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The two main divisions of the history of | teristics of the scholastic philosophy. As philosophy are ancient and modern. All that early as the second century of the present does not strictly belong to either of these era, Christianity came in contact with the may be regarded as forming transition steps. philosophy of the age, and especially with Modern civilization, though it may not have New Platonism. It was not, however, till excelled antiquity in the fine arts, poetry, the eleventh century, that what may be called rhetoric, statuary—and is indebted to it for Christian philosophy sprung up, which, the foundation of pure mathematics—has far under its varied pbases, is collectively styled surpassed it in those branches of knowledge scholasticism. The origin of this term is to wbich are based on observation and experi- be found in the Scholæ, or schools, which ment.

were founded by Cbarlemagne for philosoIn order rightly to estimate the scientific phical studies; in which, however, scarcely reformation which was mainly brought about any in those days bad either leisure or inby Bacon, let us glance at the chief charac- clination to engage, except the clergy.

Hence the main characteristic of this period * Bacon's Essays, Apophthegms, Wisdom of the was constant endeavor to explain the docAncients, New Atlantis, and Henry VII. With Io. trines of the church philosophically, and to troductory Dissertation and Notes by J. Devey, work them up into the form of scientific M.A. (Bohn's Standard Library, 1852.)

Bacon's Novum Organum, and Advancement of systems. Anselm's declaration, “ credo ut Learning. With Notes by J. Devey, M.A. (Bohn's intelligam,” was adopted as the guiding Scientific Library, 1853.)

principle. The works of the scholastic The present article is intended to be an exposi; writers exhibit an immense amount of subtion. We have endeavored to gather the 'vintage' of the accounts given by Stewart, Playfair, Napier, tlety and acuteness, industry and toil; but, Campbell, Macaulay, Hallam, Morell, Cousin, Hop- on the other hand, a mass of barren defini. pusLewis, Craik, &c. The editions which we have tions and fruitless distinctions, noticed above contain valuable illustrative notes. ling, and solemn folly ;" hence, the absence philosopher within the reach of a large circle of of really valuable results. readers.

The final aim of scholastic philosophy was VOL. XXXIV.--NO. IL

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a scientific development of the tenets of the clesiastical authority. As the first of these, Roman church. It assumed as its basis the we may place the revival of learning in the truth of those tenets, and employed as its fifteenth century. During the scholastic age, instrument the Aristotelian logic. The deep the study of the ancient classical authors had and extensive influence of Aristotle's writings declined: even the Platonic and Aristotelian at this period is thus graphically described systems were known almost exclusively from by Dr. Hoppus :—"This logic was the engine translations and secondary sources. Italy by which, for ages, the minds of men were first awoke to a juster appreciation of the bewitched in a manner that was altogether beauties of the antique. The arrival of extraordinary..

Glosses, para- Greek fugitives from Constantinople gare a phrases, summaries, arguments, and disser- great impulse to the study of ancient authors tations on his works were composed without in that land. Greek and Latin works were end.

Many of the inhabitants of read in the original languages, and the art of the west learned Arabic, in order to read a printing multiplied copies.

Learned men translation of them in that language. The assembled at ihe court of the Medici at Latin tongue was made another medium of Florence. Bessarion and Marsilius Ficinus their circulation, and they were read in most distinguished themselves as expositors of the parts of the known world.

Aris. ancient, and especially of the Platonic philototle's works were the great text-book of sophy. Classical refinement protested against knowledge, and his logic was the only wea- the dry, inelegant, uncritical mode in wbich

Christians, Jews, the sciences had hitherto been handled. and Mahometang united in professing assent " The mere substitution of the Academic for to the great law-giver of human opinions ; the Peripatetic philosophy would indeed not Europe alone, but also Africa and Asia have done little good. But any thing was acknowledged his dominion; and wbile his better than the old habit of unreasoning serGreek originals were studied at Paris, trans- vility. It was something to have a choice lations were read in Persia and at Samarcand. of tyrants. A.spark of freedom,' as Gibbon The rage for disputation, which now began has justly remarked, 'was produced by this to prevail in consequence of the spread of collision of adverse servitude. this philosophy, induced the council of La- The second and main cause was the Ref. teran, under Pope Innocent III., to proclaim ormation. The contest against the spirit of a prohibition of the use of the physics and scholasticism—the advocacy of classic culture metaphysics of Aristotle ; but awful as were —the struggle after national independencethen the thunders of the Vatican, they were the efforts of society to liberate itself from not mighty enough to dethrone him from that the Roman hierarchy—the desire of explordespotism over men's minds which, by long ing the facts and laws of nature-above all, custom, had now rendered itself almost om- the grasping of individual reason after a full nipotent.” At length, “in some of the uni emancipation from external authority—in versities of Europe, statutes were framed, short, every element of modern times finds which required the professors to promise on its centre point in the great German reforoath, that in their public lectures on philoso- mation. Luther and many of his distinphy, they would follow no other guide.” guished contemporaries did not hesitate to

The most important point of philosophical express their contempt of the Peripatetic discussion during the scholastic age, and one philosophy. which exhibits itself through the whole A tbird cause was a number of disconperiod, is that between Nominalism and Real. nected attempts at independent thinking on ism. Realism philosophized in support of the part of Peter Ramus (1515–1572) in the the church, and was in turn protected by science of logic; of Telesius and Campanelecclesiastical authority; Nominalism contend la in physics ; and of Patritius, and Giordano ed against the dominion of ecclesiastical Bruno in metaphysics-all which, however, power; Realism represents the dogmatical, failed to produce any permanent results. Nominalism the critical element ; Realism fet- A fourth cause was the rise of the natural tered individual freedom with the bonds of sciences. Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo external authority; Nominalism sought to restored to nature the honor of which schoestablish the autonomy of human reason. lasticism bad robbed her, gave a new aspect

During the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- to the world of thought, and shook men's turies, several great events combined in faith in the authority of the church. The bringing about the ultimate freedom of rational speculation from subordination to ec


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