold enough to enabled him to fulfil his vow, nor add any speak, even to write; and, in short, in a fit of thing to his honor. Beaten in an attempt to
Beaten in an attempt to his frenetic passion, carried things so far as take the Isle of Rhé, and losing many of to bide himself behind the curtains of her his troops, he was compelled to returu to majesty's bed. Full of indignation, she forEngland, a baffled commander, and found bade him ever again to appear before herhimself
, in consequence, a little more hated than he was before. The Parliament, already
* A celebrated poet and litterateur of his day as at variance with the King, spoke out plainly, master of the ceremonies to Gaston, Duke of Or
well as an accomplished courtier, and expressed the most unqualified indigna- leang, the King's brother. tion at seeing the people made " the victims | The Queen's confessor,
a punishment singularly mild, when compared "I am afraid,” says the Cardinal, fencing, as to the audacity of the offence. Nevertheless, he approached the subject, “ that the King's the Prince de Condé, proud, absolute, and passion will hurry him on to marry my who paid respect to nothing but his own will, niece." The Queen, who knew every movetook openly the part of his favorite. It is ment of the minister's mind, was not cajoled said that he insisted, in the most imperative by this affectation, but saw at once that in manner, that the Queen should admit De Jar- bis heart he wished what he pretended to say to her presence. But even Condé here rear. The wily Italian had already married anexceeded the verge of his influence. The other niece to the Prince de Conti (brother of Queen resisted, and the Prince was imprison- Condé, but far from being of the same reputaed, as a consequence of persevering in his dis- tion); a second to the Duc de Mercoeur ; and loyal interference.
this, the third, of whom Louis XIV. was According to the conflicting anecdotes of enamored, had been refused to Charles II., the day, which are to be ferreted out by those when in exile, and half proposed to Richard patient investigators who have time, leisure, Cromwell, during the protectorate of his and taste for the examination of family his father., Voltaire plainly calls all these young tory, Anne of Austria was not always so ladies the daughters of the Cardinal; and alsevere as she is here represented. The libel. though his general veracity as a historian is lous pamphlets which were published at the of the lowest order, the chances are, that in time of the Fronde, accuse her of having this particular instance he speaks the truth. exceeded ordinary good nature and friendship The Queen replied to the suggestion of in her intercourse with Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin with the dignity of a princess of the But it would be cruel injustice to give implicit Austrian blood, who was the daughter, wife, credit to hired partisans, who, from political and mother of a sovereign; and with the animosity, crusade against every thing but contempt she had now conceived for the man their own avowed principles and objects, and and the minister, who bad forgotten his are ever ready to change white into black, or obligations, and affected no longer to depend to displace truth for falsehood, to serve a on her. “If the King,” said she, should political purpose. That the attachment of show himself capable of committing such a the Queen for this cardinal, successor to dishonorable and degrading action, I would Richelieu (who possessed all the cunning put myself and my second son at the head of and finesse of his predecessor, with much of the whole French nation against him and you!" his ability, and very little of his boldness), Mazarin never pardoned ber; but he was was carried to a great extreme, is certain; too prudent not to conform to her sentiments, but the quality of the liaison is not so easily so powerfully expressed. He made a merit determined-it might be Platonic, criminal, of necessity, and assumed credit for opposing, or matrimonial
. The weight of evidence from that time forward, the King's passion. inclines to the latter solution; but, in either In fact, he feared the haughty character of case, the attachment was absolute and en- bis niece, who was very capable, when raised during, and led to all the misfortunes which to the summit of power, of forgetting the beset France during the minority of Louis ladder by which she had ascended. Mazarin XIV., and especially to the civil wars of the was never bonest; his life was a tissue of Fronde. Madame the Duchess de Baviere falsehood, and bis last act, of giving his acsays in her letters, “ The Abbé
cumulated wealth to the King, was done detected in an intrigue. Anne of Austria, under the impression that his majesty would however, did much worse--she was not restore the gift, which he did, after three contented with intriguing with Cardinal days' deliberation.* To be invariably deMazarin, sbe married him." This she could ceilful, is as great an error in politics as to do, if she pleased, without infringing the be systematically straightforward. So says ordinances of the Church, for Mazarin was Machiavelli, a great master in the complicated only a secular cardinal, and had never taken science. Mazarin bequeathed to Louis a priest's orders. Whatever might be their better legacy than money-namely, his dying relative position, he soon quarrelled with the Queen, and used ber as ill as if they had been * Mazarin had contrived to amass above 200,000,actually married, and he was tired of her. 000 of livres, nearly eight millions and a half sterYet, in opposition to this deduction, when ling (£8,500,000)! This enormous sum was supMazarin sounded her respecting the marriage Avarice he was the opposite of Richelieu, who was
posed to be acquired by indirect means. In his of Louis XIV. with one of his pieces, she prodigal of money, and only valued it as a means rejected the idea with becoming indignation. I by which to accomplish his ends.